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Jack of the United States

United States of America
Jack flown by U.S. naval vessels
Name The First Navy Jack
Proportion 1:2
Adopted September 11, 2002
Design 13 horizontal stripes of alternating red and white, charged with a rattlesnake and inscribed on the lowest white stripe: "DONT TREAD ON ME" [sic].
Jack flown by other U.S. federal and civilian vessels. Was used as the U.S. Navy's jack prior to September 11, 2002.
Name Union Jack
Proportion 10:7
Adopted July 4, 1960
Design 50 white stars on a blue field in 9 rows, alternating between 6 and 5 stars.

The jack of the United States of America is a maritime flag representing United States nationality flown on the jackstaff in the bow of American vessels that are moored or anchored. The U.S. Navy is a prime user of jacks for its warships and auxiliaries, but they are also used by ships of the U.S. Coast Guard, the predominantly civilian-manned replenishment and support ships of the U.S. Navy's Military Sealift Command, the ships of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other U.S. governmental entities. "The jack is flown on the bow (front) of a ship and the ensign is flown on the stern (rear) of a ship when anchored or moored. Once under way, the ensign is flown from the main mast."[1]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Jacks of the United States by date 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

History

For most of U.S. history, the primary jack design has been the blue canton with stars (the "union") from the U.S. national ensign. The blue fielded, white-starred jack is referred to as the Union Jack, not to be confused with the Union Jack of Britain, which has the same name but a different design. Like the U.S. ensign, the number of stars on the jack has increased with each state admitted into the union. Rules for flying the jack are similar to the national ensign, except that the jack is only worn at the bow when the ship is anchored, made fast or alongside.

Since September 11, 2002, the U.S. Navy has made use of the so-called First Navy Jack. However, the standard U.S. jack (i.e., 50 white stars on a blue field) continues to be used as the jack by vessels of U.S. federal agencies such as the U.S. Coast Guard, the Military Sealift Command and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Corps. The standard 50-star jack continues to be used by U.S. civilian ships and by U.S. yachts as well.

The modern First Navy Jack as used by the U.S. Navy is a a flag bearing 13 red and white stripes, a rattlesnake and the motto "DONT TREAD ON ME" [sic], coming from the supposed design of the first jacks used by the U.S. Navy during the Revolutionary War. It is flown from the jackstaff from 08:00 to sunset while U.S. Navy ships are moored or at anchor. It is required to be the same size as the union of the ensign being flown from the stern of the ship. It is also flown from the yardarm during a general court-martial or court of inquiry.[2] During times when the ensign is at half mast, the jack is also at half mast. The jack is hoisted smartly and lowered ceremoniously in the same manner as the ensign, however the jack is not dipped when the ensign is dipped.[3]

Some other exceptions to the use of the U.S. Union Jack have occurred in the case of the U.S. Navy, the most prominent being the use of the First Navy Jack by the U.S. Navy in honor of the country's Bicentennial and for other uses subsequently.[4] For example, following the Bicentennial, in August 1980, use of the First Navy Jack was granted to the active commissioned ship having the longest total period of front-line operational service, said use to be in place of the Union Jack until that ship was decommissioned or transferred to inactive status, whereupon the next such ship in seniority inherited the honor of its use. Said use was limited to the oldest "commissioned" naval vessel (i.e., an all-military United States Ship (ship prefix USS) versus a part-military/part-civilian crewed United States Naval Ship (ship prefix USNS)) in front-line operational service.

On June 3, 1999, the Secretary of the Navy also authorized the flying of the Submarine Centennial Jack on all U.S. Navy submarines and submarine tenders during the year 2000.[5]

Jacks of the United States by date

Stars Design Dates in general use Notes
0

or
January 8, 1776 – June 14, 1777
The first jack adopted by the United States consisted of thirteen alternating red and white horizontal stripes. Known as the First Navy Jack, it is often depicted with a rattlesnake and motto, however, there is little evidence that the jack actually had either of these.
13
June 14, 1777 – May 1, 1795
Examples of many layouts of the 13 star pattern exist (see Flag of the United States).
15
May 1, 1795 – July 3, 1818
The 15-star jack was used by the United States during the Quasi-War and the War of 1812.
20
July 4, 1818 – July 3, 1819
21
July 4, 1819 – July 3, 1820
23
July 4, 1820 – July 3, 1822
24
July 4, 1822 – July 3, 1836
25
July 4, 1836 – July 3, 1837
26
July 4, 1837 – July 3, 1845
27
July 4, 1845 – July 3, 1846
28
July 4, 1846 – July 3, 1847
29
July 4, 1847 – July 3, 1848
30
July 4, 1848 – July 3, 1851
31
July 4, 1851 – July 3, 1858
32
July 4, 1858 – July 3, 1859
33
July 4, 1859 – July 3, 1861
Civil War
34
July 4, 1861 – July 3, 1863
35
July 4, 1863 – July 3, 1865
36
July 4, 1865 – July 3, 1867
37
July 4, 1867 – July 3, 1877
38
July 4, 1877 – July 3, 1890
43
July 4, 1890 – July 3, 1891
44
July 4, 1891 – July 3, 1896
45
July 4, 1896 – July 3, 1908
Sinking of the USS Maine;
Spanish–American War;
Great White Fleet
46
July 4, 1908 – July 3, 1912
48
July 4, 1912 – July 3, 1959
World War I;
World War II
49
July 4, 1959 – July 3, 1960
50
July 4, 1960 – October 12, 1975[4]
A 50-star jack was adopted on July 4, 1960, after the ascension of the Territory of Hawaii into statehood. The 50-star jack was used during the Vietnam War. In October 1975, the jack was briefly replaced by the First Navy Jack in commemoration of the U.S. Navy's bicentennial as well as the bicentennial of the United States of America's independence. The 50-star jack was re-adopted on January 1, 1977.
0
The First Navy Jack

October 13, 1975 – December 31, 1976[4]
On October 13, 1975, commissioned U.S. Navy warships switched to the First Navy Jack in commemoration of the bicentennial of the United States Navy and the United States of America's bicentennial. It was used in this capacity until December 31, 1976, when the 50-star jack was re-adopted.
50
January 1, 1977 – September 11, 2002[4][6]
Global War on Terrorism;
War in Afghanistan The 50-star jack was re-adopted by commissioned U.S. Navy warships on January 1, 1977. Since August 18, 1980, the First Navy Jack has been used by the active commissioned ship having the longest total period as active in place of the union jack until the ship is decommissioned or transferred to inactive status, whereupon the next such ship inherits the honor. In 2002, commissioned U.S. Navy warships switched to the First Navy Jack. From September 11, 2002 onwards, the 50-star jack is only used by Military Sealift Command (MSC) and non-U.S. Navy vessels.
0
The First Navy Jack

September 11, 2002[6] – present
Global War on Terrorism;
War in Afghanistan;
Iraq War The First Navy Jack has been in use since 2002 by United States Navy vessels only. MSC and non-U.S. Navy vessels such as the U.S. Coast Guard, NOAA, continue to use the 50-star union jack adopted in 1960. From August 18, 1980 onwards, the active commissioned ship having the longest total period as active uses the First Navy Jack instead.[4] Currently that ship is USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19).

See also

References

  1. ^ United States Naval Jack
  2. ^ United States Navy Rate training manual. Signalman 1 & C.
  3. ^ United States Navy. Basic Military Requirements (BMR) Revised Edition
  4. ^ a b c d e "The U.S. Navy's First Jack". Retrieved 2006-10-01. 
  5. ^ Undersea Warfare Summer 2000 Vol. 2, No. 4. The fact that the U.S. Navy has, at times, elected to substitute other flags for the Union Jack has not affected its use as a jack by the Coast Guard, NOAA, other agencies and civilians.
  6. ^ a b Change ordered 2002-05-31, executed on date shown.
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