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List of Nazi-German concentration camps

 

List of Nazi-German concentration camps

This article presents a partial list of more prominent Nazi concentration camps set up across Europe during World War II and the Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Nazi Germany,[1] while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Nazis established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries."[2] Most of these camps were destroyed.

The later camps, built by the Third Reich mostly between 1939 and 1942, were intended to hold large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process, including Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, prisoners of war and many others, seen as undesirable by the occupation administration. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of mistreatment, starvation, forced labour, and murder. Some of the data presented in this table originates from The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz.[3]

Table

Extermination camps are marked with light red, Concentration camps are marked with light blue, Labour camps are marked with grey, while Transit camps and Collective points remain unmarked. Nazi ghettos are generally not included. According to data presented in the table below, an estimated 4,251,500 people lost their lives in the camps.

Camp name Country (today) Camp type Dates of use Est. prisoners Est. deaths Sub-camps Webpage
Alderney Channel Islands Labour camps Jan 1942 – Jun 1944 6,000 700 Lager Borkum, Lager Helgoland, Lager Norderney, Lager Sylt [2]
Amersfoort Netherlands Transit camp and prison Aug 1941 – Apr 1945 35,000 1,000 [3]
Arbeitsdorf Germany Labour camp 8 Apr 1942 – 11 Oct 1942 600 min. none
Auschwitz-Birkenau Poland Extermination and labour camp Apr 1940 – Jan 1945 135,000 min.[4] in August 1944 1,100,000 min.[5] out of 6,000,000 rec. arrivals [6] list of 48 sub-camps with description at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum [7] [4] [5] [7] [6]
Banjica Serbia Concentration camp Jun 1941 – Sep 1944 23,637 3,849[8]
Bardufoss Norway Concentration camp Mar 1944 – ???? 800 250
Bełżec Poland Extermination camp Oct 1941 – Jun 1943   434,508 min. [4]
Berga an der Elster (Berga, Thuringia) Germany Labour camp; Buchenwald subcamp
Bergen-Belsen Germany Collection point Apr 1943 – Apr 1945   70,000 2 [5]
Berlin-Marzahn Germany Early a "rest place" then labour camp for Roma July 1936 –     none [6]
Bernburg Germany Collection point Apr 1942 – Apr 1945   100,000 2  
Bogdanovka Ukraine Concentration camp 1941 54,000 40,000
Bolzano Italy Transit Jul 1944 – Apr 1945 11,116  
Bredtvet Norway Concentration camp Fall, 1941 – May, 1945 1,000 min.  ???? none
Breendonk Belgium Prison and labour camp 20 Sep 1940 – Sep 1944 3532 min. 391 min. none [7]
Breitenau Germany "Early wild camp", then labour camp Jun 1933 – Mar 1934,
1940–1945
470 – 8500   [8]
Buchenwald Germany Labour camp Jul 1937 – Apr 1945 250,000 56,000 list [9]
Chełmno
(Kulmhof)
Poland Extermination camp Dec 1941 – Apr 1943,
Apr 1944 – Jan 1945
  152,000 min. [10]
Crveni krst Serbia Concentration camp 1941–1945 30,000 12,300
Dachau Germany Labour camp Mar 1933 – Apr 1945 200,000  31,591 list [11]
Drancy France Internment camp, transit 20 Aug 1941 – 17 Aug 1944 70,000 Three of five Paris annexes: Austerlitz, Lévitan and Bassano camps [12]
Falstad Norway Prison camp Dec 1941 – May 1945 200 min. none [13]
Flößberg (Frohburg) Germany Labour camp; Buchenwald subcamp November 1944 – Apr 1945 1904 235 min. [14]
Flossenbürg Germany Labour camp May 1938 – Apr 1945 100,000 min. 30,000 list [15]
Fort de Romainville France Prison and transit camp 1940 – Aug 1944 8,100 min. 200 min. none [16]
Fort VII (Poznań) Poland Concentration, detention, transit Oct 1939 – Apr 1944 18,000 min. 4,500 min. [17]
Fossoli Italy Prison and transit camp 5 Dec 1943 – Nov 1944 none
Grini Norway Prison camp 2 May 1941 – May 1945 19,788 8 Fannrem
Bardufoss
Kvænangen
Gross-Rosen Poland Labour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp Aug 1940 – Feb 1945 125,000 40,000 list [18]
Herzogenbusch
(Vught)
Netherlands Concentration camp 1943 – Summer 1944 31,000 750 list [19]
Hinzert Germany Collection point and subcamp Jul 1940 – Mar 1945 14,000 302 min. [20]
Janowska
(Lwów)
Ukraine Ghetto; transit, labour, & extermination camp Sep 1941 – Nov 1943   40,000 min. none [21]
(see "A-Z")
Jasenovac concentration camp Croatia Extermination camp for Jews, Serbs and Roma[9] 1941–1945 700,000 min.[10] 100,000[11] Stara Gradiška concentration camp, Sisak children's concentration camp, Donja Gradina, Jasenovac main [22]
Kaiserwald
(Mežaparks)
Latvia Labour camp 1942 – 6 Aug 1944 20,000? 16,
incl. Eleja-Meitenes
[23]
Kaufering/Landsberg Germany Labour camp Jun 1943 – Apr 1945 30,000 14,500 min. [24]
Kauen
(Kaunas)
Lithuania Ghetto and internment camp  ???? Prawienischken [25]
Kemna Germany Early concentration camp Jun 1933 – Jan 1944 4,500 none [26]
Klooga Estonia Labour camp Summer 1943 – 28 Sep 1944 2,400
Koldichevo Belarus Labour camp Summer 1942 – Jun 1944 22,000
Langenstein-Zwieberge Germany Buchenwald subcamp Apr 1944 – Apr 1945 5,000 2,000
Le Vernet France Internment camp 1939–1944    
Majdanek
(KZ Lublin)
Poland Extermination camp Jul 1941 – Jul 1944   78,000 [27]
Malchow Germany Labour and Transit camp Winter 1943 – 8 May 1945 5,000  
Maly Trostenets Belarus Extermination camp Jul 1941 – Jun 1944   206,500 (official)
65,000
[29]
Mauthausen-Gusen Austria Labour camp Aug 1938 – May 1945 195,000 95,000 min. list [30]
Mechelen Belgium Transit camp July 1942 – Sep 1944 25267 min.[12] 300 min.[13] none [31]
Mittelbau-Dora Germany Labour camp Sep 1943 – Apr 1945 60,000 20,000 min. list [32]
Mittelsteine Poland Labour camp; Gross-Rosen subcamp Aug 1944 April 1945 3001,000 1020 none [33]
Natzweiler-Struthof (Struthof) France Labour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp; extermination camp May 1941 – Sep 1944 40,000 25,000 list [34]
Neuengamme Germany Labour camp 13 Dec 1938 – 4 May 1945 106,000 42,900+ list [35]
Niederhagen Germany Prison and labour camp Sep 1941 – early 1943 3,900 1,285 none [36]
Oberer Kuhberg Germany Concentration camp Nov 1933 – 1935 0 Former infantry base Gleißelstetten (Fortress of Ulm) [37]
Ohrdruf Germany Labour and concentration camp; Buchenwald subcamp Nov 1944 – Apr 1945 11,700 [38]
Oranienburg Germany Early concentration camp Mar 1933 – Jul 1934 3,000 16 min. [39]
Osthofen Germany Collective point Mar 1933 – Jul 1934    
Płaszów Poland Labour camp Dec 1942 – Jan 1945 150,000 min. 9,000 min. list
Ravensbrück Germany Labour camp for women May 1939 – Apr 1945 150,000 90,000 min. list [41]
Risiera di San Sabba
(Trieste)
Italy Police detainment camp Sep 1943 – 29 Apr 1945 25,000 5,000 [42]
Sachsenhausen Germany Labour camp Jul 1936 – Apr 1945 200,000 min. 100,000 list [43]
Sajmište Serbia Extermination camp Oct 1941 – Jul 1944 92,000 23,000–47,000
Salaspils Latvia Labour camp Oct 1941 – Summer 1944 2,000 [44]
Skrochowitz
(Skrochovice)
Czech Republic Transit (1939) and labour camp Sept 1939 - Dec 1939, 1940–1943 1939:700 1939:13 [45]
Sobibor Poland Extermination camp May 1942 – Oct 1943   200,000 max. [46]
Soldau Poland Labour; Transit camp Winter 1939/40 – Jan 1945 30,000 13,000
Stutthof Poland Labour camp Sep 1939 – May 1945 110,000 65,000 list [47]
Theresienstadt
(Terezín)
Czech Republic Transit camp and Ghetto Nov 1941 – May 1945 140,000 35,000 min. [48]
Treblinka Poland Extermination camp Jul 1942 – Nov 1943   870,000 [49]
Vaivara Estonia Concentration and transit camp 15 Sep 1943 – 29 Feb 1944 20,000 950 22 [51]
Warsaw Poland Labour and extermination camp 1942–1944 400,000 max. 200,000 max.
Westerbork Netherlands Transit camp May 1940 – Apr 1945 102,000   [52]

See also

References

Bibliography

External links

  • Yad Vashem website
  • Holocaust Center of Northern California
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