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High-occupancy toll lane

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Title: High-occupancy toll lane  
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Subject: Toll, Intelligent transportation systems, TransModeler, Sealed road, Free-flow interchange
Collection: Electronic Toll Collection, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Road Congestion Charge Schemes, Toll Roads
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High-occupancy toll lane

FasTrak high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes at 91 Express Lanes, at Orange County, California.

A high-occupancy toll lane (or HOT lane) is a type of traffic lane or roadway that is available to high-occupancy vehicles and other exempt vehicles without charge; other vehicles being required to pay a variable fee that is adjusted in response to demand. Unlike toll roads, drivers have an option to use general purpose lanes, on which a fee is not charged. Express toll lanes, which are less common, operate along similar lines, but do not exempt high-occupancy vehicles.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Design 2
  • Funding and construction 3
  • Criticisms 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

History

The concept developed from high-occupancy vehicle lane (HOV) systems in order to increase utilisation of the available capacity. Most implementations are currently in the USA.

The first practical implementation was California's formerly private toll 91 Express Lanes, in Orange County, California, in 1995, followed in 1996 by Interstate 15 north of San Diego.[1][2] According to the Texas A&M Transportation Institute, by 2012 there were 294 corridor-miles of HOT/Express lanes in operation in the United States and 163 corridor-miles under construction.[3]

HOT lanes were added to Highway 1 in Israel in 2011.[4]

Design

An in-vehicle FasTrak transponder fitted to the dash-board of vehicles

Some systems are reversible, operating in one direction during the morning commute and in the reverse direction during the evening commute. It is typically collected using and electronic toll collection systems, automatic number plate recognition or at manned toll booths. Exempt vehicles typically include those with at least two, three or four occupants, those that use approved alternative fuels, motorcycles, transit vehicles and emergency vehicles.[5]

The fee, which is displayed prominently at entry points to the lanes, is adjusted in response to demand to regulate the traffic volume and thereby provided a guaranteed minimum traffic speed and level of service.[6][7][8] [9][10]

The Los Angeles Metro ExpressLanes HOT system requires vehicles to be fitted with manually "switchable" transponders where the driver selects the number of occupants, based on which the appropriate fee is charged.[11][12] California Highway Patrol officers have a device in their vehicle which displays the declared number of occupants, allowing them to visually check to see if there are more or fewer people in the car than indicated on the transponder.[13] With the switchable transponders, the violation rate on the Metro ExpressLanes fell to 10 percent from the 20 to 25 percent cheating rate on other California HOT lanes that do not require transponders for carpoolers, prompting Alameda County officials in the San Francisco Bay Area to include the system on the then-planned lanes on Interstate 580.[14]

Funding and construction

Implementation of these systems can be prohibitively expensive, due to the initial construction required—particularly with regard to providing access to and from the express toll lanes at interchanges. However, the long-term benefits—the decrease in delay to able motorists and increased funding for the transportation agency—may outweigh the costs. To offset costs of construction, many transportation agencies lease public roads to a private institution. As a result, construction may be partially or fully funded by the private institution, which receives all of the income from tolling for a specified period of time.[15][16]

Criticisms

Because HOT lanes and ETLs are often constructed within the existing road space, they are criticized as being an environmental tax or perk for the rich ("Lexus lanes").[17] Supporters of HOT lanes note that being encouraging the use transit and ride sharing they reduce demand and provide a benefit for all, also that the rich have many ways to ease their commute, such as buying a home closer to where they work.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ See Figure 2, pp.6
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ FAQ - VA I-495 HOT Lanes Retrieved October 6, 2009
  7. ^ Brookings Institution economic study on HOT Lanes
  8. ^ MD I-95 Express Toll Lanes Retrieved October 6, 2009
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ About I-495 HOT Lanes Retrieved August 31, 2009
  16. ^ A Guide for HOT Lane Development (FHWA, 2003)
  17. ^
  18. ^ MTC Planning - HOV/HOT Lanes Retrieved October 6, 2009

External links

  • Various HOT lane articles on website dedicated to road pricing
  • - includes evaluation of 21 HOT lane projects in the U.S.
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