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List of animals displaying homosexual behavior

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Title: List of animals displaying homosexual behavior  
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Subject: Deletion review/Log/2009 July 4, Romantic orientation, Heterosexual–homosexual continuum, Androphilia and gynephilia, Bisexuality
Collection: Lists of Animals, Lists of Animals Displaying Homosexual Behavior, Sexual Orientation and Science
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List of animals displaying homosexual behavior

Roy and Silo, two Central Park Zoo male chinstrap penguins similar to those pictured, became internationally known when they successfully hatched and cared for an egg.[1]
Couple of two male mallard ducks in a nature reserve in Germany

For these animals, there is documented evidence of homosexual behavior of one or more of the following kinds: sex, courtship, affection, pair bonding, or parenting, as noted in researcher and author Bruce Bagemihl's 1999 book Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.

Bagemihl writes that the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not 'officially' observed on a large scale until the 1990s due to possible observer bias caused by social attitudes towards LGBT people making the homosexual theme taboo.[2][3] Bagemihl devotes three chapters; Two Hundred Years at Looking at Homosexual Wildlife, Explaining (Away) Animal Homosexuality and Not For Breeding Only in his 1999 book Biological Exuberance to the "documentation of systematic prejudices" where he notes "the present ignorance of biology lies precisely in its single-minded attempt to find reproductive (or other) "explanations" for homosexuality, transgender, and non-procreative and alternative heterosexualities.[4] Petter Bøckman, academic adviser for the Against Nature? exhibit stated "[M]any researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles". Homosexual behavior is found amongst social birds and mammals, particularly the sea mammals and the primates.[3]

Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sex, has been observed as of 1999 in about 1500 species, ranging from primates to gut worms, and is well documented for 500 of them.[5][6] Homosexuality in animals is seen as controversial by social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans, while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate animal behavior to morality.[7][8] Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior. Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. The correct usage of the term homosexual is that an animal exhibits homosexual behavior, however this article conforms to the usage by modern research[9][10][11][12] applying the term homosexuality to all sexual behavior (copulation, genital stimulation, mating games and sexual display behavior) between animals of the same sex.

Contents

  • Selected images 1
  • Mammals 2
  • Birds 3
  • Fish 4
  • Reptiles 5
  • Amphibians 6
  • Insects 7
  • Other invertebrates 8
  • See also 9
  • Bibliography 10
  • References 11

Selected images

Three species of Cnemidophorus.

The all-female Whiptail lizard species Cnemidophorus neomexicanus (center), which reproduces via parthenogenesis, is shown flanked by two sexual species having males, C. inornatus (left) and C. tigris (right). Research has shown that simulated mating behavior increases fertility for Cnemidophorus neomexicanus. One female lies on top of another, playing the role of the male, the lizard that was on bottom has larger eggs. The lizards switch off this role each mating season.[13]

The head of a darner dragonfly (Basiaeschna janata).

Male homosexuality has been inferred in several species of dragonflies. A survey of damsel and dragonflies reveals characteristic cloacal pincher mating damage in 20–80 percent of the males, indicating a fairly high occurrence of sexual coupling between males.[14][15]

Mammals

Selected mammals from the full list

Birds

Selected birds from the full list

Fish

Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) leaping for a fly fisherman's bait. Research going back to the 1950s has shown both male and female graylings exhibit homosexual behavior.[47]


Reptiles

Amphibians

Insects

Male flour beetles are believed by scientists to engage in same-sex coupling to practice mating and to rid themselves of "old, less effective" sperm.[60]

Other invertebrates

See also

Bibliography

  • "'"Gay Penguins Resist 'Aversion Therapy. 365Gay.com. 11 February 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  • Bagemihl, Bruce (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press ISBN 0-312-19239-8
  • Caramagno, Thomas C (2002). Irreconcilable Differences? Intellectual Stalemate in the Gay Rights Debate; Praeger/Greenwood, ISBN 0275977218.
  • Cooper, J.B. "An Exploratory Study on African Lions" in Comparative Psychology Monographs 17:1-48.
  • Cziko, Gary (2000) The Things We Do: Using the Lessons of Bernard and Darwin to Understand the What, How, and Why of Our Behavior; MIT Press, ISBN 0262032775.
  • de Waal, Frans B. M. (2001) The Ape and The Sushi Master: Cultural Reflections by a Primatologist; Basic Books (chapter Bonobos and Fig Leaves).
  • Dunkle, S.W. (1991), "Head damage from mating attempts in dragonflies (Odonata:Anisoptera)". Entomological News 102, pp. 37-41. Retrieved on 16 June 2010.
  • Eaton, R. L. (1974). "The Biology and Social Behavior of Reproduction in the Lion" in Eaton, ed. The World's Cats, vol. II; pp.3-58; Seattle.
  • Forger, Nancy G., Laurence G. Frank, S. Marc Breedlove, Stephen E. Glickman (6 December 1998). "Sexual Dimorphism of Perineal Muscles and Motoneurons in Spotted Hyenas"; The Journal of Comparative Neurology, Volume 375, Issue 2 , Pages 333 - 343. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  • Goudarzi, Sara (16 November 2006). "Gay Animals Out of the Closet?: First-ever Museum Display Shows 51 Species Exhibiting Homosexuality". MSNBC. Retrieved on 12 September 2007.
  • Harrold, Max (16 February 1999). "Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity" The Advocate, reprinted in Highbeam Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 10 September 2007.
  • Holekamp, Kay E. (2003). Research: Spotted Hyena - Introduction and Overview. Michigan State University, Department of Zoology]. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  • Imaginova (2007). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - Japanese macaques"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Imaginova (2007b). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - American Bison"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Imaginova (2007c). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - Bottlenose Dolphins"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Imaginova (2007d). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - Giraffes"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Imaginova (2007e). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - Kob"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Imaginova (2007f). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - Black Swan"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Imaginova (2007g). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - Walrus"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Imaginova (2007h). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - Gray Whale"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Imaginova (2007i). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - Guianan-Cock-of-the-Rock"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Imaginova (2007j). "Gay Animals: Alternate Lifestyles in the Wild - Bonobo Chimpanzees"; LiveScience. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  • Kick, Russ (2001). You Are Being Lied to: The Disinformation Guide to Media Distortion, Historical Whitewashes and Cultural Myths. The Disinformation Company, ISBN 0966410076. Retrieved on 18 November 2007.
  • "The Science of Sex". 19 September 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-11-08. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  • Liggett, Dave; Columbus Zoo and Aquarium staff. "African Forest: Bonobo". Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. Archived from the original on June 2, 2002. Retrieved November 14, 2011. ...frequent sex (including male-to-male and female-to-female) characterize bonobo society. 
  • News-medical.net (23 October 2006). "1,500 Animal Species Practice Homosexuality" Retrieved on 10 September 2007.
  • Roselli, Charles E., Kay Larkin, John A. Resko, John N. Stellflug and Fred Stormshak (2004). "The Volume of a Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus in the Ovine Medial Preoptic Area/Anterior Hypothalamus Varies with Sexual Partner Preference". Endocrinology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health & Science University (C.E.R., K.L., J.A.R.), Portland, Oregon; Department of Animal Sciences, Oregon State University (F.S.), Corvallis, Oregon; and Agricultural Research Service, United States Sheep Experiment Station (J.N.S.), Dubois, Idaho, Vol. 145, No. 2. Retrieved on 10 September 2007.
  • Roughgarden, Joan (2004). Evolutions Rainbow: Diversity, Gender and Sexuality in Nature and People; University of California Press, Berkeley, pages p.13-183.
  • Schaller, G. B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion; University of Chicago Press.
  • Smith, Dinitia (7 February 2004). "Love That Dare Not Squeak Its Name" New York Times. Retrieved on 10 September 2007. Reprinted as "Central Park Zoo's Gay Penguins Ignite Debate", San Francisco Chronicle.
  • Solimeo, Luiz Sérgio (21 September 2004). "The Animal Homosexuality Myth" National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH). Retrieved on 10 September 2007.
  • Solimeo, Luiz Sérgio (2004). Defending A Higher Law: Why We Must Resist Same-Sex "Marriage" and the Homosexual Movement Spring Grove, Pennsylvania: The American TFP, ISBN 187790533X. Retrieved on 10 September 2007.
  • Sommer, Volker & Paul L. Vasey (2006). Homosexual Behaviour in Animals, An Evolutionary Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; ISBN-10: 0521864461.
  • Srivastav, Suvira (15 December-31 December 2001). "Lion, Without Lioness" Terragreen, News to Save the Earth. Retrieved on 2 September 2007.
  • Stein, Edward (1999) The Mismeasure of Desire: The Science, Theory, and Ethics of Sexual Orientation; Oxford University Press, US; ISBN 0195142446.
  • Tatarnic, Nikolai J., Gerasimos Cassis, Dieter F. Hochuli; 22 March 2006 "Traumatic insemination in the plant bug genus Coridromius Signoret (Heteroptera: Miridae)" Biology Letters Journal Volume 2, Number 1, pg 58-61: Royal Society Publishing; Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  • Terry, Jennifer (2000) "'Unnatural Acts' In Nature: The Scientific Fascination with Queer Animals"; GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies (6(2):151-193; OI:10.1215/10642684-6-2-151); Duke University Press.
  • Utzeri, C. & C. Belfiore (1990): "Anomalous tandems in Odonata". Fragmenta Entomologica 22(2), pp. 271-288. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  • Vasey, Paul L. (1995), "Homosexual Behaviour in Primates: A Review of Evidence and Theory"; International Journal of Primatology 16: p 173-204.
  • Wilson, Sexing the Hyena: "The males mount each other" University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  • Zimmer, Carl (2000); Parasite Rex: Inside the Bizarre World of Nature's Most Dangerous Creatures; Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0743213718. Retrieved 18 November 2007.


References

  1. ^ Smith (February 7, 2004)
  2. ^ Bagemihl (1999)
  3. ^ a b c News-medical.net (2006)
  4. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 213
  5. ^ Bagemihl (1999)
  6. ^ Harrold (1999)
  7. ^ Solimeo (2004)
  8. ^ Solimeo (2004b)
  9. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 122-166
  10. ^ Roughgarden (2004) pp.13-183
  11. ^ Vasey (1995) pages 173-204
  12. ^ Sommer & Vasey (2006)
  13. ^ LeVay, (19 September 2007)
  14. ^ Dunkle (1991)
  15. ^ Utzeri (1990)
  16. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 405
  17. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 441
  18. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 469
  19. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 388,389
  20. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 88
  21. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 89
  22. ^ de Waal (2001)
  23. ^ Liggett (1997–2006)
  24. ^ Imaginova (2007j)
  25. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 276–279
  26. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 339
  27. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 334
  28. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 310, 314
  29. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 427
  30. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 218, 231, 317
  31. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 391
  32. ^ Imaginova (2007d)
  33. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 165, 205, 226, 231
  34. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 432
  35. ^ Sell RL, Wells JA, Wypij D (June 1995). "The prevalence of homosexual behavior and attraction in the United States, the United Kingdom and France: results of national population-based samples". Archives of Sexual Behavior 24 (3): 235–48.  
  36. ^ Wellings, K., Field, J., Johnson, A., & Wadsworth, J. (1994). Sexual behavior in Britain: The national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. London, UK: Penguin Books.
  37. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 455-457
  38. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 448
  39. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 632-5
  40. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 83
  41. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 544-8
  42. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 621-6
  43. ^ 365 Gay.com (2005)
  44. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 491-5
  45. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 606-10
  46. ^ Mating Call (1979)
  47. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999), page 665
  48. ^ Bagemihl (1999), page 37
  49. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999), pages 658, 664
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Bagemihl (1999), page 658
  51. ^ Bagemihl (1999), page 664
  52. ^ Bagemihl (1999), pages 658, 665
  53. ^ Bagemihl (1999), pages 232, 233, 244
  54. ^ a b c d e f g Bagemihl (1999), page 657
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999), page 657, 658
  56. ^ Bagemihl (1999), pages 232, 664
  57. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999), pages 663–664
  58. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999), pages 657, 658
  59. ^ Bagemihl (1999), pages 243, 664
  60. ^ a b magazineOut, By The Numbers sourced to the Journal of Evolutionary Biology; February 2009. Accessed 2009-01-17.
  61. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999), page 666
  62. ^ Tatarnic1 et al., 22 March 2006
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 660
  64. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 667
  65. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 704, 713
  66. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999) pages 150, 232, 236, 246
  67. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 33–34, 196, 217, 219, 232
  68. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 668
  69. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 666
  70. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 595
  71. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 9, 649, 665
  72. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 658
  73. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 3
  74. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 232
  75. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 666, 660
  76. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 661–2
  77. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 661
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bagemihl (1999), pages 661–2
  79. ^ Bagemihl (1999), page 659
  80. ^ Bagemihl (1999), page 661
  81. ^ Zimmer (2000)
  82. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 657
  83. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 236, 704, 713
  84. ^ Bagemihl (1999), pages 668, 667
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