Law enforcement in Albania

Albanian State Police
Policia e Shtetit
Common name Policia
Old Logo of the Albanian State Police
Current Albanian Police Logo
Agency overview
Formed 3 January, 1913[1]
Superseding agency Ministry of Interior Affairs
Employees 9421 Police employees
279 Civilian employees
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Governing body Ministry of Interior
General nature
  • Law enforcement
  • Local civilian police
Operational structure
Headquarters Tirana, Albania
Website


The Albanian State Police (Albanian: Policia e Shtetit) are the national police and law enforcement agency which operates throughout the Republic of Albania. The fall of Communism and the adoption of political pluralism in 1991 brought important changes to the structure of the Albanian Police. In April 1991, the Ministry of Public Order and the General Directorate of Police were established, followed by the introduction of a new law in July 1991 which led to the creation of the Public Order Police. Nearly 80% of the pre-1991 police force were replaced by new personnel. The Albanian Police were accepted into Interpol on November 4, 1991.

In 2012, new uniforms were introduced, comparable to those of the Albanian Police's EU counterparts, as part of a plan to improve the image and integrity of law enforcement in Albania. The EU then funded the reconstruction of police stations, as well as supporting the introduction of integrated border control systems. The emergency number for Albania is 129.

The Albanian Police was founded on January 13, 1913 by the government of Ismail Qemali, Albania's first prime minister.[2]

History

Background

When the modern Albanian state was first established, the main law-enforcement body was the gendarmerie. A few weeks after the Albanian state was declared by the Assembly of Vlora, on January 13, 1913, the government of Ismail Qemali decided to establish law enforcement.

The government appointed Alem Tragjasi, Hysni Toska, Sali Vranishti and Hajredin Hekali to perform the duties of a gendarmerie. Administrative functions of the police who had performed as the first director Halim Gostivari.

For the purposes of government, entered the service and about 70 officers removed from the former imperial army. On the other hand, in May 1913, Esad Toptani saw a government formed in Durrës and a gendarmerie battalion under the command of Tajar Tetova.

Gendarmerie took little weapon form there since June 1913 when he formed three battalions led by May. Hysen Prishtina to South, from the catch. Ali Berat and Tetovo in May. Ismail Hakki Tatzati in Elbasan. Police is also scheduled its regular uniform of gray-green, red and black collar, peaked cap and ranks in the earlier part of the collar. On June 3, 1913 was put into effect the regulation of the Government of Vlore on the Albanian militia formation. Government on December 20, 1913 also brought a temporary location on the creation of the South gendarmerie.

In March 1914 came a few other Dutch officers, who scattered four detachments created earlier. These officers were in charge of the major powers to make the organization of the Albanian armed forces. With the relocation of the capital in Durrës, in charge of the police comes Veli Vasjari.

Under the country's first constitution, chapter IX of Organic Status of Albania, gendarmerie and militia units were placed alongside the Armed Forces. The militia were a "military strength and territorial local sedentare" and supported peacetime gendarmere operations.

By the end of World War I, when a new government was formed on December 25, 1918, this brought many officers of other cadres in the hope that finally began to move enforcement authorities in the country. Under the command of Ismail Hakki Tatzatit, organizer Italian Ridolfo, the Banush Hamdiu, formed a gendarmerie force. Later, Ismail Hakki Tatzati was appointed battalion commander in Berat, Durrës and Elbasan and in, respectively, and Major Major Mustafa Kasem Qafëzezi Aranitasi. In Tirana, opened a school for aspiring and gendarmes. In August 1919, gendarmerie battalions were formed in prefectural capitals.

Gendarmerie and police in the years 1920 - 1939

Main article: Royal_Albanian_Gendarmerie § Gendarmerie

After the Congress became Lushnja enforcement reorganization. In early 1921, the paramilitary organization was on the side, county, district and post commands. The dependence of the Gendarmerie was indirectly relevant regulations by the Ministry of Internal Affairs for peace and the Ministry of Justice for enforcement of court decisions. Gendarmerie was an armed force to ensure domestic tranquility of the state and implementation of laws and government orders, the commanding general of one commander, who was the officer of staff and proposed by the Ministry of War in agreement with MIA, enacted Council of pointing. On military matters and for promotion, discipline, trials, guilt military, Gendarmerie depended from the Ministry of War, and administrative issues from MUP quiet and justice issues from the MoJ.

From organic to the region was divided (in each prefecture), some (in any nënprefekturë), post - commands (in any province or village). Appointment of officers was the circulation of the proposal of the General Command of Gendarmerie and with the consent of MIA. Command had 4 sections.

Gendarmerie qarkkomanda initially divided into 9, 40 rrethkomanda, many rrethkomanda. Qarkkomanda of Tirana, Durrës included which was the center of the prefecture, having depending prefecture of Tirana until 1926.

After 1925, the state apparatus was reorganization. Police is divided into 4 zonëkomanda based in Tirana, Shkodra and Saranda Bishop with the respective captains Preng Previzi, Fiqri Dine, Muharrem Hysni Bajraktari and Dema. For their organization in the years 1925 - 1926, advised the Inspector General kol.Walter F. Stirling, and then finds continued until 1939 - in May. Percy Jocelyn.

Regulation of 17 May 1925, provided Gendarmerie relations with other branches of the administration, under which military matters as promotions, appointments, honors the discipline, its dependence was direct from its general command. The latest addition, had received the opinion of the Inspector General who was responsible to the head of state. In case of conflict between the General Commander of Gendarmerie and the Inspector General, gave the government resolution.

Under the law of 18 May 1933, Mbretnore Gjindarmërisë weapon (AGJM), divided in overall command, command gjindarmërisë school, command 10 county, 31 district command, 253 command positions. From the military point of view depended on the general command, while in terms of maintaining the rule of the MUP and the judicial police service by the Ministry of Justice.

Gendarmerie had its network intelligence, always put under the mayor's knowledge. On the other hand, Police, has not worked in the same level as the Gendarmerie.

In the early years, when the force was led by Ahmet Sinan, their primary duties were:

Administrative (prohibition of guilt, preventive measures, etc.). Justice Civil and political On the basis of police duties was taking the identity of people in hotels, entry - exit, compilation of statistics of events, etc..

Police have worked in the years 1920 - 1922, during the years 1925 - 1935 and during the war. After this time exercised its duties itinerant Gendarmerie. In time of war were organized policish types. Police was a civil institution, which ordered the local level by the prefect, and depended indirectly by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Across the city centers operated police komiseritë which consisted of importance, the Commissioners, inspectors, detectives, etc.. Diplomatic tracking for a long time has made the police. Was dissolved in 1922 the General Directorate of Police, after having been previously melted several offices at this level.

But by the law of 22 December 1925, police offices were established in Berat, Elbasan, Korca, Vlora, Gjirokastra, Shkodra, Durrës and Tirana.

Police had investigative and administrative functions and was under the mayor. Decree of 20 December 1926, formed the General Police Directorate of the rights of other departments MIA. Department had a director who received 400 gold francs charge and a secretary to take 300 gold francs.

Government "Evangjeli", implemented Decree of 25 June 1935, under which police were dissolved and took its place urban Gendarmerie, acting under orders of the prefects, and mayors nënprefektëve.

In the summer of 1937 launched the project for forming Botnor Security Police. In the first test of 275 policemen entered the test, all aged 23 to 33 years with special police school. The project envisaged that this kind of police to replace xhandarmëritë of Tirana, Shkodër, Durrës, Korca, Vlora and Saranda. Other cities would continue to feel stronger role of the gendarmerie. Dependence of the structure was from the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The law was adopted 19 January 1938 but its enforcement was getting very little because of the fascist invasion of 7 April 1939.

Gendarmerie during the war

After the fascist invasion of 7 April 1939, The Royal Gjindarmërisë was dissolved and spent part of Karabinierisë weapon under the law of 10 May 1939. Took place xhandarit karabinieri. Rules for operation of the new force was identified with the mëkëmbësit decree dated 6 April 1940. Carabinieri ensured public order, freedom of citizens, the inviolability of their private and public property, the observance of laws, etc..

On August 31, 1939 mëkëmbësi issued a decree to establish the Body Albanian Armed Police. This group was charged with the implementation of laws and general regulations of the state, local government, assist in disaster relief, and cooperation with all police services. Bodies in question consisted of the Central Department, offices near each prefecture and in some nënprefektura and border outposts. In organic Central Police Department were the director, permanent consultant, nënkuestori, 10 public security officials, 60 insurance agents,

After weakening fascist, steps were taken to recreating the Gendarmerie.

Among the reforms of the beginning of 1943, noting the launch of work on the formation of the Royal Gjindarmërisë Body (TGJM). This was a concession that the fascists did to enable mitigation of their enmity that had gone anyway at some point padëshirushme. Jacomonit Decree dated February 5, 1943, authorizing the Albanian Government to create TGJM-in to perform all the duties of judicial police, administrative and political exercise to those moments of Royal Karabinierisë weapon. TGJM, consisted of Albanian officers, komandohej of an Albanian captain was under the MIA.

This project was made then Maliq Bushat government. On March 8, 1943, as promised, was established Mbretnore Gjindarmërisë weapon with the intention "for the cared for public safety and regulation for the përgjue observance of laws and regulations." It was one of the armed forces if war co-operate with the military forces. AGJM included overall command, inspektorinë, school command, command 14 county, 64 district command, 440 command positions. In this way, the proposal of the Ministry of Interior and mëkëmbësit decree, kol.Hysni Peja was appointed commander of the Weapons of Gjindarmërisë. End of 1944 will eventually shake off the gendarmerie firearm in Albania.

Communist Albanian Police

End of 1944 found Albania under a new regime. The Communists put their military power across the country. In October 1944 they established the Department of Defense of the People was instrumental in organizing the first prosecution of political opponents, as well as informative body. This department was divided into 3 sections in Tirana, Berat and Shkodra.

Following full deployment of the Communist regime, on August 30, 1945 KANÇ's Presidency issued the "law" on the formation of People's Police, in each prefecture and nënprefekturë near KANÇ local NGOs. After approval RPSH statute, the law of 9 December 1946, National Police was defined as an executive organ of state administration.

National Police was one of the organs of the dictatorship of the proletariat, built according to principles of Marxist - Leninist principle of class struggle, the line of measures, etc.. During this time, the police recorded numerous cases of violation of freedoms and human rights as part of a system that denied those rights. National Police like any other state body headed by the Labour Party of Albania.

Police in pluralist state

Albanian police during the January 21, 2011 demonstrations by the opposition

With the fall of the communist regime, the military and police forces found themselves in a series of reforms. On June 8, 1991, the National Assembly passed the law nr.7492 to depoliticize these forces. A year later, the communist red star with five corners was dropped from the police symbol and replaced with the Albanian national symbol.

On 30 July 1991 the Albanian Parliament passed the law nr.7504 "on police enforcement." This was the first step towards secession from the worst traditions of the People's Police.

Under this law, the "Police is an executive order of the armed component of the Ministry of Public Order, in the structure of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Albania", which was based activities "in the Constitution and legislation of the Republic of Albania and the principle of legality, objectivity of humanism. "

The main task was determined maintaining public order, prevention and detection of criminal activities that affect the legitimate rights of individuals and to protect state property and interests of private economic organizations, political and social out illegal actions.

According to the Council of Ministers decision nr.548, dated December 29, 1992, the date January 13, 1913 was assigned to the Day of Creation Order Protection Force.

After 1992, police went through a profound reform. It was changed from a repressive instrument of dictatorship to a state institution for the protection of democratic freedoms and human rights. For the first time, the police hired many former political dissidents of the communist regime into its ranks.

In 1997 the police suffered a severe blow when, as a result of violation of constitutional order, most of its police stations and equipment were burned down, damaged and/or destroyed.

Since May 1997, important contribution to the State Police provides police mission still MAPE Western European Union (WEU). Also since 1997 at the Police operate even ICITAP (USA), INTERFORCE (Italy).

Reform in the legislation has begun since the adoption of the Law on State Police 8553, dated November 25, 1999.

Under this law, the State Police is an institution of state administration of the Republic of Albania, under the Ministry of Interior, which has the mission to protect public order and security, and ensure law enforcement. Police activity is based on the Constitution, in normative act pursuant thereto, as well as international acts in accordance with it. Police have unique and centralized organization, spread throughout the territory of Albania, and is depoliticized.


Albania's integration into the European Union sought the implementation of a process of institutional reforms, economic and social. The success of these reforms would accelerate the process of our country's accession into the European family.

In this context, Albania has undertaken a series of reforms in view of this integration, and some of them are and those undertaken in the institution of the State Police.

From 2006 onwards in order to bring qualitative changes in the functioning of the State Police structures was designed and implemented a whole reform process, which aimed at establishing the best standards for growth and further development of the police, as and improving the quality of service provided to the community.

This process was carried out political influence in the selection of personnel, and with the assistance of foreign missions PAMECA ICITAP and OSCE.

The reform was extended in some respects the legislative, organizational, structural and technological. All initiatives have aimed at the realization of fundamental changes in the State Police both in terms of legislation, structures and in terms of creating a new style of policing, which would fit the developments and demands of society.

In terms of legislative reform in the foundation and most important is the formulation and adoption of nr.9749, dated 04.06.2007 "On State Police," which clearly defines the separation of police from politics, defining depoliticized police as an institution .

An important step was the drafting and approval of long-term strategy for 2007–2013, which aims at orienting the State Police service to the citizens. This strategy contains the most important developments of the State Police, focusing on the implementation of its strategic priorities and changing the philosophy of policing and management, offering a modern police service.

7-year Strategic Plan for the State Police is the first document of its kind which is used to design policies to ensure the long-term success of the Police. This strategy will bring a number of benefits for State Police materialized in:

Creating a modern management culture, continuous development of the organization's potentials, the orientation of the police structures to strategic planning, improving work processes, improve service quality, improve lines of communication both in the domestic environment and in what external, identifying and promoting best values and improve the image of the Police.

How important element of these changes is estimated create a vision and mission that has basically respecting the rights and freedoms, as well as change the status of the police as part of public administration.

Policing Model

As a model of policing for the coming years, State Police will adopt a model of Community Policing.

The choice of this model of policing is a consequence of the increasing demands of citizens for a better quality of service, as well as the successful experiences of police counterparts in the EU and U.S.

Embracing the philosophy of community policing by the State Police provides benefits that are considered essential to promoting a mindset change, establishing a modern management culture, building partnerships, improving infrastructure, and creating a positive image of the State Police.

The National Plan Obligations MSA, outlines legislation complimentary to the policies of EU countries. The most important legal acts drafted and approved are:

Are also adopted a number of strategies including the Strategy of Integrated Border Management Strategy to Combat Organized Crime, Terrorism and Trafficking in Human Beings.

A number of successes have been achieved in terms of growth, improving the capacity of the institution, conduct of personnel and application of best practices in order to achieve high standards of policing, integrated information management and implementation of large projects.

Public Perception

According to a survey produced in 2009 for the United States Agency for International Development, Albanian public perception of the police was as follows:[3]

  • On a scale of 0-100, with 0 being "very honest" and 100 being "very corrupt", police were given a score of 63.1 points.
  • When asked to what extent the police help to fight corruption, with 0 being "not at all" and 100 being "helps a lot", the police were given a score of 45.5.
  • When asked about trust in institutions, with 0 being "no trust at all" and 100 being "trust a lot", the police were given a score of 47.8.
  • When asked if during the previous year they had been asked for a bribe from police, 7.8% said "yes".
  • "When asked how they were treated by the police, the proportion of respondents that replied "poorly" or "very poorly" was 26.6%, a decrease of 10.9 percentage points from 37.5% in 2005.

Equipment

Weapons

Vehicles

Chevrolet Aveo

Helicopters

Footnotes

See also

  • Sigurimi, the former secret police force

External links

  • State Police Official Website
  • Ministry of Interior
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