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Title: Lempel–Ziv–Stac  
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Subject: Context tree weighting, Warped linear predictive coding, Log area ratio, Shannon–Fano–Elias coding, LZJB
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Lempel–Ziv–Stac (LZS, or Stac compression) is a lossless data compression algorithm that uses a combination of the LZ77 sliding-window compression algorithm and fixed Huffman coding. It was originally developed by Stac Electronics for tape compression,[1] and subsequently adapted for hard disk compression and sold as the Stacker disk compression software. It was later specified as a compression algorithm for various network protocols. LZS is specified in the Cisco IOS stack.


LZS compression is standardised as an INCITS (previously ANSI) standard.[2]

LZS compression is specified for various Internet protocols:

  • RFC 1967 – PPP LZS-DCP Compression Protocol (LZS-DCP)
  • RFC 1974 – PPP Stac LZS Compression Protocol
  • RFC 2395 – IP Payload Compression Using LZS
  • RFC 3943 – Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Compression Using Lempel-Ziv-Stac (LZS)


LZS compression and decompression uses an LZ77 type algorithm. It uses the last 2 kB of uncompressed data as a sliding-window dictionary.

An LZS compressor looks for matches between the data to be compressed and the last 2 kB of data. If it finds a match, it encodes an offset/length reference to the dictionary. If no match is found, the next data byte is encoded as a "literal" byte. The compressed data stream ends with an end-marker.

Compressed Data Format

Data is encoded into a stream of variable-bit-width tokens.

Literal byte

A literal byte is encoded as a '0' bit followed by the 8 bits of the byte.

Offset/length reference

An offset/length reference is encoded as a '1' bit followed by the encoded offset, followed by the encoded length. One exceptional encoding is an end marker, described below.

An offset can have a minimum value of 1, maximum value of 2047. A value of 1 refers to the most recent byte in the history buffer, immediately preceding the next data byte to be processed. An offset is encoded as:

  • If the offset is less than 128: a '1' bit followed by a 7-bit offset value.
  • If the offset is greater than or equal to 128: a '0' bit followed by an 11-bit offset value.
A length is encoded as:
Length Bit Encoding
2 00
3 01
4 10
5 1100
6 1101
7 1110
8 to 22 1111 xxxx, where xxxx is length - 8
23 to 37 1111 1111 xxxx, where xxxx is length - 23
length > 7 (1111 repeated N times) xxxx, where N is integer result of (length + 7) / 15, and
xxxx is length - (N*15 - 7)

End marker

An end marker is encoded as the 9-bit token 110000000. Following the end marker, 0 to 7 extra 0 bits are appended as needed, to pad the stream to the next byte boundary.


Stac Electronics' spin-off Hifn has held several patents for LZS compression.[3] .[4] These patents had lapsed due to non-payment of fees and attempts to reinstate them in 2007 had failed.

In 1993-94, Stac Electronics sued Microsoft for infringement of LZS patents in the DoubleSpace disk compression program included with MS-DOS 6.0.[5]

See also


  1. ^ Stac Electronics
  2. ^ INCITS/ANSI X3.241-1994 - Data Compression Method – Adaptive Coding with Sliding Window for Information Interchange
  3. ^ Friend, Robert C. "Hifn's Statement about IPR claimed in draft-friend-tls-lzs-compression, RFC1967, RFC1974, RFC2118, RFC2395, and RFC3078". Retrieved 21 July 2010. 
  4. ^ Friend, Robert. "Hifn's Statement on IPR Claimed in LZS and MPPC compression algorithms". Retrieved 21 July 2010. 
  5. ^ Complaint for patent infringement and Demand for jury trial by Stac Electronics v Microsoft Corporation
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