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List of French monarchs

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List of French monarchs

Monarchy of France
Former Monarchy
Royal Coat of arms
First monarch Clovis I
(as King)
Last monarch Napoleon III
(as Emperor)
Style See article
Official residence Tuileries Palace (last)
Appointer Hereditary
Monarchy began 486
Monarchy ended 4 September 1870
Current pretender(s) Disputed:
Louis Alphonse
(House of Bourbon)
Henri d'Orléans
(House of Orléans)
Jean-Christophe
(House of Bonaparte)

The Monarchs of France ruled from the establishment of Francia in 486 to 1870. The first race, or dynasty of kings, was the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled until 751,[1] followed by the second race, the Carolingian dynasty, until 987 (with some interruptions). The third race, the Capetian dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589) and Bourbon (until the end of the monarchy).

With the House of Bonaparte and the Bourbon Restoration, additional "Kings of the French" and "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th century France, between 1814 and 1870.

This article lists all rulers to have held the title "King of the Franks", "King of France", "King of the French" or "Emperor of the French". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish kings.

In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–60 and 1369–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. For a short time, this had some basis in fact — under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801.

The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) gradually lost ground after 1190, during the reign of Philip II (but FRANCORUM REX continued to be used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II about 1550. It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century.[n 1] During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.[3]

In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from 1804–14 and again in 1815, founded and ruled by Napoleon I, and the second from 1852–70, founded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III (also known as Louis-Napoleon). They used the title "Emperor of the French".[4][5]

Merovingian dynasty (486–751)[6]

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century CE. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. The Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I (c. 457 CE –481 CE), the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I (481 CE – 511 CE) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule.[7]

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Clovis I
(Clovis Ier)
486 511  • Son of Childeric I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Childebert I
(Childebert Ier)
511 23 December 558  • Son of Clovis I King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
Chlothar I the Old
(Clotaire Ier le Vieux)
23 December 558 29 November 561  • Son of Clovis I
 • Younger brother of Childebert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Charibert I
(Caribert Ier)
29 November 561 567  • Son of Chlothar I King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
Chilperic I
(Chilpéric Ier)
567 584  • Son of Chlothar I
 • Younger brother of Charibert I
King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)

King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)
Chlothar II the Great, the Young
(Clotaire II le Grand, le Jeune)
584 18 October 629  • Son of Chilperic I King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)

King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
(595–629)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(613–629)
Dagobert I
(Dagobert Ier)
18 October 629 19 January 639  • Son of Chlothar II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Clovis II the Lazy
(Clovis II le Fainéant)
19 January 639 31 October 657  • Son of Dagobert I King of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)
Chlothar III
(Clotaire III)
31 October 657 673  • Son of Clovis II King of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(657–663)
Childeric II
(Childéric II)
673 675  • Son of Clovis II
 • Younger brother of Chlothar III
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Theuderic III
(Thierry III)
675 691  • Son of Clovis II
 • Younger brother of Childeric II
King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(687–691)
Clovis IV
(Clovis IV)
691 695  • Son of Theuderic III King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Childebert III the Just
(Childebert III le Juste)
695 23 April 711  • Son of Theuderic III
 • Younger brother of Clovis IV
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Dagobert III 23 April 711 715  • Son of Childebert III King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Chilperic II
(Chilpéric II)
715 13 February 721  • Probably son of Childeric II King of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(719–721)
Theuderic IV 721 737  • Son of Dagobert III King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

The last Merovingian kings, known as the lazy kings (rois fainéants), did not hold any real political power, while the Mayor of the Palace governed instead. When Theuderic IV died in 737, Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel left the throne vacant and continued to rule until his own death in 741. His sons Pepin and Carloman briefly restored the Merovingian dynasty by raising Childeric III to the throne in 743. In 751, Pepin deposed Childerich and acceded to the throne.

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Childeric III
(Childéric III)
743 November 751  • Son of Chilperic II or of Theuderic IV King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty (751–888) [6]

The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the late 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the throne. By 751, the Merovingian dynasty, which until then had ruled the Germanic Franks by right, was deprived of this right with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and a Carolingian, Pepin the Short, was crowned King of the Franks.[8]

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Pepin the Younger the Short
(Pépin le Bref)
751 24 September 768  • Son of Charles Martel King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Carloman I 24 September 768 4 December 771  • Son of Pepin the Short King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Charlemagne (Charles I) 24 September 768 28 January 814  • Son of Pepin the Short King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(800–814)
Louis I the Pious, the Debonaire
(Louis Ier le Pieux, le Débonnaire)
28 January 814 20 June 840  • Son of Charlemagne King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
Charles II the Bald
(Charles II le Chauve)
20 June 840 6 October 877  • Son of Louis I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(875–877)
Louis II the Stammerer
(Louis II le Bègue)
6 October 877 10 April 879  • Son of Charles II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis III 10 April 879 5 August 882  • Son of Louis II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Carloman II 5 August 882 6 December 884  • Son of Louis II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Charles the Fat
(Charles le Gros)
20 May 885 13 January 888  • Son of Louis the German
 • Cousin of Louis II and Carloman II
 • Grandson of Louis I the Pious
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(881–887)

Robertian dynasty (888–898) [6]

The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, and ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Paris was chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat. He was crowned at Compiègne in February 888 by Walter, Archbishop of Sens.[9]

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Odo of Paris
(Eudes de Paris)
29 February 888 1 January 898  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Elected king against young Charles III.
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty (893–922) [6]

Charles, the posthumous son of Louis II, was crowned by a faction opposed to the Robertian Odo at Reims Cathedral, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898.[10]

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Charles III the Simple
(Charles III le Simple)
28 January 893 30 June 922  • Posthumous son of Louis II
 • Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Robertian dynasty (922–923) [6]

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Robert I
(Robert Ier)
30 June 922 15 June 923  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Younger brother of Odo
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Bosonid dynasty (923–936)

The Bosonids were a noble family descended from Boso the Elder, their member, Rudolph (Raoul), was elected "King of the Franks" in 923.

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Rudolph
(Raoul de France)
13 July 923 14 January 936  • Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy (Bosonids)
 • Son-in-law of Robert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty (936–987) [6]

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis IV from overseas
(Louis IV d'Outremer)
19 June 936 10 September 954  • Son of Charles III King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Lothair
(Lothaire de France)
12 November 954 2 March 986  • Son of Louis IV King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis V the Lazy
(Louis V le Fainéant)
8 June 986 22 May 987  • Son of Lothair King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Capetian dynasty (987–1792)

After the death of Louis V, the son of Hugh the Great, Hugh Capet, was elected by the nobility as king of France. The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. They were direct descendants of the Robertian kings. The cadet branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon.

Not listed above are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-Kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France, and are not given ordinals.

Henry VI of England, son of Catherine of Valois, became titular King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes of 1420 however this was disputed and he is not always regarded as a legitimate king of France.

From 21 January 1793 to 8 June 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was the titular King of France as Louis XVII; in reality, however, he was imprisoned in the Temple throughout this duration, and power was held by the leaders of the Republic. Upon Louis XVII's death, his uncle (Louis XVI's brother) Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII, but only became de facto King of France in 1814.

House of Capet (987–1328) [6]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Hugh Capet
(Hugues Capet)
3 July 987 24 October 996  • Grandson of Robert I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Robert II the Pious, the Wise
(Robert II le Pieux, le Sage)
24 October 996 20 July 1031  • Son of Hugh Capet King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Henry I
(Henri Ier)
20 July 1031 4 August 1060  • Son of Robert II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Philip I the Amorous
(Philippe Ier l' Amoureux)
4 August 1060 29 July 1108  • Son of Henry I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis VI the Fat
(Louis VI le Gros)
29 July 1108 1 August 1137  • Son of Philip I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis VII the Young
(Louis VII le Jeune)
1 August 1137 18 September 1180  • Son of Louis VI King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Philip II Augustus
(Philippe II Auguste)
18 September 1180 14 July 1223  • Son of Louis VII King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis VIII the Lion
(Louis VIII le Lion)
14 July 1223 8 November 1226  • Son of Philip II Augustus King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis IX the Saint
(Saint Louis)
8 November 1226 25 August 1270  • Son of Louis VIII King of France
(Roi de France)
Philip III the Bold
(Philippe III le Hardi)
25 August 1270 5 October 1285  • Son of Louis IX King of France
(Roi de France)
Philip IV the Fair, the Iron King
(Philippe IV le Bel)
5 October 1285 29 November 1314  • Son of Philip III King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis X the Quarreller
(Louis X le Hutin)
29 November 1314 5 June 1316  • Son of Philip IV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
John I the Posthumous
(Jean Ier le Posthume)
15 November 1316 20 November 1316  • Son of Louis X King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Philip V the Tall
(Philippe V le Long)
20 November 1316 3 January 1322  • Son of Philip IV
 • Younger brother of Louis X
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Charles IV the Fair
(Charles IV le Bel)
3 January 1322 1 February 1328  • Son of Philip IV
 • Younger brother of Louis X and Philip V
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Valois (1328–1589) [11]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Philip VI of Valois, the Fortunate
(Philippe VI de Valois, le Fortuné)
1 April 1328 22 August 1350  • Grandson of Philip III of France King of France
(Roi de France)
John II the Good
(Jean II le Bon)
22 August 1350 8 April 1364  • Son of Philip VI King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles V the Wise
(Charles V le Sage)
8 April 1364 16 September 1380  • Son of John II King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VI the Beloved, the Mad
(Charles VI le Bienaimé, le Fol)
16 September 1380 21 October 1422  • Son of Charles V King of France
(Roi de France)

House of Lancaster (1422–1453) (disputed)

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Claim Title
Henry VI of England
(Henri VI d'Angleterre)
21 October 1422 19 October 1453  • By right of his father Henry V of England by the Treaty of Troyes become heir and regent to the French throne King of France
(Roi de France)

House of Valois (1328–1589) [11]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Charles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served
(Charles VII le Victorieux, le Bien-Servi)
21 October 1422 22 July 1461  • Son of Charles VI King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis XI the Prudent, the Cunning, the Universal Spider
(Louis XI le Prudent, le Rusé, l'Universelle Aragne)
22 July 1461 30 August 1483  • Son of Charles VII King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VIII the Affable
(Charles VIII l'Affable)
30 August 1483 7 April 1498  • Son of Louis XI King of France
(Roi de France)

Orléans branch (1498–1515) [6]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis XII Father of the People
(Louis XII le Père du Peuple)
7 April 1498 1 January 1515  • Great-grandson of Charles V
 • Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI
 • By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII
King of France
(Roi de France)

Orléans–Angoulême Branch (1515–1589) [6]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Francis I the Father and Restorer of Letters
(François Ier le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres)
1 January 1515 31 March 1547  • Great-great-grandson of Charles V
 • First cousin once removed, and by
first marriage son-in-law of Louis XII
King of France
(Roi de France)
Henry II
(Henri II)
31 March 1547 10 July 1559  • Son of Francis I/Maternal grandson of Louis XII King of France
(Roi de France)
Francis II
(François II)
10 July 1559 5 December 1560  • Son of Henry II King of France
(Roi de France)

King of Scots
(1558–1560)
Charles IX 5 December 1560 30 May 1574  • Son of Henry II King of France
(Roi de France)
Henry III
(Henri III)
30 May 1574 2 August 1589  • Son of Henry II King of France
(Roi de France)

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
(1573–1575)

House of Bourbon (1589–1792)

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Henry IV, Good King Henry, the Green Gallant
(Henri IV, le Bon Roi Henri, le Vert-Galant)
2 August 1589 14 May 1610  • Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line
 • By first marriage son in law of Henry II, Brother in law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XIII the Just
(Louis XIII le Juste)
14 May 1610 14 May 1643  • Son of Henry IV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XIV the Great, the Sun King
(Louis XIV le Grand, le Roi Soleil)
14 May 1643 1 September 1715  • Son of Louis XIII King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XV the Beloved
(Louis XV le Bien-Aimé)
1 September 1715 10 May 1774  • Great-grandson of Louis XIV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XVI the Restorer of French Liberty
(Louis XVI le Restaurateur de la Liberté Française)
10 May 1774 21 September 1792  • Grandson of Louis XV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
(1774–1791)

King of the French
(Roi des Français)
(1791–1792)

First Republic (1792–1804)

The First French Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, when its First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.[6]

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (1804–1814) [6]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Napoleon I, the Great
(Napoléon Ier, le Grand)
18 May 1804 11 April 1814 - Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Capetian Dynasty (1814–1815)

House of Bourbon, Bourbon Restoration (1814–1815) [6]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis XVIII 11 April 1814 20 March 1815  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (Hundred Days, 1815) [6]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Napoleon I
(Napoléon Ier)
20 March 1815 22 June 1815 - Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)
Napoleon II
(Napoléon II)
[n 2]
22 June 1815 7 July 1815  • Son of Napoleon I Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Capetian Dynasty (1815–1848)[6]

House of Bourbon (1815–1830)

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis XVIII 7 July 1815 16 September 1824  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Charles X 16 September 1824 2 August 1830  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Orléans, July Monarchy (1830–1848)

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King
(Louis Philippe, le Roi Citoyen)
9 August 1830 24 February 1848  • Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line
 • Fifth cousin of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X
King of the French
(Roi des Français)

Second Republic (1848–1852)

The Second French Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.[6]

House of Bonaparte, Second Empire (1852–1870) [6]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Napoleon III
(Napoléon III)
2 December 1852 4 September 1870  • Nephew of Napoleon I Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Later pretenders

Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the President of France, and of each other. These groups are:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 'Louis XII, 1499 [...] LVDOVIVS XII FRANCORUM REX MEDILANI DUX [...] Francis I, 1515 [...] FRANCISCUS REX FRANCORUM PRIMUS DOMINATOR ELVETIORUM [...] Henri II, 1550? [...] HENRICVS II FRANCORVM REX' [2]
  2. ^ From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, throughout this period he resided in Austria, with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July

References

  1. ^ Claudio Rendina & Paul McCusker, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, (New York : 2002), p. 145.
  2. ^ Potter, David (2008). Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, C.1480-1560. Warfare in History Series 28. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. viii.  
  3. ^ Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182.  
  4. ^ Le Couronnement de Napoléon Premier, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Guerin. 1806. p. 1. 
  5. ^ Pascal, Adrien (1853). Histoire de Napoléon III, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Barbier. p. 359. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Hansen, M.H., ed. (1967). Kings, Rulers, and Statesmen. NY, USA: Sterling Publising Co., Inc. pp. 103–107. 
  7. ^ Brown, Peter (2003). The Rise of Western Christendom. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 137. 
  8. ^ Babcock, Philip (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. MA, USA: Merriam-Webster. p. 341. 
  9. ^ Gwatking, H. M.; J. P.; et al. (1930). Cambridge Medieval History: Germany and the Western Empire. Volume III. London: Cambridge University Press. 
  10. ^ Parisse, Michael (2005). "Lotharingia". In Reuter, T. The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 900–c. 1024 III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 313–315. 
  11. ^ a b Knecht, Robert (2004). The Valois: Kings of France 1328-1422. NY, USA: Hambledon Continuum. pp. ix–xii.  


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