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List of Indian spices

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List of Indian spices

Indian spices

Indian spices include a variety of spices grown across the Indian subcontinent (a sub-region of South Asia). With different climates in different parts of the country, India produces a variety of spices, many of which are native to the Subcontinent, while others were imported from similar climates and have since been cultivated locally for centuries.

Spices are used in different forms - whole, chopped, ground, roasted, sauteed, fried and as topping. They blend food to extract the nutrients and bind them in a palatable form. Some spices are added at the end as a flavouring and are typically heated in a pan with ghee or cooking oil before being added to a dish. Lighter spices are added last, and spices with strong flavour should be added first. Curry is not a spice, but a term used by western people and refers to any dish in Indian cuisine that contains several spices blended together and could be with a gravy base or a dry item.

List of Indian spices

Below is a list of spices and other flavouring substances commonly used in India.

Image Standard English Indian English Hindi Marathi Gujarati Tamil Malayalam Telugu Kannada Bengali Urdu Notes
Alkanet root Ratin jot रातीं जोट रक्तमूळ রতনজোট
Aniseed[1] Suwa or Shopa सुव्वा / शोप चक्रिफुल સૂવા சோம்பு പെരുംജീരകം, perumjeerakam సోంపు ದೊಡ್ಡ ಸೋಂಪು মৌরি سونف
Asafoetida Hing हींग हिंग હિંગ பெருங்காயம் കായം/പെരുംകായം, kayam/perumkayam ఇంగువ ಇಂಗು হিং ہنگ Intensely aromatic - related to Truffle and Garlic
Red Chilli Laal Mirch लाल मिर्च लाल मिरचीचा લાલ મરી சிவப்பு மிளகு ഉണ്ടമുളക്, undamulaku ఎరుపు మిరియాలు ಒಣ ಮೆಣಸಿನಕಾಯಿಯ [2] লাল ক্যাপসিকাম مرچ
Black cardamom Kali Elaichi काली इलायची वेलची એલચો கருப்பு ஏலக்காய் കറുപ്പ് ഏലക്ക, Elakka నల్ల ఏలకులు ಕರಿ ಏಲಕ್ಕಿ বড় এলাচ الائچی کالی Very earthy and darkly aromatic. A much used in North Indian curries.
White pepper Safed Mirchi सफ़ेद मिर्च पांढरी मिरी સફેદ મરી வெள்ளை மிளகு വെള്ള കുരുമുളക്, Vella kurumulaku తెల్ల మిరియాలు, ಬಿಳಿಮೆಣಸು/ಬಿಳಿ ಕಾಳುಮೆಣಸು সাদা মরিচ سفید مرچ
Black pepper Kali Mirchi काली मिर्च काळी मिरी મરી மிளகு കുരുമുളക്, kurumulaku నల్ల మిరియాలు, ಕರಿಮೆಣಸು/ಕಾಳುಮೆಣಸು গোল মরিচ gol morich مرچ کالی Largest producer is the southern Indian state of Kerala.
Peppercorns Kali Mirch काली मिर्च काळी मिरी મરી மிளகு കുരുമുളക്, kurumulaku miriyalu, మిరియాలు ಕರಿಮೆಣಸು/ಕಾಳುಮೆಣಸು গোল মরিচ مرچ کالی
Black Cumin Shah Jeera शाही जीरा शाहजिरे બ્લેક જીરું கருஞ்சீரகம் കരിഞ്ജീരകം, karinjeerakam నల్ల జీలకర్ర, ಕರಿ ಜೀರಿಗೆ শাহ্‌ জিরা شاہ زیرہ Sweet, floral and smokey cumin and anise-like flavour. Smaller in size than regular cumin. Often mistaken as Caraway seed. Though English translation is black cumin, the term black cumin is also used as English translation of Nigella sativa, kalonji
Capers Kachra कचरा, कब्र, करेर केपर्स કેપર્સ கரியல் మరాఠీ మొగ్గు, ముముదాటు, ಮರಾಠಿ ಮೊಗ್ಗು কাবরা کرر also known as Kabra, Karer in Hindi
Capsicum Shimla Mirch शिमला मिर्च सिमला मिरची/भोपळी मिरची/ढब्बू मिरची કેપ્સિકમ குடை மிளைகாய் గోరంత ದಪ್ಪ ಮೆಣಸಿನಯಕಾಯಿ/ದೊಣ್ಣೆ ಮೆಣಸಿನಕಾಯಿ ক্যাপসিকাম شملہ مرچ
Celery / radhuni seed Ajmud अज्मुद,अज्मोदा अजमोदा કચુંબરની વનસ્પતિ ஓமம் ఆకుకూరల ಸೆಲರಿ রাঁধুনি اجوائن
Charoli Chironji चिरोंजी चारोळी ચારોળી సార పప్పు ಚರೋಳಿ চিরনজি چرونجی a type of nut particularly used in making desserts
Indian bay leaf, bay leaf Tej Patta तेज पत्ता तमालपत्र ભારતીય પત્તા பட்டை കറുവാപട്ട ഇല, Karuvapatta ila బిర్యానీ ఆకు ಮಸಾಲ ಎಲೆ/ಪುಲಾವ್ ಎಲೆ তেজ পাতা tej pata تيزپات Both Indian bay leaf and bay leaf are similar and called as Tej Patta in Hindi. however, they are from two different species and have differences in taste
Cinnamon buds Naaga Keshar नाग केशर नाग केशर તજ કળીઓ இலவங்கப்பட்டை மொட்டுகள் లవంగం ದಾಲ್ಚಿನ್ನಿ ಮೊಗ್ಗುಗಳು দারুচিনি মুকুল دارچینی
Cinnamon Dalchini दालचीनी दालचिनी તજ இலவங்கப்பட்டை കറുവപ്പട്ട, karuvapatta దాల్చిన చెక్క ಚಕ್ಕೆ/ದಾಲ್ಚಿನ್ನಿ দারচিনি darchini دارچینی Grown commercially in Kerala in southern India. Two types, cassia (common) and royal.
Citric acid Saji na phool निंबू फूल સાઇટ્રિક એસિડ சிட்ரிக் அமிலம் സിട്രികു അമ്ലം, citric amlam సిట్రిక్ లవణము ಸಿಟ್ರಿಕ್ ಆಮ್ಲ সিট্রিক অ্যাসিড سائٹرک ایسڈ
Cloves Laung लवंग / लौंग लवंग લવિંગ கிராம்பு, இலவங்கம் ഗ്രാമ്പു/കരയാമ്പു. grampu/karayampu లవంగం ಲವಂಗ লং/লবঙ্গ lông/lôbonggo لوںگ Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are largest producers in India.
Coriander powder Dhania powder/ Pisa Dhania धनिया पाउडर/पिसा धनिया धणे पूड ધાણાજીરું கொத்தமல்லி பொடி, தனியா മല്ലിപ്പൊടി, mallippodi ధనియాల పొడి, ಕೊತ್ತಂಬರಿ ಪುಡಿ ধনে গুঁড়া دھنیہ
Coriander seed Dhania/hara dhaniya धनिया धणे કોથમીર விதை கொத்தமல்லி മല്ലി, malli ధనియాలు ಕೊತ್ತಂಬರಿ ಬೀಜ ধনে dhone دھنیا
Cubeb Kebab Cheeni / Kabab Chini कबाब चीनी नाकेश्वर സര്‍വസുഗന്ധി, sarvasudandhi తోక మిరియాలు কাবাব চিনি kabab chini کباب چینی Tastes of Clove + Persistent Mild Numbing + Bitterness
Cumin seed grounded into balls Jeera Goli ज़ीरा गोली 'జీలకర్ర వుండ'
Cumin seed Jeera ज़ीरा जिरं જીરુ சீரகம் ജീരകം, jeerakam జీలకర్ర ಜೀರಿಗೆ জিরা/গোটা জিরে زیرہ See Kali Jeera.
Curry tree or sweet neem leaf Kadipatta (Currypatta) करीपत्ता / कढ़ीपत्ता कढीपत्ता મીઠો લિમડો கறிவேப்பிலை കറിവേപ്പില, kariveppila కరివేప ఆకు, ಕರಿಬೇವು/ಕರಿಬೇವಿನ ಎಲೆ কারিপাতা کریاپات Cannot retain flavour when dried. Only use fresh.
Fennel seed Saunf/Sanchal सौंफ / संचल बडीशेप વરીયાળી பெருஞ்சீரகம்/சோம்பு ജീരകം/പെരുംജീരകം, jeerakam/perumjeerakam సోంపు ಸೋಂಪು মৌরি mouri سوںف
Fenugreek leaf Kasoori Methi Dried कसूरी मेथी कसुरी मेथी કસુરી મેથી வெந்தய கீரை ഉലുവ ഇല (ഉണക്കിയത്), uluva ila unakkiyathu మెంతి ఆకులు, menthi aakulu ಕಸ್ತೂರಿ ಮೆಂತ್ಯ শুক্নো মেথি পাতা sukno methi pata قصوری میتھی
Fenugreek leaf Methi leaves मेथी पत्ता मेथीची पानं મેથી પર્ણ வெந்தய கீரை ഉലുവ ഇല, uluva ila మెంతి ఆకులు, ಮೆಂತ್ಯದ ಸೊಪ್ಪು মেথি পাতা methi pata میتھی
Fenugreek seed Methi seeds मेथी दाना मेथीचे दाणे મેથીના બીજ வெந்தயம் ഉലുവ, uluva మెంతులు, ಮೆಂತ್ಯದ ಬೀಜ মেথি methi میتھی دانہ
Four seeds Char Magaj तरबूज खरबूज ककडी पैंठे के बीज તરબૂચ ખરબૂચ કાકડી પૈંઠા ના બીયાં মগজ Seeds of Water melon, musk melon,cucumber and pumpkin
Garcinia gummi-gutta Kudampuli கொறுக்காய்ப்புளி കുടംപുളി, kudampuli গোম্বূজ gom booge Used in fish preparations of Kerala
Garam masala Garam masala/Kadha Masala गरम मसाला गरम मसाला ગરમ મસાલો கரம் மசாலா ഗരം മസാല, garam masala గరం మసాలా ಗರಂ ಮಸಾಲಾ গরম মশলা gôrom môshla گرم مصالحہ Blend of 8+ spices. Each family has their own secret recipe.
Garcinia indica Kokum कोकम, कोकम,आमसूल કોકમ அஞ்சல் మెయిలింగ్ ಮುರುಗದ ಹಣ್ಣು কোকুম کوکم
Garlic Lahsun लहसुन लसूण લસણ வெள்ளை பூண்டு വെളുത്തുള്ളി, veluthulli వెల్లుల్లి పాయ, vellulli paaya ಬೆಳ್ಳುಳ್ಳಿ রসুন roshun لہسن
Ginger Adrak अदरक आलं આદુ இஞ்சி ഇഞ്ചി, inji అల్లం ಶುಂಠಿ আদা ادرک
Dried ginger Sonth सोंठ सुंठ સુંઠ சுக்கு ചുക്ക്, chukku సొంఠి ಒಣಶುಂಠಿ শুকানো আদা গুড়ো سونٹھ mostly powdered
Green cardamom Chhoti Elaichi छोटी इलाइची वेलची એલચી ஏலக்காய் ഏലക്ക, elakka ఏలకులు ಏಲಕ್ಕಿ ছোট এলাচ چھوٹی الائچی Malabar variety is native to Kerala.
Indian Bedellium Tree Gugul, Guggul गुगल, गु्ग्गल डिंंक ગુ્ગળ মাকাল Very earthy aromatic mostly used in religious
Indian gooseberry Amla आँवला आवळा આમળા நெல்லிக்காய் നെല്ലിക്ക, nellikka ఉసిరి కాయ / పప్పు ನೆಲ್ಲಿಕಾಯಿ আমলকি آملا
Black salt Kala Namak / Sanchal काला नमक / संचल काळं मीठ સંચળ இந்துப்பு ഇന്തുപ്പ്, inthuppu నల్ల ఉప్పు ಕರಿ ಉಪ್ಪು বিট নুন bit noon کالا نمک Rock salt, but with very sulfury smell.
Kalpasi Pathar Ka Phool पत्थर के फूल दगडफूल દગડફૂલ கல்பசி కల్లుపచి, ಕಲ್ಲು ಹೂವು پتھر کا پھول Also known as black stone flower
Licorice powder Jethimadh जेठीमध ज्येष्ठमध જેઠીમધ அதிமதுரம் ഇരട്ടിമധുരം, irattimadhuram

പൊടി, podi

యష్టిమధుక్కం ಲೈಕೋರೈಸ್ ಪುಡಿ যশঠিমধু jjoshthi modhu ملہٹی
Long pepper Pippali पिप्पलि पिंपळी લાંબા મરી கண்டந்திப்பிலி പിപ്പലി, pippali అనాసపువ్వు ಹಿಪ್ಪಲಿ পিপুল پپليان
Mango extract Camiki कामिकी आंबा अर्क લાંબા મરી மாம்பழ சாறு మామిడి సారం ಮಾವಿನ ಸಾರ আমশী آم اقتباس
Sour dried mango powder Aamchur/Amchoor powder आमचूर / अमचुर आमचूर / आंबोशी આમચૂર আমচুড় آمچور
Mint Pudina पुदीना पुदिना ફુદિનો புதினா പുതിന, puthina పుదీన ಪುದಿನ পুদিনা پودینہ
Mustard seed Sarson सरसों, मोहरी கடுகு കടുക്, kaduku ఆవాలు, సరసావాలు, ಸಾಸಿವೆ সর্ষে, shorshe سرسوں
Brown mustard seed Rai राई मोहरी રાઈ கடுகு കടുക്, kaduku ఆవాలు, ಸಾಸಿವೆ রাই/ সর্ষে / সরিষা shor say رائی
Nigella seed Kalonji कलोंजी कांद्याचे बी கருப்பு எள் കരിംജീരകം, karimjeerakam నల్ల జీలకర్ర, ತಂಪಿನ ಬೀಜ কালো জিরা kalo jira کلونجی
Nutmeg Jaiphal जैफल/जायफल जायफळ જાયફળ ஜாதிக்காய் ജാതിക്ക, jathikka జాజికాయ ಜಾಕಾಯಿ/ಜಾಯಿಕಾಯಿ জায়ফল جاۓپھل Whole nuts last forever. Powder, only a month.
Mace Javitri जावित्री जायपत्री જાવંત્રી ஜாதிக்காய் தோல் ജാതിപത്രി, jathipathri జాపత్రి ಜಾಪಾತ್ರೆ জয়িত্রি جاوتری Mace is outer covering to nutmeg nut. Similar aroma.
Holy basil Tulsi तुलसी तुळस તુલસી துளசி തുളസി, thulasi తులసి, తులసి ఆకు ತುಳಸಿ তুলসী تلسی
Panch Phoron Panch Phoron पञ्च फोरन পাঁচ ফোড়ন pãch foṛon This is a Bengali spice mix that combines fennel seeds, cumin seeds, fenugreek seeds, mustard seeds and nigella seeds.
Pomegranate seed Anardana अनारदाना डाळींबदाणे દાડમ ના બીયા மாதுளம் விதை മാതളനാരങ്ങ കുരു/അല്ലി, mathalanaranga kuru/alli దానిమ్మ, గింజలు ದಾಳಿಂಬೆ ಬೀಜ আনারদানা/ বেদানার বীজ اناردانا Dried not fresh. Is ground in Middle East.
Poppy seed Khus Khus खस-खस खसखस ખસખસ கச கசா കസകസ, kasakasa గసగసాలు ಗಸಗಸೆ পোস্ত posto خشحش
Saffron pulp Kesar mari mari केसर मिरी मिरी, केशर लगदा કેસર પલ્પ குங்குமப்பூ కుంకుమ పూల పొడి ಕೇಸರಿಹೂ কেশর মড়মড়ি زعفران گودا Actually, safflower concentrate
Saffron Kesar, mayur केसर, जाफरान केशर kesar குங்குமப்பூ കുങ്കുമ പുവ്, kunkumappuvu కుంకుమ పువ్వు, ಕೇಸರಿ জাফরান jafran زعفران World's most expensive spice. Flavouring for rice.
Salt Namak नमक मीठ mithoo உப்பு ഉപ്പ്, uppu ఉప్పు, uppu ಉಪ್ಪು লবণ/নুন lôbon/nun نمک
Sesame seed Til तिल तीळ તલ எள் എള്ള്,ellu నువ్వులు ಎಳ್ಳು/ಕರಿ ಎಳ್ಳು তিল تل
Star anise Chakra Phool चक्र फूल, बदल फुल चक्र फूल બાદીયા அண்ணாச்சி மொக்கு തക്കോലം, thakkolam అనసపువ్వు ಚಕ್ರ ಮೊಗ್ಗು /ಹೂವ್ವು তারা মৌরী باديان خطائى Exotic, Chinese-influenced flavours
Tamarind Imli इमली चिंच આમલી புளி പുളി/വാളന്‍പുളി, puli/valanpuli చింతపండు ಹುಣಸೆಹಣ್ಣು তেঁতুল tetul املی Provides tartness in South Indian curries
Carom/thymol seed Ajwain अज़वाइन ओवा અજમો ஓமம் അയമോദകം, ayamodakam వాము ಓಮಕಾಳು জোয়ান اجوائن
Turmeric Haldi हल्दी हळद હળદર மஞ்சள் മഞ്ഞള്‍, manjal పసుపు ಅರಿಶಿನ/ಹಳದಿ হলুদ holud ہلدی Source of "yellow color" in many curries.
Fresh basil Tulsi तुलसी तुळस તુલસા துளசி തുളസി, thulasi తులసి ತುಳಸಿ তুলসী تُلسی
Fresh coriander Hara dhaniya हरा धनिया कोथिंबीर લીલી કોથમીર கொத்தமல்லி (இலை) മല്ലിയില, malliyila కొత్తిమీర ಕೊತ್ತಂಬರಿ ಸೊಪ್ಪು ধনে পাতা کوتمیر ھرا دھنیا Fresh green leaves. AKA Cilantro.
Green chili pepper Hari Mirch हरी मिर्च हिरवी मिरची લીલું મરચું பச்சை மிளகாய் പച്ച മുളക്, pachamulaku పచ్చి మిరపకాయలు ಹಸಿ ಮೆಣಸಿನಕಾಯಿ কাঁচা মরিচ/ কাঁচা লঙ্কা
kãcha morich / kãcha lonka
ہری مرچ
Gum tragacanth Katira Goond कटीरा गोंद डिंक ગુંદર কাতিলা کٹیرا A thickener and coating for desserts
Inknut Terminalia chebula Harad / Harr /Haritaki हरद हिरडा/हरडा હરડે கடுக்காய் കടുക്ക, katukka కరక చెట్టు, ಅಳಲೆಕಾಯಿ হরিতকি حرر
Red chili pepper Lal Mirchi लाल मिर्च लाल मिरची લાલ મરચું மிளகாய் வத்தல் വറ്റല്‍ മുളക്, ഉണക്ക മുളക്, vattalmulaku,unakkamulaku మిరప కాయలు, ಕೆಂಪು ಒಣಮೆಣಸಿನಕಾಯಿ লাল মরিচ lal morich لال مرچ

See also

References

  1. ^ dictionary.reference.com: anise
  2. ^ http://renushome.com/indian-spices-glossary-indian-spices-english-hindi/

External links

  • "Glossary Pakistani & Indian Spices (Masala)". Direct Advert Media LLC. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  • "Glossary of Food Ingredients". Cymran LLC. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  • "Glossary of Spices & Condiments - Indian Names". Syvum Technologies Inc. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  • Raghavan, Susheela (2006). Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings. (2nd ed. ed.). Hoboken: CRC Press.  
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