World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Leon Feldhendler

Article Id: WHEBN0014842262
Reproduction Date:

Title: Leon Feldhendler  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Alexander Pechersky, List of survivors of Sobibór, Erich Bauer, Richard Thomalla, Franz Stangl
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Leon Feldhendler

Leon Feldhendler
Leon Feldhendler in 1944
Born 1910
Died April 6, 1945(1945-04-06) (aged 34–35)
Lublin, Poland
Cause of death
Nationality Poland
Known for One of the leaders of the revolt and escape from Sobibor
Religion Jewish

Leon Feldhendler (Lejb Feldhendler) (1910 – 6 April 1945), was a Sobibor extermination camp together with Alexander Pechersky. Prior to his deportation to Sobibor, Feldhendler had been head of the Judenrat[1] ("Jewish Council") in his village of Żółkiewka, Lublin Voivodeship, in German-occupied Poland.

Role in Sobibor Uprising

In the spring of 1943, Feldhendler led a small group of Sobibor prisoners in formulating an escape plan. Their initial plan had been to poison camp guards and seize their weapons, but the SS discovered the poison and shot five Jews in retaliation. Other plans included setting the camp on fire and escaping in the resulting confusion, but the mining of the camp perimeter by the SS in the summer of 1943 rendered the plan impractical.

Portrait of Sobibor uprising survivors taken in 1944
Portrait of Sobibor uprising survivors taken in 1944, with Feldhendler at top right

The arrival in a transport of Soviet POWs of Red Army officer Alexander Pechersky in late September gave new impetus to the escape plans. A seasoned soldier, Pechersky soon assumed the leadership of the group of would-be escapees and, with Feldhendler as his deputy, the group formed a plan that involved killing the camp's SS personnel, sending the Soviet POWs to raid the arsenal and then fighting their way out the camp's front gate.

The uprising, which took place on October 14, 1943, was detected in its early stages after a guard discovered the body of an SS officer killed by the prisoners. Nevertheless, about 320 Jews managed to make it outside of the camp in the ensuing melee. Eighty were killed in the escape and immediate aftermath. 170 were soon recaptured and killed, as were all the remaining inhabitants of the camp who had chosen to stay. Some escapees joined the partisans. Of these, ninety died in combat. Sixty-two Jews from Sobibor survived the war, including nine who had escaped earlier.[1]

Murdered in Lublin

Feldhendler was among those who survived the war, hiding in Lublin until the end of German occupation in July 1944. However, on April 2, 1945, he was shot through the closed door of his flat as he got up to investigate a commotion in an outer room. Feldhendler and his wife managed to escape through another door and made their way to Lublin's Św. Wincentego á Paulo hospital, where he underwent surgery but died four days later. According to most of the older publications, Feldhendler was killed by right-wing Polish nationalists,[2][3][4][5][6][7] sometimes identified as the Narodowe Siły Zbrojne,[8][9] an anti-Communist and anti-Semitic[10][11][12] partisan unit (name unknown). However, more recent inquiries, citing the incomplete treatment of the event by earlier historians, and the scant documentary record, have called into question this version of events.[13] The only concrete document found by local researchers is a record of his hospital admission at Wincentego á Paulo describing the injury. Dr Kopciowski wrote that Feldhendler was likely shot in an armed robbery gone bad, because he was known locally as a budding gold trader. As noted by Marcin Wroński, communist press in the Soviet-controlled Lublin routinely accused former AK and WIN partisans of common crime as part of ideological warfare.[14] Feldhendler's killing was one of at least 118 violent deaths of Jews in the Lublin district between the summer of 1944 and the fall of 1946 amid the crime-wave of the so-called Soviet liberation.[15][14]

Feldhendler in culture

In the 1987 made-for-TV film Escape from Sobibor he was played by Alan Arkin.[16] Feldhendler's life in Lublin is mentioned in the 2005 book Wyjątkowo długa linia by Hanna Krall. It was written about tenants of a local tenement house,[17] and nominated for the Nike Award.[18]


  1. ^ a b Crowe, David M. (2008). The Holocaust: Roots, History, And Aftermath. Perseus Books Group. pp. 245–46.    
  2. ^  
  3. ^ Yitzak Arad (1984). Jewish Prisoner Uprisings in the Treblinka and Sobibor Extermination Camps. The Nazi Concentration Camps: Proceedings of the Fourth Yad Vashem International Historical Conference (Jerusalem:  
  4. ^  
  5. ^ Yad Washem Bulletin. Yad Washem-Remembrance Authority for the Disaster and the Heroism. 1953. p. 144. 
  6. ^ Kowalski, Isaac (1985). Anthology on Armed Jewish Resistance, 1939-1945. Jewish Combatants Publishers House. p. 245. 
  7. ^ Rashke, Richard (1995). Escape from Sobibor. University of Illinois Press. p. 357.  
  8. ^ Joseph Tenenbaum (1952). Underground: The Story of a People. Philosophical Library. p. 264. 
  9. ^ Marion Mushkat & Henryk Ṡwiątkowski (1948). Polish Charges Against German War Criminals. Polish Main National Office for the Investigation of German War Crimes in Poland. p. 220. 
  10. ^ Richard C. Lukas (1986). The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-1944. University Press of Kentucky. p. 81. 
  11. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1998). Poland's Holocaust. McFarland. p. 94. 
  12. ^  
  13. ^ Kopciowski, Adam (January 2008). "Anti-Jewish Incidents in the Lublin Region in the Early Years after World War II". Journal of the Polish Center for Holocaust Research (in Polish). 
  14. ^ a b Marcin Wroński (25 March 2013). "Lublin tuż po wojnie. Anarchia, bieda, dostępność broni..". Interview with historian Marcin Wroński by Marcin Bielesz. Lublin. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 
  15. ^ Reszka, Paweł P. (17 January 2008). "Gdy życie ludzkie straciło wartość". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). Retrieved 4 February 2009. 
  16. ^ IMDB database entry
  17. ^ Marek Radziwon (7 June 2005). "Wyjątkowo długa linia , Krall, Hanna". Gazeta Wyborcza. Retrieved 24 September 2014. Announcement about one of twenty Nike nominated books. 
  18. ^ Weekend z nagrodą NIKE: Hanna Krall
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.