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List of chicken breeds

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List of chicken breeds

Twenty-nine varieties of chicken (and one Guinea Fowl).

There are hundreds of chicken breeds in existence.[1] Domesticated for thousands of years, distinguishable breeds of chicken have been present since the combined factors of geographical isolation and selection for desired characteristics created regional types with distinct physical and behavioral traits passed on to their offspring.[2]

The physical traits used to distinguish chicken breeds are size, plumage color, comb type, skin color, number of toes, amount of feathering, egg color, and place of origin.[1] They are also roughly divided by primary use, whether for eggs, meat, or ornamental purposes, and with some considered to be dual-purpose.[1]

In the 21st century, chickens are frequently bred according to predetermined British Poultry Standard, which is still in publication today.[3][4] Other standards include the Standard of Perfection, the Australian Poultry Standard, and the standard of the American Bantam Association, which deals exclusively with bantam fowl.[4] Only some of the known breeds are included in these publications, and only those breeds are eligible to be shown competitively. There are additionally a few hybrid strains which are common in the poultry world, especially in large poultry farms. These types are first generation crosses of true breeds. Hybrids do not reliably pass on their features to their offspring, but are highly valued for their producing abilities.[1]

By place of origin

Afghanistan

Albania

Australia

The Australorp, an Australian breed

Austria

Belgium

The d'Everberg, a Belgian ornamental bantam

Bulgaria

Black Shumen cock

Canada

Chile

China

A Silkie hen

Croatia

  • Hrvatica (Croatian Hen, Kokoš Hrvatica)[9][10]

Cuba

Cubalaya cock

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Egypt

Finland

  • Alho[5][14]
  • Finnish Landrace chicken (Finnish chicken)[15][16]
  • Häme[5][14]
  • Hornio[5][14]
  • Iitti[5][14]
  • Ilmajoki[5][14]
  • Jalasjärvi[14]
  • Jussila[5][14]
  • Kiuruvesi[5][14]
  • Lindellin[5][14]
  • Luumäki[5][14]
  • Piikkiö[5][14]
  • Savitaipale[5][14]
  • Tyrnävä[5][14]

France

Germany

The longtailed Phoenix, a German breed derived from the Japanese Onagadori

Large breeds

Bantams

Greece

Iceland

India

The Aseel, a fighting breed

Indonesia

Sumatra cock
  • Kedu (nationally standardized)
  • Pelung (long-crower, locally standardized)

Iran

The Orloff, an Iranian breed

Italy

Leghorn hen

Japan

Korea

Kosovo

Malaysia

Marianas

Myanmar

Netherlands

The Barnevelder

Norway

Pakistan

Philippines

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Naked-neck

Russia

Serbia

Slovakia

South Africa

Spain

A Minorca rooster

Sweden

Switzerland

The Appenzeller, a rare Swiss crested breed

Thailand

Turkey

The Sultan, a Turkish breed

Ukraine

United Kingdom

A Buff Orpington cock

United States of America

Vietnam

  • Ga Ac[5]
  • Ga Choi[5]
  • Ga Dong Tao[5]
  • Gà Hồ[5]
  • Ga Mia[5]
  • Ga Mong[5]
  • Ga Noi
  • Ga Ri[5]
  • Ga Tau Vang[5]
  • Ca To[5]
  • Ga Tre[5]
  • H'mong[5]
  • Oke[5]
  • Phu lu Te[5]
  • Te[5]
  • Tien Yen[5]
  • Vanphu[5]

By primary use

All chickens lay eggs, have edible meat, and possess a unique appearance. However, distinct breeds are the result of selective breeding to emphasize certain traits. Any breed may technically be used for general agricultural purposes, and all breeds are shown to some degree. But each chicken breed is known for a primary use.

Eggs

An Araucana

Many breeds were selected and are used primarily for producing eggs, these are mostly light-weight birds whose hens do not go broody often.

Meat

Most farms and homesteads use dual-purpose breeds for meat production. Some breeds are raised mainly for meat:

Dual-purpose

Barred Plymouth Rock, a dual-purpose breed

The generalist breeds used in barnyards the world over are adaptable utility birds good at producing both meat and eggs. Though some may be slightly better for one of these purposes, they are usually called dual-purpose breeds.

Exhibition

Since the 19th century, poultry fancy, the breeding and competitive exhibition of poultry as a hobby, has grown to be a huge influence on chicken breeds. Many breeds have always been kept for ornamental purposes, and others have been shifted from their original use to become first and foremost exhibition fowl, even if they may retain some inherent utility. Since the sport of cockfighting has been outlawed in the developed world, most breeds first developed for this purpose, called game fowl, are now seen principally in the show ring rather than the cock pit as fighting cocks.

Modern Game Fowl

Bantams

Golden Sebright cockerel

Most large chicken breeds have a bantam counterpart, sometimes referred to as a miniature. Miniatures are usually one-fifth to one-quarter the size of the standard breed, but they are expected to exhibit all of the standard breed's characteristics. A true bantam has no large counterpart, and is naturally small. The true bantams include:

Cross-breeds

See also Category:Chicken hybrids

Many common strains of cross-bred chickens exist, but none breed true or are recognized by poultry breed standards. Thus, though they are extremely common in flocks focusing on high productivity, cross-breeds do not technically meet the definition of a breed. Most cross-breed strains are sex linked, allowing for easy chick sexing.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d (Ekarius 2007, p. 23)
  2. ^ (Heinrichs 2007, pp. 20–21)
  3. ^ a b (Ekarius 2007)
  4. ^ a b (Heinrichs 2007)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg Domestic Animal Diversity Information System. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed January 2012.
  6. ^ "Altsteirer". Feathersite.com.  Accessed January 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Grandes volailles (in French) Association pour la Promotion des Animaux de Basse-cour Belges. Accessed January 2012. "Large poultry breeds"
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Volailles naines (in French) Association pour la Promotion des Animaux de Basse-cour Belges. Accessed January 2012. "Dwarf poultry breeds"
  9. ^ "Croatian Hen". Feathersite.com.  Accessed January 2012.
  10. ^ http://www.rfp-europe.org/fileadmin/SITE_ERFP/country_reports/Crotia/CR_Croatia_2009.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.eaap.org/Previous_Annual_Meetings/2009Barcelona/Papers/01_Gardianova.pdf
  12. ^ "Biodiversity in the CR/animals genetic resources". Enrin.grida.no.  Accessed January 2012.
  13. ^ a b "Czech chicken breeds".  Accessed January 2012.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Nikkonen, Terhi (2011) Finnish AnGR conservation programme: What and how? MTT Agrifood Research Finland. Accessed January 2012.
  15. ^ "Finnish Chickens". Feathersite.com.  Accessed January 2012.
  16. ^ "Finnish National Animal Genetic Resources Program / Each country's work / Nordic conservation work / InnehĂĽll / Farm Animals / NordGens webbplats - Nordic Genetic Resource Center". Nordgen.org.  Accessed January 2012.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao French fowl Fédération française des volailles. Accessed January 2012.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Hühner 2011 (in German) Bund Deutscher Rassegeflügelzüchter e.V. Accessed January 2012. "Chickens 2011"
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce Listing of European Poultry Breeds and Colours, 2013, entente-ee.com
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Zwerghühner 2011 (in German) Bund Deutscher Rassegeflügelzüchter e.V. Accessed January 2012. "Dwarf chickens 2011"
  21. ^ "Arca-Net". Arca-net.info.  Accessed January 2012.
  22. ^ "Arca-Net". Arca-net.info.  Accessed January 2012.
  23. ^ "Arca-Net". Arca-net.info.  Accessed January 2012.
  24. ^ "Arca-Net". Arca-net.info.  Accessed January 2012.
  25. ^ "Arca-Net". Arca-net.info.  Accessed January 2012.
  26. ^ "Arca-Net". Arca-net.info.  Accessed January 2012.
  27. ^ "Arca-Net". Arca-net.info.  Accessed January 2012.
  28. ^ (Percy 2006, p. 17)
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Atlante delle razze * di polli (in Italian) Accessed January 2012. "Atlas of chicken breeds"
  30. ^ "Kosova Long Crowing Rooster". Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Hoenders en dwerghoenders (in Dutch) Nederlandse Bond van Hoender, Dwerghoender, Sier- en Watervogelhouders. Accessed January 2012. "Chickens and dwarf chickens".
  32. ^ a b c d e Breeds reported by Philippines: Chicken. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed June 2014.
  33. ^ a b c d e Feleciano R. Bejar, Manuel J. Baylon, Jaime B. Fabillar, Lagrito Ebert B. Mante, Arturo A. Ultra, Reynaldo R. Aquino, Elvie T. Bejar (2012). Management Practices and Morphological Characterization of Indigenous (Native) Chickens in Samar Province. Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture: Agriculture & Development Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-3.
  34. ^ a b c d Aves (in Portuguese) Associação dos Criadores de Bovinos de Raça Barrosã. Accessed January 2012. "Birds"
  35. ^ Banatski gološijan standard (in Serbian) Udruzenje za zastitu i odgoj sitnih zivotinja Sremska Mitrovica. Accessed January 2012.
  36. ^ Svrljig Kokos Balkan Network for Agrobiodiversity. Accessed January 2012.
  37. ^ a b c Agricultural Research Council - The indigenous poultry breeds of SA
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ganaderia: Catálogo Oficial de Razas de Ganado de España (in Spanish) Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. Accessed January 2012 (click Razas, then Catálogo Oficial de razas). "Breeding: official catalogue of agricultural breeds in Spain".
  39. ^ "Pradu Hang Dam Chiangmai". Poultry Research and Development Section, Bureau of Animal Husbandry and Genetic Improvement, Department of Livestock Development, Thailand. 
  40. ^ "Denizli Rooster". Kultur.Gov.Tr. Department of Culture and Tourism, Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 

References

  • Ekarius, Carol (2007). Storey's Illustrated Guide to Poultry Breeds. 210 MAS MoCA Way, North Adams MA 01247: Storey Publishing.  
  • Heinrichs, Christine (2007). How To Raise Chickens. Voyageur Press.  
  • Percy, Pam (2006). The Field Guide to Chickens. Suite 200, 380 Jackson St, St Paul MN 55101: Voyageur Press.  
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