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King Zhuangxiang of Qin


King Zhuangxiang of Qin

King Zhuangxiang of Qin
Reign 15 September 250 – 7 May 247 BC
Born 281 BC
Died 247 BC (aged 33–34)
Spouse Queen Dowager Zhao
Issue Ying Zheng
Full name
Family name: Ying
Given name: Yiren / Zichu
Father King Xiaowen of Qin
Mother Lady Xia
King Zhuangxiang of Qin
Traditional Chinese 秦莊襄王
Simplified Chinese 秦庄襄王
Traditional Chinese 異人
Simplified Chinese 异人
Chinese 子楚

King Zhuangxiang of Qin (281–247 BC), personal names Yiren and Zichu, was a ruler of the Qin state during the third century BC in the Warring States Period of ancient China.[1]


Yiren was born to Lord Anguo, the second son and heir apparent of King Zhaoxiang, and Lord Anguo's concubine Lady Xia. He was chosen to serve as a hostage in the Kingdom of Zhao. In Handan (the capital of Zhao) he met a merchant, Lü Buwei, who saw Yiren as extraordinary and detected in him the potential to become the king of Qin in the future. Lü Buwei treated Yiren well and presented his concubine Lady Zhao to Yiren. Lady Zhao later bore Yiren a son, Ying Zheng.

In the meantime, through bribes and machinations, Lü Buwei helped Yiren return to Qin. He also successfully persuaded Lord Anguo's primary spouse, the childless Lady Huayang, to adopt Yiren as her own son, thereby making Yiren become Lord Anguo's legitimate heir apparent. As Lady Huayang was a native of the Chu state, she renamed Yiren to "Zichu" (lit. "son of Chu"). Upon the death of King Zhaoxiang in 251 BC, Lord Anguo ascended the throne and became historically known as "King Xiaowen", but he died in the following year just three days after his coronation. Zichu succeeded his father as the king of Qin and became historically known as "King Zhuangxiang of Qin". He named Lü Buwei as his chancellor, Lady Zhao as his queen consort, and Ying Zheng as his crown prince.

King Zhuangxiang died in 247 after reigning for three years. Ying Zheng succeeded him and eventually unified China through a series of wars against the other six major states, established the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC, and became historically known as "Qin Shi Huang" (First Emperor of Qin).


  1. ^ ‘‘Records of the Grand Historian: Qin Dynasty (English translation). (1996). Ssu-Ma, Ch'ien. Sima, Qian. Burton Watson as translator. Edition: 3, reissue, revised. Columbia. University Press. ISBN 0231081693, 9780231081696. pg 35. pg 59.
King Zhuangxiang of Qin
Died: 247 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King Xiaowen
King of Qin
249–247 BC
Succeeded by
Ying Zheng
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