World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts

Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern republics of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.

The Kashmir issue has been the main cause, whether direct or indirect, of all major conflicts between the two countries with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 where conflict originated due to turmoil in erstwhile East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Wars 2
    • Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 2.1
    • Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 2.2
    • Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 2.3
    • Indo-Pakistani War of 1999 2.4
  • Other armed engagements 3
    • Standing armed conflicts 3.1
    • Past skirmishes and standoffs 3.2
  • Incidents 4
  • Nuclear-arms race 5
  • Annual celebrations 6
  • Involvement of other nations 7
  • In popular culture 8
    • Indian films 8.1
    • Pakistani films 8.2
    • Pakistani miniseries and dramas 8.3
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Background

The Partition of British India came about in the aftermath of World War II, when both Great Britain and British India were dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilisation.[1] It was the intention of those who wished for a Muslim state to come from British India to have a clean partition between independent and equal "Pakistan" and "Hindustan" once independence came.[2]

The partition itself, according to leading politicians such as Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the All India Muslim League, and Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian National Congress, should have resulted in peaceful relations. As the Hindu and Muslim populations were scattered unevenly in the whole country, the partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947 was not possible along religious lines. Nearly one third of the Muslim population of British India remained in India.[3] Inter-communal violence between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims resulted in between 500,000 to 1 million casualties.[1]:6

Princely-ruled territories, such as Kashmir and Hyderabad, were also involved in Partition. Rulers of these territories had the choice of joining India or Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan laid claim on Kashmir and thus it became the main point of conflict.[1]:8[4] The ruler of Kashmir, which had a Muslim majority population, joined India by signing the Instrument of Accession.[4]

Wars

Refugees awaiting evacuation by IAF Dakota on Poonch Airstrip, December 1947.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

This is also called the First Kashmir War. The war started in October 1947 when it was feared by Pakistan that the Maharajah of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu might accede to India. Following partition, states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh. Tribal forces from Pakistan attacked and occupied parts of the princely state forcing the Maharajah to sign the Agreement to the accession of the princely state to the Dominion of India to get Indian military aid. The United Nations was invited by India to mediate the quarrel but the war was continued by both sides. Finally, the UN Security Council passed the Resolution 47 on 22 April 1948. Thus, the war ended in December 1948 with the Line of Control dividing Kashmir into territories administered by Pakistan (northern and western areas) and India (southern, central and northeastern areas) on the basis of ceasefire positions.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

Sherman tanks of 18th Cavalry (Indian Army) on the move during the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War.

This war started following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and also witnessed the largest tank battle since World War II. The hostilities between the two countries ended after a ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and USA and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.[5] Both India and Pakistan claimed victory. However, most neutral assessments pointed out that India had the upper hand over Pakistan when ceasefire was declared.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Shah Alam states that the 1965 war exposed Pakistan's inadequate training at all levels, misguided selection of officers, poor command and control arrangements, poor intelligence gathering and bad intelligence procedures. In spite of these shortcomings, the Pakistani Army had managed to fight the large Indian Army.[14]

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

Pakistan's PNS Ghazi, the Pakistani submarine which sank off during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War under mysterious circumstances[15] on the Vishakapatnam coast.

This war was unique in the way that it did not involve the issue of Kashmir, but was rather precipitated by the crisis created by the political battle between Sheikh Mujib, Leader of East Pakistan and Yahya-Bhutto, leaders of West Pakistan brewing in erstwhile East Pakistan culminating in the declaration of Independence of Bangladesh from the state system of Pakistan. Following Operation Searchlight and the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities, about 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in neighbouring India.[16] India intervened in the ongoing Bangladesh liberation movement.[17][18] After a large scale pre-emptive strike by Pakistan, full-scale hostilities between the two countries commenced. Within two weeks of intense fighting, Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the joint command of Indian and Bangladeshi forces following which the People's Republic of Bangladesh was created.[19] This war saw the highest number of casualties in any of the India-Pakistan conflicts, as well as the largest number of prisoners of war since the Second World War after the surrender of more than 90,000 Pakistani military and civilians.[20] In the words of one Pakistani author, "Pakistan lost half its navy, a quarter of its air force and a third of its army".[21]

Indo-Pakistani War of 1999

Commonly known as the Kargil War, this conflict between the two countries was mostly limited. During early 1999, Pakistani troops infiltrated across the

  • Nuclear Proliferation in India and Pakistain from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives

External links

  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ a b c d
  6. ^ a b Quote: Losses were relatively heavy--on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan.
  7. ^ Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat.
  8. ^ Quote: India, however, was in a position to inflict grave damage to, if not capture, Pakistan's capital of the Punjab when the cease-fire was called, and controlled Kashmir's strategic Uri-Poonch bulge, much to Ayub's chagrin.
  9. ^ Quote: India had the better of the war.
  10. ^ Quote: India, by contrast, is still the big gainer in the war. Alternate link: [1]
  11. ^ Dennis Kux's "India and the United States estranged democracies", 1941–1991, ISBN 1-4289-8189-6, DIANE Publishing, Pg 238
  12. ^ Dijkink, Gertjan. National identity and geopolitical visions: maps of pride and pain. Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-13934-1.
  13. ^ Praagh, David. The greater game: India's race with destiny and China. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, 2003. ISBN 0-7735-2639-0.
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ a b c
  23. ^
  24. ^ Online summary of the Book
  25. ^ a b
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^ History introduction at hellojunagadh.com: "On September 15, 1947, Nawab Mohammad Mahabat Khanji III of Junagadh, a princely state located on the south-western end of Gujarat and having no common border with Pakistan, chose to accede to Pakistan ignoring Mountbatten's views, arguing that Junagadh adjoined Pakistan by sea. The rulers of two states that were subject to the suzerainty of Junagadh Mangrol and Babariawad reacted by declaring their independence from Junagadh and acceding to India."
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ Pakistani plane "may have crossed border" 13 August 1999 BBC Retrieved 23 July 2007
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^ http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2015/08/16/India-and-Pakistan-exchange-fire-along-border-in-Kashmir/2051439754341/?sn=bn_an
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^ a b
  57. ^
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^ a b
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^ a b
  65. ^ Asymmetric Conflicts By T. V. Paul Cambridge University Press 1994 ISBN 0-521-46621-0, pp119
  66. ^ See: Tashkent Agreement
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^ Birth of a nation. Indianexpress.com (11 December 2009). Retrieved on 2011-04-14.
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^ 1971 War: How the US tried to corner India. Rediff.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-14.
  73. ^
  74. ^ Dialogue call amid fresh fighting - – BBC News
  75. ^ , Pg 865
  76. ^ Pakistan and India Play With Nuclear Fire By Jonathan Power The Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^
  80. ^
  81. ^ a b

References

See also

Pakistani miniseries and dramas

Pakistani films

Indian films

These wars have provided source material for both Indian and Pakistani film and television dramatists, who have adapted events of the war for the purposes of drama and to please target audiences in their nations.

In popular culture

  •  Soviet Union:
    • USSR remained neutral during the 1965 war[65] and played a pivotal role in negotiating the peace agreement between India and Pakistan.[66]
    • The USSR provided diplomatic and military assistance to India during the 1971 war. In response to USA's "Big E" and UK's HMS Eagle aircraft carriers, Moscow sent Nuclear Submarines and Battle Warships with Anti-Ship Missiles in the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean respectively.[67][68][69]
  •  United States:
    • US had not given any military aid to Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.[70]
    • The United States provided diplomatic and military support to Pakistan during the 1971 war by sending USS Enterprise into the Indian Ocean.[71][72][73]
    • The United States did not support Pakistan during the Kargil war, and successfully pressured Pakistani government to end hostilities.[22][74][75]
  •  China:
    • China had helped Pakistan in various wars with diplomatic support.[6][76][77]
  •  Russia:
    • Russia maintained a non-belligerent policy for both sides. Russia helped negotiate a peace in 2001–02 and helped divert the 2008 crises.[78][79]

Involvement of other nations

Annual celebrations

  • Pokhran-I (Smiling Buddha): On 18 May 1974 India detonated an 8-kiloton[52] nuclear device at Pokhran Test Range, becoming the first nation to become nuclear capable outside the five permanent members of United Nations Security Council as well as dragging Pakistan along with it into a nuclear arms race[53] with the Pakistani prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto swearing to reciprocate India quoting "His countrymen would prefer having a nuclear bomb even if they have to eat grass ".[54] The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Munir Ahmed Khan said that the test would force Pakistan to test its own nuclear bomb.[55]
  • Kirana-I: In 1980s a series of 24 different cold tests were conducted by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission led by chairman Munir Ahmad Khan under extreme secrecy.[56] The tunnels at Kirana Hills, Sargodha, are reported to have been bored after the Chagai nuclear test sites, it is widely believed that the tunnels were constructed sometime between 1979 and 1983. As in Chagai, the tunnels at Kirana Hills had been bored and then sealed and this task was also undertaken by PAEC's DTD.[56] Later due to excessive US intelligence and satellite focus on the Kirana Hills site, it was abandoned and nuclear weapons testing was shifted to the Kala Chitta Range.
  • Pokhran-II (Operation Shakti): On 11 May 1998 India detonated another 5 nuclear devices at Pokhran Test Range. With jubilation and large scale approval from the Indian society came International sanctions as a reaction to this test. The most vehement reaction of all coming from Pakistan. Great ire was raised in Pakistan, which issued a severe statement claiming that India was instigating a nuclear arms race in the region. Pakistan vowed to match India's nuclear capability with statements like: "We are in a headlong arms race on the subcontinent".[57][58]
  • Chagai-I: (Youm-e-Takbir) Within half a month of Pokhran-II, on 28 May 1998 Pakistan detonated 5 nuclear devices to reciprocate India in the nuclear arms race. Pakistani public, like the Indian, reacted with a celebration and heightened sense of nationalism for responding to India in kind and becoming the only Muslim nuclear power. The day was later given the title Youm-e-Takbir to further proclaim such.[59][60]
  • Chagai-II: Two days later, on 30 May 1998, Pakistan detonated a 6th nuclear device completing its own series of underground tests with this being the last test the two nations have carried out to date.[60][61]

The nuclear conflict between both countries is of passive strategic nature with nuclear doctrine of Pakistan stating a first strike policy, although the strike would only be initiated if and only if, the Pakistan Armed Forces are unable to halt an invasion (as for example in 1971 war) or a nuclear strike is launched against Pakistan, whereas India has a declared policy of no first use.

Nuclear-arms race

Incidents

  • Operation Brasstacks: (the largest of its kind in South Asia), conducted by India between November 1986 and March 1987, and Pakistani mobilisation in response, raised tensions and fears that it could lead to another war between the two neighbours.[5]:129[36]
  • Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed, prompted the 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff and brought both sides close to war.[37]
  • 2008 India Pakistan standoff: a stand-off between the two nations following the 2008 Mumbai attacks which was defused by diplomatic efforts. Following ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's largest city, tensions heightened between the two countries since India claimed interrogation results alleging[38][39] Pakistan's ISI supporting the attackers while Pakistan denied it.[40][41][42] Pakistan placed its air force on alert and moved troops to the Indian border, voicing concerns about proactive movements of Indian Army[43] and the Indian government's possible plans to launch attacks on Pakistani soil.[44] The tension defused in short time and Pakistan moved its troops away from border.
  • Indian integration of Junagadh: The princely state of Junagadh, which had a Hindu majority and a Muslim ruler acceded to Pakistan on 15 September 1947, claiming a connection by sea. Pakistan's acceptance of the Instrument of Accession was seen as a strategy to get a plebiscite held in Kashmir which had a Muslim majority and a Hindu ruler. Following communal tensions Indian military entered the territory which was protested by Pakistan as a violation of International law. Later a plebiscite was held and the accession was reversed for the state to join India.[32][33][34][35]

Past skirmishes and standoffs

Standing armed conflicts

Apart from the aforementioned wars, there have been skirmishes between the two nations from time to time. Some have bordered on all-out war, while others were limited in scope. The countries were expected to fight each other in 1955 after warlike posturing on both sides, but full-scale war did not break out.[5]

Other armed engagements

[25]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.