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Laqab

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Laqab


Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not simply have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names. This system was mainly in use throughout Arabia and part of the Levant.

Structure of the Arabic name

Ism

The ism (Arabic: اسم‎) is the personal name (e.g. "Kareem" or "Fatimah"). Most names are Arabic words with a meaning, usually signaling the hoped-for character of the person. Such words are employed as adjectives and nouns in regular language.

Karīm means "generous"
Maħmūd means "praiseworthy"

Generally, the context and grammar differentiate between names and adjectives, but Arab newspapers sometimes try to avoid confusion by placing names in brackets or quotation marks.

A very common name is Muhammad, used throughout the Muslim world including parts of Africa, Arabia, the Middle East, South and South East Asia. The name may be abbreviated to Md., Mohd., Muhd., or simply M. in many cases to keep a personal name less tied to a religious context, in which case the second given name is the one most commonly used. This can be seen in many names in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Indonesia.

  • Md. Dinar ibn Raihan
  • Mohd. Umair Tanvir
  • Md. Osman

Muslim Practices

A common form of Muslim Arab names is the combination of ʿAbd for males or ʿAmah for females (both English: servant) followed by an adjective of God. A particularly common masculine example is Abdullah (Arabic: عبد الله‎ / English: servant of God); the feminine counterpart being Amatullah.

This practice creates a possibility of 99 names for each sex, as there are 99 exclusive adjectives for God in Islam.

Notable points:

ʿAbd is not used upon the usage of one of the prophets' names (in Islam)
This practice is not exclusive to Muslims in the Arab world. For example, in Lebanon and Egypt, AbdelMassih (servant of Christ) is commonly used as a Christian last name.

Arab Christian Practices

To an extent, most Christian Arabs have names indistinguishable from Muslims except that they do not often use explicitly Islamic names, i.e., Muhammad. The following is most common:

Abd al-Yasuʿ (masc.) / Amat al-Yasuʿ (fem.) (slave of Jesus)
Abd al-Maseeḥ (masc.) / Amat al-Maseeḥ (fem.) (slave of The Messiah)
Derivations of Maseeḥ (Christ): Masūḥun (Most-Anointed), Amsāḥ (More-Anointed), Mamsūḥ (Anointed) and Musayḥ (Baby-Christ). The root, M-S-Ḥ, literally means 'to anoint' (as in Masah) and is cognate to the Hebrew Mashiah.
Abd al-Ilaah: An equivalent to the common Muslim name Abdullah or Abd-Ar-Raḥmān, meaning slave of God, is also used by Christians.

Laqab

The laqab (Arabic: لقب‎  "cognomen" / "surname") is intended as a description of the person.

For example, the Abbasid Caliph Haroun al-Rashid (of A Thousand and One Nights fame). Haroun is the Arabic form for Aaron and "al-Rashid" means "the rightly-guided".

The laqab was very popular in ancient Arab societies, ca. 1000 years ago. Today, the Laqab is only used if it is actually a person's birth Surname/Family name.

Nasab

The nasab (Arabic: نسب‎) is a patronymic or series of patronymics. It indicates the person's heritage by the word ibn (colloquially bin) (Arabic: ابن‎), which means "son", and bint بنت (also binte, abbreviated bte.) for "daughter").

Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: ابن خلدون‎) means "son of Khaldun". Khaldun is the father's proper name or, in this particular case, the proper name of a remote ancestor.

Several nasab can follow in a chain to trace a person's ancestry backwards in time, as was important in the tribally based society of the ancient Arabs, both for purposes of identification and for socio-political interactions. Today, however, ibn or bint is no longer used. (Unless it is the official naming style in a country, region, etc.: Adnen bin Abdallah). The plural is 'Abnā for males and Banāt for females. However, Banu or Bani is tribal and encompasses both sexes.

Nisbah

The nisbah (Arabic: نسبة‎) Surname. It could be an everyday name, but is mostly the name of the ancestors' tribe, city, country, or any other term used to show relevance. It follows a family through several generations.

Note: The Laqab and the Nisbah are similar in use, thus, a name rarely contains both.

Example Name

محمد بن سعيد بن عبد العزيز الفلسطيني
Muhammad ibn Saeed ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Filasteeni
muḥammad ibn saʻīdi ibn ʻabdi l-ʻazīzi l-filasṭīnī

Ism - Muhammad (Proper name). Muhammad: praised.
Nasab - Saeed (Father's name). Saeed: happy
Nasab - Abd al-Aziz (Grandfather's name). Abd al-Aziz: Servant of the Almighty or the Honourable.
Nisbah - al-Filasteenee (The Palestinian). Filasteen: Palestine.

Muhammad, son of Saeed, son of Abdul-Aziz, the Palestinian

This person would simply be referred to as "Muhammad" or by relating him to his first-born son, e.g.:"Abu Kareem" (father of Kareem). To signify respect or to specify which Muhammad one is speaking about, the name could be lengthened to the extent necessary or desired.

Westernization of Arabic naming practices and names

Almost all Arabic-speaking countries (excluding for example Saudi Arabia or Bahrain) have now adopted a Westernized way of naming. This is the case for example in the Levant and Maghreb, as well as some North African countries, where French or English conventions are followed (an effect of European colonization), and it is rapidly gaining ground elsewhere.

Also, many Arabs adapt to Western conventions for practical purposes when travelling or when residing in Western countries, constructing a given name/family name model out of their full Arab name, to fit Western expectations and/or visa applications or other official forms and documents. The reverse side to this is the when Westerners are asked to supply their first name, father's name, and family name in some Arab visa applications.

The Westernization of an Arab name may require transliteration. Often, one name may be transliterated in several ways (Abdul Rahman, Abdoul Rahman, Abdur Rahman, Abdurahman, Abd al-Rahman, or Abd ar-Rahman), as there is no single accepted Arabic transliteration system. A single individual may try several ways of transliterating his or her name, producing even greater inconsistency. This has resulted in confusion on the part of governments, security agencies, airlines and others: for example, especially since 9/11, persons with names written similarly to those of suspected terrorists have been detained.

Common mistakes

Non-Arabic speakers often make these mistakes:

  • Separating "the X of Y" word combinations (see idafa):
    • With "Abdul": Arabic names may be written "Abdul (something)", but "Abdul" means "servant of the" and is not, by itself, a name. Thus for example, to address Abdul Rahman bin Omar al-Ahmad by his given name, one says "Abdul Rahman", not merely "Abdul". If he introduces himself as "Abdul Rahman" (which means "the servant of the Merciful"), one does not say "Mr. Rahman" (as "Rahman" is not a family name but part of his (theophoric) personal name); instead it would be Mr. Ahmad, the latter being the family name.
    • People not familiar with Arabic sandhi in genitive constructions: Habību-llāh = "beloved (Habīb) of (ul) God (Allāh)"; here a person may in error report the man's name as 'forename "Habib", surname "Ullah"'. Likewise, people may confuse a name such as Jalālu-d-dīn ("The Majesty of the Religion") as being "Jalal Uddin", or "Mr. Uddin", when "Uddin" is not a surname, but the second half of a two-word name (the desinence -u of the construct state nominative, plus the article, appearing as -d-, plus the genitive dīn[i]). To add to the confusion, some immigrants to Western countries have adopted Uddin as a surname, although it is grammatically incorrect in Arabic outside the context of the associated "first name". Even Indian Muslims commit the same error. If a person's name is Abd-ul-Rahim (Servant of the Merciful), others may call him Mr. Abdul (Servant of the) which would sound quite odd to a native speaker of Arabic.
  • Not distinguishing "`alā'" from "Allah": Some Muslim names include the Arabic word `alā' علاء = "nobility". (Here, ` represents the ayin sound, the voiced pharyngeal fricative, and ' represents the hamza sound, the glottal stop, and L is spelled and pronounced once. In Allāh, L is spelled twice and pronounced separately.) In Arabic pronunciation, `alā and Allāh are clearly different. But Europeans, Iranians, and Indians may not pronounce some Arabic sounds as a native Arabic speaker would, and thus tend to pronounce these two names the same. For example, the Muslim male name `Alā'-ad-dīn = "the nobility of the religion" (commonly known to English speakers as Aladdin) is often misspelled as Allah-ad-din. Because these two words are different, there is an Arabic male given name "`Ala' Allah" (Aliullah), meaning "the nobility of God."
  • Taking "bin" or "ibn" for a middle name: As stated above, "bin" and "ibn" indicate the family chain. Westerns often confuse them for middle names, especially when they're written as "Ben", as it is the case in some countries. For example, Sami Ben Ahmed would be mistakenly addressed as Mr. Ahmed. To correctly address the person, one should use Mr. Ben Ahmed.
  • Grammar: As between all languages, there are differences between Arabic grammar and the grammar of other languages. Arabic forms noun compounds in the opposite order from Indo-Iranian languages, for example. During the war in Afghanistan in 2002, a BBC team found in Kabul an internal refugee whose name they stated as "Allah Muhammad". This may be a misspelling, as described in the previous paragraph, but if not, by the rules of Arabic grammar, this name means "the Allah who belongs to Muhammad", which would not be acceptable in Arabic language as a man's name and would be religiously incorrect for Islam. However, by the rules of Iranian and most Indian languages the same name means "Muhammad who belongs to Allah", which is acceptable, as it would be the Arabic equivalent of "Muhammad Ullah". Most Afghans speak Iranian languages. Such Arabic-and-Iranian or Arabic-and-Indian mixed-language compound names are not uncommon in Afghanistan, Iran, and Tajikistan. Compare the Pakistani/Indian name "Allah Ditta".

Arab family naming convention

In Arabic culture, as in many parts of the world, a person's ancestry and his/her family name are very important. An example is explained below.

Assume a man has the name of Saleh ibn Tariq ibn Khalid al-Fulan.

  • Saleh is his personal name, and the one that his family and friends would call him by.
  • ibn translates as "son of", so Tariq is Saleh's father's name.
  • ibn Khalid means that Tariq is the son of Khalid, making Khalid the grandfather of Saleh.
  • al-Fulan would be Saleh's family name.

Hence, Saleh ibn Tariq ibn Khalid al-Fulan translates as "Saleh, son of Tariq, son of Khaled; of the family al-Fulan."

The Arabic for "daughter of" is bint. A woman with the name Fatimah bint Tariq bin Khalid al-Fulan translates as "Fatimah, daughter of Tariq, Son of Khaled; of the family al-Fulan."

In this case, ibn and bint are included in the official naming. Most Arab countries today, however, do not use 'ibn' and 'bint' in their naming system. If Saleh was an Egyptian, he would be called Saleh Tariq Khalid al-Fulan and Fatimah would be Fatimah Tariq Khalid al-Fulan.

If Saleh marries a wife (who would keep her own maiden, family, and surnames), their children will take Saleh's family name. Therefore, their son Mohammed would be called Mohammed ibn Saleh ibn Tariq al-Fulan.

However, not all Arab countries use the name in its full length, but conventionally use two- and three-word names, and sometimes four-word names in official or legal matters. Thus the first name is the personal name, the middle name is the father's name and the last name is the family name.

Arabic names and their biblical equivalent

The Arabic names listed below are used in the Arab world, as well as some other Muslim regions, with correspondent Hebrew, English, Syriac and Greek equivalents in many cases. They are not necessarily of Arabic origin, although some are. Most are derived from Syriac transliterations of the Hebrew Bible. For more information, see also Iranian, Malay, Pakistani, and Turkish names.

Arabic name Hebrew name English name Syriac name Greek name
Aabir
ʿĀbir
Éver
ʻĒḇer
Eber
Alyasaa
Alyasaʿ
Elisha
Elišaʿ
Elisha
Aamoos
ʿĀmūs
Amos
ʿĀmōs
Amos
Andraaoos
Andrāwus / ʾIdrīs(?)
- Andrew - Ἀνδρέας
Akhnookh
Akhnūkh / ʾIdrīs(?)
H̱anokh Enoch
Asaaph
ʾAsāf
Asaf
ʾĀsāf
Asaph
Ayoob
Ayyūb
Iyov / Iov
Iyyov / Iyyôḇ
Job
Azar
Āzar / Taraḥ
Téraḥ / Tharakh Terah Thara Θάρα
Azaria
Azarīyā
Azaryah Azariah
Bartholmaos
Barthulmāwus
- Bartholomew - Βαρθολομαῖος
Baraka
Baraka
Bārack بارك
Barukh
Bārûḵ
Baruch
Benyamin
Binyāmīn
Binyamin
Binyāmîn
Benjamin
Boulus
Būlus / Bilus
- Paul - Παῦλος
Boutros
Būtrus / Bitrus
- Peter - Πέτρος
Daborah
Dabūrāh
Dvora
Dəḇôrā
Deborah
Daniel
Dānyāl
Daniel
Dāniyyêl
Daniel
Dawoud / Davoud
Dāwūd / Dāwid
David
Davīd Dāwîḏ
David
Fileeb
Fīlīb/ Falbus
- Philip - Φίλιππος
Faros
Fárus
Péreẓ
Páreẓ
Perez
Efraim
ʾIfrāym
Efraim
Efráyim
Ephraim
Habeeb
Ḥabīb / Shu'ayb(?)
Chobab
Ḥovav
Hobab
Habaqooq
Ḥabaqūq
Ḥavaqquq Habakkuk
Haja
Hajja
Ḥaggay Haggai
Aanaa
Anna
Ḥannāh Anna (Bible)
Haroun
Hārūn
Aharon Aaron
Hawaa
Ḥawwāʾ
Chava / Hava
Ḥavvah
Eve
Hosa
Hūsāʾ
Hoshea
Hôšēăʻ
Hosea
Hassan
Ḥassan
Ḥoshen
H̱ôšēn
Choshen
Hazkiel
Ḥazqiyal
Yuḥazqīl يحزقيل
Y'khez'qel 
Y'ḥez'qel
Ezekiel
Ibraaheem
ʾIbrāhīm
Avraham Abraham
Elias
ʾIlyās
Īliyā إيليا
Eliahu / Eliyahu
Eliyahu
Elijah 'Eliya Ηλίας
Imran
ʾImrān
Amrām Amram
Irmiyaa
'Irmiya
Yirməyāhū Jeremiah
Eisa / Yasoua
ʿĪsā / Yasūʿ
Yeshua
Yešuaʿ  *
Jesus Eeshoʿ Ἰησοῦς
Ishak
ʾIsḥāq
Yuḏḥāq يضحك
Yitzhak / Yitzchak
Yitsḥaq
Isaac
Isaiah
Isīyā
Yeshayahu
Yəšạʻyā́hû
Isaiah
Ismail
ʾIsmāʿīl
Yusmāʿīl يسمعائيل
Yishmael
Yišmaʿel / Yišmāʿêl
Ishmael
Israail
ʾIsrāʿīl
Yusrāʿīl يصرائيل
Israel / Yisrael
Yisraʾel / Yiśrāʾēl
Israel
Jibreel /Jibraaeel
Jibrīl / Jibraīl
Gavriel
Gavriʾel
Gabriel
Jad / Gad
Ǧād / Jād
Gad Gad
Jalut / Galut
Ǧālūt / Jālūt / Julyāt
Golyāṯ Goliath
Jasham / Gushaam
Jašam / Ǧūšām
Jushamu
Geshem Geshem (Bible) Gashmu
Jorj
Jūrj / Jurjus / Jurj / Jurayj
Khodor(?)
George (given name) Γεώργιος
Kalb
Kālb
Kalev Caleb
Lawi
Law'ī
Lēwî Levi
Leya
Lay'a'
Le'a Leah
Madyan
Madyān
Midian Midian Μαδιάμ
Majdala
Majdalā
Migdal Magdalene (given name) Magdala
Malikisadiq
Māliki-Ṣadiq
malḵi-ṣédeq Melchizedek
Maliki
Māliki
Mal'akhi Malachi
Maryam / Miriam
Maryam / Mīryām
Miriam / Miryam
Miryam
Mary
Methuselah
Matisālah
Mətušélaḥ
Mətušálaḥ
Methuselah
Matta
Mattā
Amittai Amittai
Matta
Mattā / Matatiyā
Matatiahu / Matatyahu
Matatyahu
Matthew Mattai Ματταθίας / Ματθαῖος
Mikhail
Miḫāʾīl / miḵāʼīl / Mikhāʼīl
Mankāʼīl منكائيل
Michael / Mikhael
Miḵaʾel
Michael
Moussa
Mūsā
Moshe
Mošé
Moses
Nehemiaa
Nahamiyyā
Nekhemyah Nehemiah
Nouh
Nūḥ
Noach / Noah
Nóaḥ
Noah
Qaaroon / Qoorah
Qarūn / Qūraḥ
Kórakh
Qōraḥ
Korah
Raaheel
Rāḥīl راحيل
Rakhél
Raḥel
Rachel
Safniyaa
Ṣafnīyā
Tzfanya  / Ṣəp̄anyā
Tsfanya
Zephaniah
Safurah
Ṣaffūrah
ʾAṣfūr عصفور
Tzipora  / Tsippora
Ṣippôrā
Zipporah
Sem
Sām
Ism اسم
Shem Shem
Samiri
Samīri
Zimri Zimri Zamri
Samuel
Ṣamu’īl / Ṣamawāl
Shmu'el / Šəmûʼēl
Shmu'el
Samuel
Sara
Sārah
Sara / Sarah
Sarā
Sarah / Sara
Shamsaan / Shamsoon
Shamsān / Shamsūn
Shimshon / Šimšôn
Shimshon
Samson
Suleiman
Sulaymān / Silimān
Shlomo
Šlomo
Solomon
Saul
Ṭālūt / Sāʼûlā
Sha'ul
Šāʼûl
Saul
Tomas
Ṭūmās/Tūmā
Ṭaū'am توأم
tə'ōm Thomas (name) te'oma Θωμᾶς
Obaidullah
ʿUbaydallāh / 'Ubaydīyā
Ovadia
Ovádyah / Ovádyah
Obadiah
Umri
ʾAmri
Omri
Omri
Omri
Uzair
Uzayr
Ezra
Ezrá
Ezra
Yaakoub
Yaʿqūb
Yaakov
Yaʿaqov
Jacob, (James)
Yahia / Yehia / Youhanna
Yaḥyā / Yiḥyā / Yūḥannā **
Yochanan / Yohanan
Yôḥānnān
John
Yahwah
Yāhwāh / Yāhūwah(?)
يهوه
YHWH
Yahweh / Yāhôveh
Jehovah
Yessa
Yassa
Yishay Jesse
Jethro
Yathrun / Shu'ayb(?)
Yitro
Yiṯrô
Jethro
Youl
Yūl
Yoel Joel
Younos / Younes
Yūni / Yūnus
Yamām يمام
Yona / Yonah
Yônā
Jonah Yuna Ιωνάς
Youssof / Youssef
Yūsuf / Yūsif
Yosef Joseph
Yousa
Yūsa'
Yĕhôshúa
Yôshúa
Joshua
Zakaria
Zakariyyā / Zakarīyā
Zecharia /Zekharia
Zeḵaryah
Zachary or Zechariah
  • The popular romanization of the Arabized and Hebrew names are written first, then the standardized romanization are written in oblique. Notice that Arabized names may have variants.
  • If a literal Arabic translation of a name exists, it will be placed after the final standardized romanization.
  • If an Arabic correlation is ambiguous, (?) will be placed following the name in question.
  • * Yassou' is the Arab Christian name, while `Īsā is the Muslim version of the name, as used in the Qur'an. There is debate as to which is the better rendition of the Aramaic Yeshua' because both names are of late origin.
  • ** Youhanna is the Arab Christian name of John, while Yahya is the Muslim version of the name, as used in the Qur'an. They have completely different triconsonantal roots (e.g. Grace : H-N-N vs Life : H-Y-Y).
  • El, the Hebrew word for strength/might or deity, is usually represented as īl in Arabic, although it carries no meaning in classical and modern Arabic. The only exception is its usage in the archaic Iraqi dialect.

See also

References


External links

  • Arabic names
  • A.F.L. Beeston (Oxford, 1971).
  • Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices (2003) by Da'ud ibn Auda (David B. Appleton)
  • Automated recognition of Arabic person names
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