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Karkin language

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Title: Karkin language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ohlone languages, Chalon language, Chochenyo language, Awaswas language, Ramaytush language
Collection: Extinct Languages of North America, Ohlone Languages
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Karkin language

Native to United States (California)
Ethnicity Karkin people
Extinct 19th century
Language codes
ISO 639-3 krb
Glottolog kark1259[1]

The Karkin language (also called Los Carquines in Spanish) one of eight Ohlone languages. It was extinct by the 1950s and was formerly spoken in north central California.[2]

Karkin is an Ohlone/Costanoan language, in the Utian language family,[3][4] which is a Yok-Utian language, in the Penutian language family.[2]

It was historically spoken by the Karkin people,who lived in the Carquinez Strait region in the northeast portion of the San Francisco Bay estuary.[5] Its only documentation is a single vocabulary obtained by linguist-missionary Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta at Mission Dolores in 1821.[6] Although meager, the records of Karkin show that it constituted a distinct branch of Costanoan, strikingly different from the neighboring Chochenyo Ohlone language and other Ohlone languages spoken farther south.[7] Karkin has probably not been spoken since the 19th century.

All Costanoan languages went extinct, but some are being studied and revived.[8]


  • Notes 1
  • References 2
  • Further reading 3
  • External links 4


  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Karkin". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ a b "Karkin." Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  3. ^ Callaghan 1997
  4. ^ Golla 2007:73
  5. ^ Milliken 1995:238
  6. ^ Milliken 2008:6
  7. ^ Beeler 1961
  8. ^ Hinton, Leanne. 2001. The Ohlone Languages, in The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice, pp. 425–432. Emerald Group Publishing ISBN 0-12-349354-4.


  • Beeler, Madison S. 1961. "Northern Costanoan." International Journal of American Linguistics 27: 191–197.
  • Callaghan, Catherine A. 1997. "Evidence for Yok-Utian." International Journal of American Linguistics 63:18–64.
  • Golla, Victor. 2007. "Linguistic Prehistory." California Prehistory: Colonization, Culture, and Complexity. Terry L. Jones and Kathryn A. Klar, eds., pp. 71–82. New York: Altamira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0872-1.
  • Milliken, Randall T. 1995. A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Region, 1769–1810. Menlo Park, CA: Ballena Press.
  • Milliken, Randall T. 2008. Native Americans at Mission San Jose. Banning, CA: Malki-Ballena Press. ISBN 978-0-87919-147-4.

Further reading

  • Callaghan, C.A. 1988. "Karkin Revisited." International Journal of American Linguistics 54: 436–452.

External links

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