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List of apple cultivars

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Title: List of apple cultivars  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: List of Dutch inventions and discoveries, Geheimrat Dr. Oldenburg, Enterprise (apple), Malus sieversii, Cider apple
Collection: Apple Cultivars, Lists of Cultivars, Lists of Foods
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

List of apple cultivars

1909 illustrations by Alois Lunzer depicting apple cultivars Golden Sweet, Talmon Sweet, Bailey Sweet and Sweet Bough

Over 7,500 cultivars of the apple are known.[1] The following is a list of the more common and important cultivars, with the year and place of origin (where documented) and an indication of whether the apples are for cooking, eating, or making cider. Those varieties marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.


  • Table of apples 1
  • Cider apples 2
  • Rootstock cultivars 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6

Table of apples

Common name Image Origin First developed Comment Use
Adams Pearmain England 1826 A dessert apple. Similar flavour to Russet, first introduced under the name "Norfolk Pippin". Eating
Aia Ilu Estonia 1946 Apple is large in size, weighing 250–300 g. It is yellow, juicy, and bittersweet with a weak aroma. Eating
Airlie Red Flesh (Newell-Kimzey red flesh, Aerlie's Red Flesh) Oregon, US c. 1961 A large, conic apple. Light yellow-green skin strewn with white dots, occasionally with a faint red-orange blush. Light pink to deep red flesh is crisp, sweet and mildly tart. Eating
Akane Japan 1970 Jonathan × Worcester Pearmain. Tangy taste. Eating
Åkerö Sweden 15th century Apple is egg-shaped, medium to large in size, sweet and aromatic. Best in November, keeps well till February. Oldest cultivar in Northern Europe, grown mostly in Sweden and Estonia. Eating
Alkmene agm[2] Germany 1930 Cox's Orange Pippin × Doktor Oldenburg Eating
Allington Pippin Lincolnshire, UK 1880s A versatile English dessert apple raised by Bunyard Nursury in 1896. A cross of Cox's Orange Pippin and King of the Pippins. A small apple, aromatic, with a pineapple-like flavour, keeps its shape when cooked. Eating, Cooking, Dessert
Ambrosia British Columbia, Canada 1980s Medium to large in size, mostly red coloration with yellow patches. Has cream-coloured flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Ambrosia trees are hardy and no major disadvantages have yet been identified. Eating
Anna Israel 1965 Colour is yellow with a red blush. This variety does not grow well in the cold and prefers heat and humidity. Eating
Annurca Campania, Italy 1876 (documented) Very old apple; possibly one of the oldest of all. Believed to be older than first mention in Pasquale's Manuale di Arboricultura, 1876. Eating
Antonovka Kursk, Russia 17th century A very old Russian variety, often planted at dachas. Apples are large, yellow-green and bracingly tart to eat out of hand, but superb for cooking, as they keep their shape. Extremely tolerant of cold weather, and because it produces a single, deep taproot (unusual among apple trees), Antonovka is propagated for use as a rootstock. Antonovka rootstock provides a cold-hardy (to -45 °C), well-anchored, vigorous, standard-sized tree. Cooking, Cider
Apollo Cox’s Orange Pippin × Geheimrat Dr. Oldenburg Eating
Ariane Angers, France 2002 Scab resistant. Developed at the National Institute of Agricultural Research in France. Eating
Arkansas Black Arkansas, US c. 1870 Hard and crunchy; stores well. Very deep red, appearing black from a distance. Eating
Arthur Turner agm[3] England large golden cooker: prone to mildew but scab resistant Cooking
Ashmead's Kernel agm[4] England c. 1700 Small, very sweet and very tart. Eating
Aurora Golden Gala British Columbia, Canada 2003 Dessert apple; medium size, sweet, juicy, crisp, firm, very long storage life. Eating
Autumn Glory[5] Washington, US 2011 The Autumn Glory variety is a hybrid of the Fuji (apple) and the Golden Delicious apple, featuring a red over golden background. Very sweet, firm flesh with a subtle "cinnamon" flavour. Produced only by Domex Superfresh Growers in Washington's Yakima Valley. Eating
Bailey New York c. 1840 Red apple with considerable white flecks. Has some russeting. Eating
Baldwin Massachusetts, US c. 1740 Sweet to subacid flavour. Also known as "Woodpecker". Very old variety for North America. Makes lots of juice. Cooking, Eating
Ballyfatten County Tyrone, Northern Ireland c. 1740 A large, round apple with firm, dry, sweet, slightly tart white flesh. Excellent keeper. Scab and canker resistant. Cooking, Eating
Bardsey Island Apple Bardsey Island, Wales 1998 A medium-sized eating apple with a unique lemon aroma. Sweet and juicy. Skin color red over gold. Very disease resistant. Single tree discovered on Bardsey island in 1998, age of original tree unknown. May have monastic origins. Eating
Beacon Minnesota, US 1936 Lively, juicy flavour; good for baking. Does not keep very well. Cooking, Eating
Beauty of Bath England 1864 Deep red flush and streaks of red with a little russet. Early maturing but short season. Formerly grown commercially in England for local markets. Good flavour in its home climate if it is eaten soon after picking. Poor flavour if distributed long distances and stored for weeks, so now rare. Eating
Belle de Boskoop agm[6] Boskoop, Netherlands 1856 Bright red, fairly large, early in season (end of August to early September). Cooking (applesauce)
Ben Davis Southeastern US Noted for keeping well prior to refrigerated storage, but flavour has been compared with cork. Eating
Beverly Hills California, US 1997 Slightly tart flavour. Likes warm weather. Eating
Birgit Bonnier Sweden A cross between Cortland (apple) and Lord Lambourne.
Bismarck Victoria, Australia 1870 Medium-sized fruit with a green and red skin, sharp in flavour and not a common apple. Cooking
Blenheim Orange agm[7] England c. 1740 Has greenish-yellow to orange skin streaked with red. Distinctive nutty flavour excellent for cooking. The vigorous tree is slow to come into crop but then produces heavily. Cooking, Eating
Bloody Ploughman Carse of Gowrie, Scotland c. 1800 A medium-sized, very dark red, heavily ribbed apple. Crisp, mildly sweet white flesh, sometimes pink-streaked. It is reputed to have got its name from a ploughman who was caught stealing apples near Megginch Castle and was shot by the gamekeeper. His wife got the bag of apples and threw them on the compost heap where a seedling then grew and - voila - Bloody Ploughman. Eating
Bottle Greening Green Mountains, US c. 1800 Produces large fruit. Has thick skin, but juicy. Eating, Cider
Braeburn New Zealand 1952 Chance seedling. The fruit is widely sold commercially in the UK. Eating
Bramley (Bramley's Seedling) agm[8] Nottinghamshire, UK 1809 The fruit is the most widely sold cooker in the UK. Large sized fruits with waxy skin, green with a red flush. A favourite ingredient in many traditional British puddings.[9] Cooking
Bravo de Esmolfe Esmolfe, Penacova, Portugal 18th century A small, juicy and sweet apple, considered one of the best Portuguese apples Eating
Breedon Pippin England 1801 Sweet flavour. Originally raised by a parson in Berkshire. Rare. Eating
Brina Italy 1998 Resistant to scab. Spreading habit with intermediate vigour; full flowering season is medium-late, production is heavy, fruit is medium or medium-large, with smooth skin; white lenticels, no russet, excellent taste characteristics. Ripens first week of October (Trentino). Eating
Byfleet Seedling England
Calville Blanc d'hiver France 1598 Noted for unusual looks (somewhat lumpy on the side) but excellent reward when tried. Noted for having unusually high vitamin C content. Apple of choice for tarte tatin in France. Cooking
Cameo Washington State, US 1980s Existence owed to freak accidental crossing of two most popular apples in world: Red and Golden Delicious. Retains prongs on bottom of latter parent but has flavour more resembling Golden. Eating
Carolina Red June Tennessee, US c. 1810 Has unusual habit of blossoming twice, and producing two crops per year. Very popular Civil-War-era Southern apple. Does beautifully in humid weather. Good choice for backyard gardener in subtropical climate. Cooking, Eating
Carroll 1947 Ripens early. Eating
Carter's Blue Alabama, US 1840s Medium to large, roundish oblate; skin green or greenish yellow washed with dull red with darker red broken tripes, covered with a heavy bluish bloom. Crisp, juicy, sugary, aromatic, mild subacid. Foliage also has a blue hue. Ripens September and keeps until November. Once widely grown in the American South, then thought extinct. Reintroduced to America in 1994 after being discovered at the National Fruit Trust in Kent England, where it had been added in 1947 from a collection in Rhone, France, after it had been acquired around 1860 from the Fruitland Nursery in Augusta, Georgia.[10] Eating, Cooking
Champion, Shampion or Sampion Czech Republic circa 1960 A cross between Golden Delicious and a Cox Orange Pippin. Attractive colour. This tree bears attractive fruit, extra-large sized, deep red, juicy, and crisp. Keeps fresh for a long time. Starts bearing at a young age. Harvest time is October. Eating, Juice
Catshead England 1600s Sharp flavour. Lumpy shape and electric green colouring. Known to have been a variety planted in early Virginia by settlers as well as native England. Extremely rare in native UK; occasionally still found growing in southern US. Cooking
Charles Ross Berkshire, UK 1890s Has been an AGM winner. Orange to red. Best cooked early in season. Good flavour, and sweet when eaten later in season. Multi-purpose
Chelmsford Wonder Essex, UK c. 1870 A large long keeping yellow-skinned apple with diffuse orange pink flush. [1]. Still grown in Essex orchards including Lathcoats Farm Shop. Multi-purpose
Chiver's Delight Histon, Cambridgeshire, UK 1920s Medium to large oblate apple. Red flush over greenish yellow skin. Crisp, juicy, sweet white flesh. Flavour can be variable but at its best is very well balanced. Grown by Chivers (now a brand of Premier Foods) for apple sauce. Multi-purpose
Claygate Pearmain agm[11] UK Suitable for northerly, cold, wet climates: rich, nutty flavour Dessert
Clivia Germany Geheimrat Dr. Oldenburg × Cox's Orange Pippin Eating
Cornish Gilliflower Cornwall, UK 1813 Discovered as accidental seedling. Shy bearer. Eating
Cortland New York 1890s Pale crisp flesh. Ripens in October in state of origin. Classic red coloration, nice crunch. Eating
Court Pendu Plat France 1613 Extremely old variety, may date from as early as Roman times. Popular during the Victorian era. Yellow to light green, flushed with red. Eating
Cox's Orange Pippin England 1829 One of the most celebrated apples in the UK, valued for its aromatic "orange" colour and flavour. The fruit is widely sold commercially. Mainly grown in UK, Belgium and the Netherlands but also grown for export in New Zealand. Eating
Cripps Pink ('Pink Lady') Australia 1970s Crisp, very sweet and slightly tart. Light red, pink and light yellow-green striped skin. Cooking, Eating
Crispin Japan 1930 See Mutsu Eating
Crimson Gold California 1944 A golf ball sized applecrab hybrid developed by Albert Etter who named it Little Rosybloom for its cute size and attractive ruby red flush. He died before completing the patent papers. Fruit was later rediscovered and renamed. Very crispy and keeps texture in backing. Eating, Baking etc.
Criterion New York 1898 One of parents believed to be Ben Davis, but very tart unlike parent. Dark red skin underlaid with stripes. Cooking, Eating
D'Arcy Spice Tolleshunt D'Arcy, Essex, UK 1785 A medium-sized apple with yellow-green skin, a red blush where exposed to the sun and covered with an spotty ochre russet. White flesh is aromatic, firm and crisp with noticeable hints of anise and clove. Eating
Delblush France 1979 Tentation delblush
, Golden Delicious × Grifer
Delcorf agm[12] France 1960 Delbarestivale delcorf,
Golden Delicious × Stark Jonagrimes
Delfloga France 2008 Delbardivine delfloga,
Royal Gala Tenroy × Florina, scab resistant
Delflopion France Delbard Sampion × Florina, scab resistant Eating
Delrouval France 1995 Cybèle delrouval,
Delcorf × Akane
Deltana France 2010 Delbard Celeste deltana,
(Golden Delicious × Grive Rouge) × Florina, scab resistant
Devonshire Quarreden England, France? 1685 (documented) Possible French parentage or ancestry. Crimson red peel. Juicy. Eating
Discovery agm[13] Essex, UK 1949 Possibly from an open-pollinated Worcester Pearmain, or could well be a Worcester × Beauty of Bath. Sharp, sweet flavour. Fruits are sold commercially in the UK. Eating
Dorsett Golden Bahamas 1964 Grown from chance seedling of Golden Delicious. One of the most southerly apples grown in North America. Eating
Dougherty/Red Dougherty Australia, New Zealand Red Doughtery is a recent mutation discovered in New Zealand from the old Australian Doughtery Eating
Duchess of Oldenburg Russia 18th century Has red stripes with splashes of green. Excellent resistance to freezing temperatures. Cooking, Eating
Dudley Winter Castle Hill, Maine, US 19th century A medium-sized oblate apple with greenish-yellow skin covered with red stripes over a solid red blush. Flesh is firm but tender, juicy, aromatic and quite tart, becoming milder as it ages. Good for fresh eating and cooking; rated by many as one of the best for apple pies and sauces. Tree is a natural semi-dwarf, very hardy and bears heavily annually. Cooking, Eating
Dummellor's Seedling agm[14] also known as Dumelow's Seedling[15] Shackerstone, Leicestershire, UK 18th century Large, roundish-oblate apple with pale greenish-yellow skin strewn with large russet dots, occasionally covered with a delicate pinkish-orange blush. Yellow-tinted white flesh is aromatic, firm, crisp, tart, and very juicy. One of the most widely grown culinary apples of Victorian England, esteemed for its fine flavour and good keeping qualities. Cooking
Egle Lithuania Eating
Early Victoria Essex, UK 1899 (introduced) Possibly from Lord Grosvenor × Keswick Cod. Also called Emmeth Early. Ripens in late July. Pale yellow fruit. Eating
Edward VII agm[16] Worcestershire, UK 1908 (introduced) A large oblate-round apple with yellow-green skin and pinkish-brown blush. Suitable for more northerly, cold, wet climates. White flesh is sharp and pleasant. Extraordinary keeper; apple ripens in autumn and will keep until Easter. Possibly Blenheim Orange × Golden Noble. Cooking
Egremont Russet agm[17] Sussex, UK 1872 Brown russeting, nutty flavour. Excellent keeper. Eating
Ein Shemer Israel 1963 Zabidani × Golden Delicious. This variety ripens in June. Tastes tart, does not do well in cold weather. (Not the same as Anna (apple)) Eating
Ellison's Orange agm[18] Lincolnshire, UK 1911 Cox's Orange Pippin × Calville Blanc. Rich aniseed flavour. Eating
Elstar agm[19] Netherlands 1950s Golden Delicious × Ingrid Marie. Medium-sized, mostly red with yellow showing. Often used in desserts due to its intense honey flavour. Cooking, Eating
Emneth Early agm[20] UK Suitable for northerly, cold, wet climates. A biennial crop that needs thinning. Cooking
Empire New York 1966 Lovely white subacid flesh. Tangy taste. Ruby red colour. Eating
Enterprise Illinois, US 1993 Classic North American red apple. Stores well up to six months. Makes very good candy apple. Eating
Envy New Zealand 2009 Sweet and crispy, takes 4–8 hours after cutting to start browning. Royal Gala × Braeburn. Eating
Epicure UK 1909 Yellowish apple with reddish blush. Good clean taste. Eating
Esopus Spitzenburg Esopus, New York c. 1750 Grown by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. Named for creek near which first seedling found. Heirloom variety still available at farmstands in Northeast and portions of Virginia. Difficult to grow for inexperienced planters. Cooking, Eating
Flamenco UK 1950 - 1999 A columnar ornamental tree with delicious fruit Eating
Falstaff agm[21] UK A good pollinator. Dessert
Fiesta agm[22] Kent, UK 1972 Sometimes called Red Pippin. Claims both UK and US heritage: parents are Cox's Orange and Idared. Has flavour similar to the former but storage, colouring, and cold tolerance of the latter. Eating
Fireside Minnesota, United States 1943 Very fragrant. Yellow with red striping. Sweet apple, very popular in upper Midwest. EatingFiesta_Apfelsorte.JPG
Florina Anger, France (Querina), scab resistant Eating
Flower of Kent Kent, UK 18th century This is the variety that inspired Sir Isaac Newton to consider gravity. Eating
Fortune agm[23] (Laxton's Fortune) 1904 Cox's Orange Pippin × Wealthy Eating
Fuji Japan 1930s Red Delicious × Ralls Genet. Dark red, conic apple. Sweet, crisp, dense flesh is very mildly flavoured. Keeps very well. One of the most widely grown apple varieties in the world. Eating
Gala, Royal Gala agm[24] New Zealand 1970s A small to medium-sized conic apple. Thin, tannic skin is yellow-green with a red blush overlaid with reddish-orange streaks. Flesh is yellowish-white, crisp and grainy with a mild flavour. Cross of three of the world's best known apples: Kidd's Orange Red (a cross of Red Delicious and Cox's Orange Pippin) × Golden Delicious. One of the most widely available commercial fruit. Eating
Garden Royal Sudbury, Massachusetts, US 1800s A medium-sized roundish-oblate, sometimes slightly conical apple. Greenish-yellow skin is striped and splashed with bright red, dull or grayish toward the stem; dots few, light and gray; cavity deep, basin shallow, slightly uneven. Flesh yellow, very tender, juicy, rich, mildly subacid and aromatic. Poor keeper. Upright habit, productive bearer, some biennial tendency. Eating
Gascoyne's Scarlet Kent, England 1871 large red fruit Eating
Geheimrat Dr. Oldenburg Germany 1897 Created at the Höheren Lehranstalt für Obstbau of Geisenheim in the Rheingau; Minister von Hammerstein × Baumanns Renette. Eating
George Cave Essex, UK 1923 Pale green-yellow fruit with red flush. Early harvest. Eating
[25]agm Kent, UK 1904 Pale green to yellow colour, will keep nicely until late autumn. Cooking
Glockenapfel Switzerland 17th century A medium-sized green-yellow elongate bell-shaped apple, sometimes takes on a reddish blush. Tart and juicy, stores well, taste improves with age. Excellent culinary variety; renowned for its use in Strudel. Cooking, Eating
Gloster Germany 1969 Conical shape. Somewhat tart, ruby red colour like parent Red Delicious. Good choice for backyard gardening. Eating
Ginger Gold Virginia, US 1960s Tangy flavour, crunchy texture, pale green-yellow colour. Noted for being an extremely early bearer (Europe by September 1, California late July, Eastern US in August). Cooking, Eating
Golden Delicious agm[26] Clay County, West Virginia, US 1914 One of the most popular varieties in the world. Due to its regular size, even colour and storage qualities the fruit is widely sold commercially. Uniform light green-yellow coloration, very sweet. A good pollinator. Eating
Golden Noble agm[27] England 1820 Tree is short and stocky. Produces mint green fruit with blush of pink. Eating
Golden Orange Italy 1979
released 1996
PRI 1956-6 × Ed Gould Golden. Resistant to scab. Moderate vigour, spreading habit and medium-late blooming season; fruit is moderately large (207 g) and symmetric, skin is smooth, no russeting. Ripens some days after Golden Delicious; fruit is very attractive; large, good storage ability. Eating
Golden Russet New York 1845 (documented) A medium-sized heavily russeted light green apple, occasionally with a reddish blush. Crisp, fine-grained flesh is rich, sugary and very sweet. Excellent dessert apple, keeps very well. Makes extraordinary cider, known as the "Champagne of cider apples." Cider, Eating
Golden Spire Lancashire, UK 1850 An old Northern English variety. Unusually tall and oblong with a tart flavour. Cider, Eating
Golden Supreme Idaho, US 1960 Eating
Goldspur Eating
Gradirose Languedoc-Roussillon, France 2004 Created by Pépinières Grard. Early dessert apple with pink blush. Ripens in September and stores well. Very productive. Eating
Gragg (aka Red Gragg, Winter Queen) North Carolina, US 1860 Originated on the farm of James Gragg in Caldwell County, NC about 1860. Valued by North Carolina growers for its fine cooking qualities, crispness and long storage ability. The conical shaped fruit is red in colour with moderately conspicuous dots. Ripens in October and is a great keeper. Cooking, Eating
Granny Smith Australia 1868 This is the apple once used to represent Apple Records. A favourite variety, widely sold in the UK. Also noted as common pie apple. Lime green colouring. Extremely tart. Cooking, Eating
Gravenstein Gråsten, Jutland, Denmark 17th century A medium-sized early yellow-green apple, often with red stripes. Crisp, sweet, tart flavour. Exceptional cooking apple, especially for applesauce and pies. Poor keeper; becomes soft quickly. German immigrants introduced this variety to California's San Joaquin Valley in the mid-19th century. Has many sports. Cooking, Eating
Green Cheese North Carolina or Georgia, US 18th century A very old southern apple thought to have originated in North Carolina or Georgia but its true origin is uncertain. The fruit is medium to large, oblate to oblique in shape. The skin is deep green in colour, turning pale yellow when fully ripe. The yellowish flesh is sweet, crisp, tender and juicy. Eating
Greensleeves agm[28] Kent, UK 1966 Golden Delicious × James Grieve; good garden apple, with a pleasant but unexceptional flavour. Likely named for famous Renaissance era song. Eating
Grenadier agm[29] England 1862 (documented) Possibly one of the strangest of all British apples: it is ribbed and lumpy with a tough coat, looking as though it has taken a beating. Grenadier cooks down to cream-coloured puree with a superb apple flavour. Makes an excellent apple jam. Poor keeper. Reliably heavy annual bearer. Cooking
Grimes Golden Brooke County, West Virginia, US 1804 A medium-sized roundish to slightly oblong apple. Greenish-yellow skin, ripening to a clear yellow, stem cavity sometimes russeted, covered with yellow or russet dots. The yellowish-white flesh is crisp and tender, with a rich, spicy, sugary-sweet flavour. A good all-purpose dessert and cooking apple, Grimes also makes a strong single-variety cider. Excellent keeper. Grimes Golden is the parent of the ubiquitous Golden Delicious. Relatively rare among apples, Grimes Golden is self-fertile. Original tree discovered near a known orchard of John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed). Cider, Cooking, Eating
Haralson Minnesota, US 1923 Red colour and large, moderately conspicuous dots. Crisp and juicy with a tart flavour. Excellent choice for pies. Cooking, Eating
Harrison Cider Apple New Jersey, US 1770 Yellow skin, sometimes red-blush, black spots, small size, sweet, rich and dry. Cooking, Cider
Hawaii   1945 (introduced) Noted for pineapple-like taste. Eating
Heyer 12 Very cold-tolerant. Eating
Honeycrisp Minnesota, US 1960 Has excellent eating and keeping qualities. Mottled red and yellow colour. Very crisp white flesh is slightly tart with a strong honey-like sweetness. Quality varies from apple to apple. Developed by the University of Minnesota and best suited to cool climates. Eating
Honeygold Minnesota, US 1969 Sweet tasting fruit. Tree has very showy, light pink blossoms in spring. Eating
Howgate Wonder Isle of Wight, UK 1960 Usually a big apple. Makes a lot of juice. Cooking
Idared agm[30] Moscow, Idaho, US 1942 A medium-sized deep red apple. Crisp white flesh is tart and juicy, and can be somewhat bland if eaten out of hand, however, Idared is an exceptional cooking apple. Flesh keeps is shape, and the flavour becomes much stronger with cooking. An excellent keeping apple, Idared remains hardy and durable in proper storage for as long as 8 months. Idared is a cross between Jonathan and Wagener developed at the University of Idaho. Cooking
Irish Peach Kilkenny, Ireland 19th century Excellent for baking. Early harvest. More difficult to find within land of origin due to primary use for export to UK. Hardy, tastes very good straight off tree. Cooking, Eating
James Grieve agm[31] Edinburgh, Scotland 1893 Good taste, but poor keeper (bruises easily). Cooking, Eating
Jazz (Scifresh) New Zealand 2007 (launched) Bright red round apple with subtle yellow under-striping. Tart to sweet, dense and very crunchy with effervescent texture. From sweet Royal Gala × firm, tart Braeburn. Widely sold commercially in the UK. Eating
Jonagold agm[32] New York 1968 Popular in Europe and land of origin. Several highly coloured strains are available. Widely sold commercially in the UK. Eating, Cooking
Jonathan New York 1820s Tart taste. Mostly red apple with patches of lime green. Does well in cooler areas; some frost resistance. Cooking (Pie), Eating
Junaluska North Carolina, US c. 1815 Battle of Horseshoe Bend, believed to have planted original tree. Extremely russeted and ugly apple but very hardy tree with superior taste to commercial varieties. Cooking, Cider, Eating
Junami Switzerland c. 2010 A cross between Ideared and Maigold with Elstar. Beautifully round, fresh and fruity taste with a crunchy bite. Cooking, Eating
Jupiter agm[33] North Carolina, US c. 1815 A large, round, slightly conic apple. Light yellow-green skin with a red-orange blush and stripes. Strong apple flavour is well-balanced between sweet and sharp. Cross of Cox's Orange Pippin and Starking Delicious (a sport of Red Delicious), apple retains Cox's flavour, but tree is easier to grow. Eating
Kanzi (Nicoter) Belgium 1991 Gala × Braeburn. Crunchy, juicy, sweet, slightly tangier than Gala. Eating
Karmijn de Sonnaville Wageningen, Netherlands 1949 Yellow ground colour when ripe, with red flush, and russet depending on the season. Large apple, though shape can be irregular. Cooking (Apple Juice), Eating
Katy Sweden 1947 Medium-sized early eating apple with red skin and pale cream flesh. Well suited to Northern European climate. Eating
Kerry Pippin County Antrim, Ireland c. 1805 Pale to golden yellow flesh. Delightful spicy taste. Well suited to Ireland's moist, cool climate. Eating
Kidd's Orange Red agm[34] New Zealand 1924 Cox's Orange Pippin × Delicious. Yellow skin with orange red flush. Chewy rather than crunchy. Eating
King United States Eating
King of the Pippins agm[35] UK Suitable for more northerly (southerly in the Southern Hemisphere) areas with higher rainfall Eating, cooking
King Russet agm[36] UK Russetted form of 'King of the Pippins' Eating
Knobbed Russet Sussex, England 1819 Green and yellow, with rough and black russet. Unusually irregular, warty and knobbly surface. Cider, Eating
Lady Alice Washington, US 1978 Medium-sized, roundish oblate with thin yellow-green skin with an orange blush and bright red stripes. Crisp yellowish-white flesh is sweet with hints of honey and almond. Don Emmons purchased a neglected orchard of Red Delicious near Gleed, Washington, in 1978. While cultivating between trees, a disc from the plow hit the base of a tree. The injury caused a new shoot to grow from the rootstock (likely a seedling grown from a pip). The shoot was allowed to grow and bear fruit which Mr. Emmons named for his mother, Alice.[37]
Lane's Prince Albert agm[38] England 1841 Green with orange blush. Makes a good apple crumble for Christmas: peak ripening happens in winter. Cooking
Laxton's Epicure agm[39] UK Aromatic sweet fruit, tendency to biennial habit, bruises easily.
Laxton's Fortune See 'Fortune'
Laxton's Superb England 1897 Wyken Pippin × Cox's Orange Pippin. Classic old Victorian, British apple. Green with dull red flush. Firm texture, but not very good juice producer. Eating
Liberty New York 1978 Very disease-resistant. Very similar appearance to McIntosh, relatively short storage life in air. Eating
Limelight Kent, England 2000 Greensleeves type; abundant cropping and a compact tree. A pale green apple with a smooth finish and occasional pink blush. Crisp flesh and disease resistant tree. Eating
Liveland Raspberry apple Livland Governorate Old Eating
Lodi Ohio, US 1911 Fruit pale yellow flushed with deeper yellow. Resistant to scab. Tangy taste. Eating
Lord Derby Cheshire, England c. 1850 Yellowish green apple. Acid flavour, likes cooler weather. Cooking
Lord Lambourne agm[40] England 1921 James Grieve apple × Worcester Pearmain. Round shape. Orange flush with hint of russet. Strong acid flavour. Good for domestic cultivation. Eating
Macoun New York 1923 Cold-tolerant. Crunchy. Does very well in salads. Eating
Maiden's Blush Burlington, New Jersey, US 19th century A thin-skinned, flattened apple. Pale yellow-green skin has a telltale crimson blush on the side that faced the sun. White flesh is crisp with a sharp flavour that mellows with storage. Heavy annual bearer. Good cooker. Excellent variety for drying because the flesh remains white and bright. Cooking, Eating
Malinda Vermont, US 1860 Small, conical with sheep's nose; deep, rich yellow with red spots possible. Dry, dense, substantive flesh; mild, pear-like flavour. Tree good in climates with heavy snowfall. Cooking, Eating
Mantet Manitoba, Canada 1929 (introduced) Amber fruit washed with red. Summer apple. Does not do well in warm climates. Eating
Manks Codlin Isle of Man First fruited in 1815. Pale yellow medium-sized fruit with occasional flush of red. Hardy. Heavy producing. Cooking
Margil London 1750s Small, highly flavoured apple held in very high esteem by connoisseurs. Medium to small in size, slightly conical in shape, dull green skin with an orange-red blush, some russeting. The yellow flesh is firm, crisp, sugary, and as pomologist Robert Hogg said, "with a powerful and delicious aromatic flavour." The very small tree is weak and slender and bears light crops. Because it flowers early, it is susceptible to frost damage. It keeps well. Introduced to Brompton Park Nursury from Versailles by Henry Wise in the early 18th century. Eating
May Queen Worcester, England 1800s Large, oblate, often russetted yellow apple with bright red blush and stripes. Crisp, greenish-yellow flesh, rich, nutty flavour. Similar texture to Ribston Pippin, and in a good year, its equal in flavour. In bad years it can be rather dry and harsh. Excellent keeper. Heavy annual bearer. Eating
McIntosh Ontario, Canada 1811 A popular, cold-tolerant eating apple in North America. Cooking (applesauce), Eating
Melba Ontario Eating
Melrose Ohio, US 1944 Flavour improves in storage. Coarse flesh. Eating
Merton Charm agm UK Semi-weeping habit, heavy crops of small fruit unless thinned
Merton Worcester England 1956 Cox's Orange Pippin × Worcester Pearmain. Developed at John Innes Institute. Eating
Miller's Seedling Berkshire, England 1848 Sweet apple. Tree prefers chalky soils. Eating
Mollie's Delicious New Jersey, US 1966 Conical shape, pinkish red colour. Lasts long in refrigeration. Good aftertaste. Eating
Mother (American Mother) Massachusetts, US 1840 Medium-sized yellow apple with crimson stripes and darker red blush. White flesh is rich, sweet and juicy. The fruit has a balsamic aroma with a suggestion of vanilla. Cropping can be a bit irregular, if not completely biennial. A late flowering variety that avoids frost. Some resistance to scab. Eating
Muscadet de Dieppe Normandy, France c. 1750 Commonly used in making Calvados brandy. Cider
Mutsu Aomori Prefecture, Japan 1930 Known as "Crispin" in the UK. Golden Delicious × Indo. Eating
My Jewel Watsonville, California c. 1940[41] Originated as a chance seedling, a cross between Winter Banana and Golden Delicious.[42] Yellow colour. October harvest. Still used in cider blends by Martinelli's)[43] Eating, Cooking, Cider
Newell-Kimzey ( Airlie Red Flesh) Airlie, Oregon 1961 A medium to medium -large, conic apple. Light yellow-green skin with white dots, occasionally with red-orange blush on one side.Light pink to deep red flesh is crisp, sweet and moderately tart. Eating, pies
Newtown Pippin (Albemarle Pippin) Queens County, New York 1759 Best known colonial apple in North America. Known favourite of Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Medium to large, often irregularly shaped apple. Greenish-yellow, dotted, often russeted. Tough skin, flesh cream to greenish-white, very quickly browning. Texture is crisp, moderately fine-grained subacid to tart, sprightly. Biennial habit, slow to come into bearing. Good keeper, improves with storage. Prized for its clear juice in cider making. Two sports, Green Newtown Pippin and Yellow Newtown Pippin, differ only in skin colour. Cooking, Eating, Cider
Newton Wonder agm[44] England 1870s Very good cooker. Prolific bearer, can be harvested in winter. Cooking
Nickajack North Carolina, United States c. 1810 Native American origin, believed to be originally grown by Cherokee along banks of Nickajack Creek. Only grown in Appalachians, favourite of later settlers for desserts. Rusty red colour with sweet, crisp taste. Cooking, Eating
Norfolk Royal England c. 1850 Crisp, sharply sweet and well-flavoured. Available as a russet or smooth. Eating
Northern Spy New York c. 1800 Tart, firm, stores very well. Noted for being excellent choice for making American-style apple pie. Sometimes used as a rootstock. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Opal Czech Republic 1999 Firm, fine to medium grained, medium juicy, full flavoured, sweet, mild-subacid. Golden Delicious × Topaz.[45] Eating
Orin Japan 1952 Sweet and distinctive fragrance. Notes of pineapple. Medium hardness. Golden Delicious × Indo. Eating
Orleans Reinette Orleans, France 1776 Reliable bearer. Extraordinary complex flavour, similar to Blenheim Orange, but not related. Eating
Ozark Gold Missouri, US 1970 Light green with pink blush. Has taste with notes of honey. Eating
Pacific Rose New Zealand 1995 Extremely crisp, sweet apple. Also grows well in California. Eating
Pam's Delight Bedfordshire, England 1958 A medium-sized apple with a red blush. Flesh is crisp, juicy and sweet-tasting. Alfred Hull, a retired clerk planted some apple pips in pots which he placed on his bathroom windowsill. He planted the most vigorous in his garden. His daughter, Pam, teased her father by telling him that he should dig the tree up as it did not look as if it was capable of producing fruit. Unfortunately, Pam developed Hodgkin's Disease, and Alfred told her that if his tree, which had become a family joke, ever bore fruit she would be the recipient of the first apple. Seven years after he planted the pip, the tree produced its first blossom, and from that, a single apple. He proudly presented it to Pam that October. Sadly, her illness became more severe, and she died, at the age of 28 the following April, just as the tree blossomed fully for the first time. That year the tree produced twenty two pounds of apples. In 1968, Brogdale Farm accepted Pam's Delight for full commercial trials. Later that year it was included in the National Register.[46] As of 2011, Pam's Delight is available from East of England Apples and Orchard Group. Eating
Paula Red Kent County, Michigan, US 1960s Firm white flesh; McIntosh mutation. Eating
Peasgood's Nonsuch agm[47] England 1858 A very large yellowish-green apple, deepening to orange-yellow, flushed and striped red with some russet patches. Flesh is sweet and juicy. Good eating and superb for cooking. Large, hardy and heavy cropping tree. Apples can weigh up to half a kilogram, and are famously large enough to make a pie from a single apple. Cooking, Eating
Pink Pearl California, US 1944 Noted for having bright pink flesh. Sweet. Possibly has crab apple in its ancestry. Makes cider have a reddish tint if pressed. Eating
Pinova Germany 1986 Bred in Germany over an 18-year period. Marketed as "Piñata" in the United States. Fragrant smell, thin skin and balanced sweet and tart flavour profile. From Clivia × Golden Delicious. Cooking, Eating
Pitmaston Pineapple Moseley, Worcester, England 1785 Pitmaston Pineapple is a dessert apple known since 1785. Small oblong apples with a yellow-green russeted skin. Tender flesh is an intense nutty, honeyed flavour with, as the name suggests, tropical undertones and some balancing acidity. Trees are biennial but produce heavy crops in the 'on' year.
Pixie agm[48] England 1947 Resistant to scab and mildew. Very small apple. Eating
Pristine USA Resistant to most diseases Eating
Prima USA 1958 Resistant to scab and most diseases Eating
Porter's US Smallish, squat, deep golden yellow colour with red blush and firm, white, fine-grained aromatic sweet flesh. Eating, Cooking or Cider.
Pott's Seedling England Pale green to yellow colour and white flesh. Cooking
Pound Sweet Manchester, Connecticut, US 1834 Amber coloration. Used mostly for making apple butter. Russets. Does well in moderate cold. Suitable to areas with snowy winters. Cooking
Rajka Czech Republic Scab-resistant cross of Rezista × Rome Eating
Red Astrachan Russia c. 1800 Extremely resistant to frost. Cooking
Red Delicious Iowa, US c. 1870 Unmistakable for its acutely conic shape, dark red colour and telltale bumps on bottom. Flavour is sweet and mild, bordering on bland. Poor choice for cooking or cider. Original seedling known as "Hawkeye." Rights bought by Stark Brothers in 1893. First marketed as "Delicious" or "Stark's Delicious," name changed to "Red Delicious" in 1914 when Stark bought the rights to Mullin's Yellow Seedling, changing that apple's name to "Yellow Delicious". Red Delicious has many sports and ranks as the world's most prolific apple. Eating
Red Prince Weert, Netherlands 1994 Medium-sized, conic, uniform deep red skin. White flesh is crisp, sweet and juicy, with hints of cherry and almond. Excellent keeper. Chance seedling (a natural cross of Jonathan and Golden Delicious) discovered in 1994. Marketed throughout Europe, in 2001, Global Fruit in Ontario became exclusive growers of the variety in North America.[49] Eating, Cooking
Rev. W. Wilks England 1908 Pastel green with a light pink flush. Very disease-resistant. Cooking
Rhode Island Greening Newport, Rhode Island, US 1650s Extremely old variety for United States, second only to Roxbury Russet in age. Tartness can make eyes water. Grass-green colour with some possible russeting near stem. Occasional reddish pink blush Cider, Cooking
Ribston Pippin agm[50] Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, England 1708 An irregularly-shaped and sometimes lopsided apple, usually round to conical and flattened at the base with distinct ribbing. Skin is yellow with an orange blush and red streaked with russet dots. Yellow flesh is firm, fine-grained, and sweet with a pear-like flavour. The original Ribston Pippin sprouted in 1708 from one of three apple pips sent from Normandy to Sir Henry Goodricke of Ribston Hall at Knaresborough. The original tree stood until 1835. It then sent up a new shoot and, on the original roots, lived until 1928. Ribston Pippin is thought to be a parent of Cox's Orange Pippin. Eating
Rome Beauty Rome, Ohio, United States 19th century Rounded, deep red, and very glossy. Crisp, juicy white flesh is mild as a dessert apple, but develops an extraordinary depth and richness when cooked. Good keeper. Cooking
Rosemary Russet agm[51] UK Regular cropper. Fruit sweet and sharp, like 'Ashmead's Kernel'.
Roxbury Russet Massachusetts, United States c. 1640 First tree a chance seedling grown in Roxbury, Massachusetts, now a neighborhood of Boston. Oldest known variety of apple in America, planted by Pilgrim Fathers as foundation stock for Massachusetts Bay Colony. Knobbly, russetted coat gives green skin a bronze tinge and hides a cream coloured flesh. Excellent keeper; resistant to fireblight. Mild flavour. Multi-purpose apple that is a wonderful choice for pies, eating fresh, or cider. Still available in New England farmer's markets; commercial interest recently renewed in this cultivar because of its past use as a cider apple. Cooking (pies), Eating, Cider.
Royal Gala See Gala
Rubens (Civni) Italy 1985 Sweet and crunchy; Gala × Elstar. Eating
St. Edmund's Pippin agm[52] Suffolk, England 1870s Unusual in fact that it has scaly russet patches mixed with smooth. Has vanilla/pear taste. Usually a light yellow-green. Eating
Santana[53] Wageningen, Netherlands 1978 Scab resistant. Eating.
Saturn Kent, England 1980 Scab resistant. Eating.
Smokehouse Mill Creek, Pennsylvania, US 1837 A medium to small apple. Greenish-yellow with flushed red-orange stripes. The yellowish-white flesh is crisp and tender with a spicy-sweet flavour that tastes like cider. Excellent all-purpose apple. Unusual in that it also makes excellent cider. Seedling discovered growing next to the smokehouse on William Gibbons' farm in Mill Creek, PA. Bears fruit from young age. Eating, Cooking, Cider.
Snow apple (Fameuse) Quebec, Canada 17th century Tender, aromatic, distinct flavour. A parent of McIntosh. Cider, cooking, eating
Sonya New Zealand 2000 Cross between a Red Delicious and Gala. Coppery coloration. Crisp. Eating
Spartan British Columbia, Canada 1926 Good all-purpose, medium-sized apple. Has a bright red blush and may have background patches of greens and yellows. Popular across border in United States as well. Cooking, Eating
Splendour/Splendor New Zealand 1948 Descendant of Red Dougherty x Golden Delicious, ancestor of Pacific Rose and Aurora Golden Gala Eating
Stark Earliest US 1938 Does nicely in fruit salads. Red striping on light background. Ripens in summer. Eating
Stayman US 1866 Dullish red skin often covered with a light russet. Tart, wine-like flavour. Stores well. Particularly known for tangy cider. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Streifling Herbst Netherlands or Western Europe Sour sweet. Popular in Eastern Europe Eating, juice, jam, compote, dried
Sturmer Pippin Sturmer, Essex, England c. 1800 A medium-sized, bright greenish-yellow apple with a reddish-brown blush, often on one face only. White-fleshed and crisp. One of the best English keeping apples, with proper storage Sturmer Pippin lasts 4 to 5 months. Flavour is sprightly, more sharp than sweet when first picked, but improves dramatically in storage, becoming sweeter and richer, while maintaining its crisp texture. This keeping ability made it ideal for long journeys, as such, it was brought to Australia where it is still widely grown. Parent of Granny Smith. Eating
Summerfree Italy 1998 Resistant to scab. Spreading habit with moderate vigour, fruit is large, average weight of 175 g, skin is smooth, ripens 1–2 days before Gala, good storage ability. Eating
Sunset agm[54] England 1918 Easy to grow. Has very similar flavour to Cox's Orange Pippin. Won't do well in heat. Eating
Suntan agm[55] UK Fruits ripen orange-red, flavour is sharp and intense
Sweet Sixteen Minnesota, US 1973 Large fruit, some russeting near top. Moderately acidic taste. Eating
SweeTango Minnesota, US 2009 Juicy and sweet, and viewed as a successor to the Honeycrisp by many growers. Eating
Teser USA 1944 Resistant to scab. Eating
Tolman Sweet US 1822 Very sweet apple. Once used to make dried fruit for winter. Cider, Cooking
Tom Putt Trent, Dorset, England 18th century Small to medium, flat and irregularly shaped apple. Green, usually covered entirely with a bright red blush. Crisp, sharp flavour. An excellent cooker and ideal single-variety cider apple. Softens during storage. Tree is vigorous and precocious. Scab-resistant. Seedling found by a Rev. Tom Putt of Trent, Somerset, England in the late 1700s. Triploid. Cider, Cooking
Topaz Czech Republic 1990 Rubin × Vanda, scab-resistant, sharp flavour. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Twenty Ounce New York 1840 Huge: apple weighs over one pound, or nearly 500 g. Green overlaid with broad red striping. Excellent cooker. Nice juice qualities. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Tydeman's Early Worcester England 1929 Mclntosh × Worcester Pearmain. Crimson over yellow background colour. Eating
Tydeman's Late Orange England 1930 Good storage qualities, but loses fragrance with age. Eating
Wagener New York 1795 Antique American variety, known since Colonial times. Tree is scab-resistant. Green with red flush, crispy, subacid and sweet. Keeps very well. Very versatile in kitchen; not only does it cook well, but makes a good single-variety cider. Wagener is a parent of Idared, to which it imparts its keeping and cooking qualities. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Warner's King agm[56] Kent, England c. 1700 Oblong and light green. Very tart. Do not attempt to eat out of hand. Cooking
Westfield Seek-No-Further Westfield, Massachusetts, US 18th century A medium-sized conic to truncate-conic apple. Greenish-yellow, dull skin, flushed orange with carmine stripes, russet dots and patches. Shaded fruit are often irregularly russeted all over, with little colour showing. Flesh is light buttery-yellow, firm but tender, and moderately fine-grained. Flavour is nicely balanced, a honey-like sweetness balanced with a lemon-like citric acidity, rich, notes of pear and vanilla. Vigorous grower, some disease resistance. Eating
Wealthy Minnesota, US 1860 Cherry Red × Sops of Wine.

Pretty reddish pink coat. Believed at one time Minnesota was too cold to grow apples until "Wealthy" was cultivated. Now a parent to many apples for resistance to temperatures below freezing. Still available in upper Midwest.

White Transparent Latvia 1850 Very pale green skin with an almost white flesh, it is very sharp in taste. Fruit bruises easily and goes soft once harvested. Cooking
Winesap United States 1817 Sweet with tangy finish. Reddish blush flecked with some green. Cider, Eating
Winston (Winter King) agm[57] England c. 1935 Cox Orange × Worcester Pearmain. Originally called Winter King because of its extraordinary keeping ability, renamed during World War II for Winston Churchill.
Wijcik McIntosh British Columbia, Canada Mid 1960's Mutation of McIntosh apple that first showed columnar ornamental properties Eating, Cooking, Ornamental
Wolf River Wisconsin, US 1881 Apple very large, some growing to size of large grapefruit. Red with yellow blush. Once very popular commercial apple in United States but presently relegated to upper Midwest if grown for profit. Occasionally can be found growing wild in backcountry thickets or abandoned land in Shenandoah Valley. Named for area where found. Feral trees can be brought back with care and pruning. Cooking, Eating
Worcester Pearmain agm[58] Worcestershire, England 1873 Crisp and sweet strawberry flavour when ripe. Best if eaten early in season (September). Eating
Wyken Pippin England or Netherlands Old Small flattened golden apple with delicious flavor Eating
York Imperial agm[59] York, Pennsylvania, US 1820 Tart yet sweet, preserves well, lop-sided shape Cider, Cooking, Eating

Cider apples

Cider apples may be far too sour or bitter for fresh eating, but are used for making cider. Some apples (especially older ones from the U.S. and Canada) are used for both cider and eating purposes.

Gravenstein apples, used for cooking, dessert, and cider
Less common apple cultivars (among pear cultivars).
A range of modern apple cultivars
Common name Origin First developed
Baldwin Wilmington, Massachusetts, US c. 1740
Brown Snout Herefordshire, England c. 1850
Dabinett Somerset, England late 19th century
Dymock Red Gloucestershire, England
Foxwhelp Gloucestershire, England c. 1600
Hagloe Crab
Hangdown Somerset
Kingston Black Near Taunton, Somerset, England late 19th century
Newtown Pippin Queens County, New York, US c. 1750
Redstreak Herefordshire, England c. 1630
Roxbury Russet Massachusetts, US c. 1640s
Slack-ma-Girdle Devon, England 18th century
Stoke Red Rodney Stoke, Somerset, England early 20th century
Styre Forest of Dean before 1600
Tremlett's Bitter Exe Valley, UK c. 1820
Vista Bella Rutgers University, US 1944
Winesap US c. 1817
Yeovil Sour Yeovil, Somerset c. 1824

Rootstock cultivars

Selection of rootstock cultivars can be difficult: vigorous roots tend to give trees that are healthy but grow too tall to be harvested easily without careful pruning, while dwarfing rootstocks result in small trees that are easy to harvest from, but are often shorter-lived and sometimes less healthy. Most modern commercial orchards use one of the "Malling series" (aka 'M' series), introduced or developed by the East Malling Research Station from the early 20th century onward. However, a great deal of work has been done recently introducing new rootstocks in Poland, the U.S. (Geneva), and other nations. The Polish rootstocks are often used where cold hardiness is needed. The Geneva series of rootstocks has been developed to resist important diseases such as fireblight and collar rot, as well as for high fruit productivity.

See also


  1. ^ Elzebroek, A.T.G.; Wind, K. (2008). Guide to Cultivated Plants. Wallingford: CAB International. p. 27.  
  2. ^ "' 'AlkmeneMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  3. ^ "' 'Arthur TurnerMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "' 'Ashmead's KernelMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  5. ^
  6. ^ "' 'Belle de BoskoopMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  7. ^ "' 'Blenhein OrangeMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  8. ^ "' 'BramleyMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ Calhoun, Creighton Lee, Jr. "Old Southern Apples", Blacksburg, Virginia 1995, MacDonald and Woodward, (ISBN 9-780939-923373), page 59
  11. ^ "' 'Claygate PearmainMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "' 'DelcorfMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  13. ^ "' 'DiscoveryMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "' 'Dummellor's SeedlingMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  15. ^
  16. ^ "' 'Edward VIIMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  17. ^ "' 'Egremont RussetMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  18. ^ "' 'Ellison's OrangeMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  19. ^ "' 'ElstarMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  20. ^ "' 'Emneth EarlyMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  21. ^ "' 'FalstaffMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  22. ^ "' 'FiestaMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  23. ^ "' 'FortuneMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  24. ^
  25. ^ "' 'George NealMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  26. ^ "' 'Golden DeliciousMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  27. ^ "' 'Golden NobleMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  28. ^ "' 'GreensleevesMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  29. ^ "' 'GrenadierMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  30. ^ "' 'IdaredMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  31. ^ "' 'James GrieveMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  32. ^ "' 'JonagoldMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  33. ^ "' 'JupiterMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  34. ^ "' 'Kidd's Orange RedMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  35. ^ "' 'King of the PippinsMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  36. ^ "' 'King RussetMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  37. ^ Story of Lady Alice
  38. ^ "' 'Lane's Prince AlbertMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  39. ^ "' 'Laxton's EpicureMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  40. ^ "' 'Lord LambourneMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  41. ^ [3]
  42. ^ [4]
  43. ^ [Santa Cruz Sentinel, June 27, 2006: "Life changes after encounter with fairy-tale horses"]
  44. ^ "' 'Newton WonderMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  45. ^ Opal
  46. ^ Story of Pam's Delight
  47. ^ "' 'Peasgood NonesuchMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  48. ^ "' 'PixieMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  49. ^ Red Prince apples
  50. ^ "' 'Ribston PippinMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  51. ^ "' 'Rosemary RussetMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  52. ^ "' 'St Edmund's PippinMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  53. ^ "' 'SantanaMalus domesticaSantana details "RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  54. ^ "' 'SunsetMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  55. ^ "' 'SuntanMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  56. ^ "' 'Warner's KingMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  57. ^ "' 'WinstonMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  58. ^ "' 'Worcester PearmainMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  59. ^ "' 'York ImperialMalus domestica"RHS Plant Selector - . Retrieved 26 May 2013. 

Khanizadeh, S. and J. Cousineau. 1998. "Our Apples/ Les Pommiers de Chez Nous", A Description of Over 250 Apple Cultivars Grown in Eastern and Central Canada Including 400 Coloured Photographs of the Fruits, Flowers and Leaves. Publisher Shahrokh Khanizadeh, 260 p. Ed: S. Khanizadeh. ISBN 0-660-60543-0.

Further reading

'Granny Smith', an apple cultivar

Two of the most comprehensive publications on apple cultivars are: Khanizadeh, S. and J. Cousineau. 1998. "Our Apples/ Les Pommiers de Chez Nous", A Description of Over 250 Apple Cultivars Grown in Eastern and Central Canada Including 400 Coloured Photographs of the Fruits, Flowers and Leaves. Publisher Shahrokh Khanizadeh, 260 p. Ed: S. Khanizadeh. ISBN 0-660-60543-0.

  • The New Book of Apples (ISBN 0-09-188398-9) by Dr Joan Morgan of The National Fruit Collection and Alison Richards.
  • Directory of Apple Cultivars (ISBN 1-874275-40-8) by Martin Crawford of The Agroforestry Research Trust
  • For Cider apples - "Cider Apples, The New Pomona" [ISBN 978.0.9568994.2.2] by Liz Copas
  • Apples (ISBN 0-393-03690-1) by Roger Yepsen. Text of apple history and descriptions with full-color watercolor illustrations of 90 apple varieties by Yepsen. W.W. Norton and Company, New York and London.
  • "Old Southern Apples" (ISBN 9-780939-923373) by Creighton Lee Calhoun, Jr.
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