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List of plants used in herbalism

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Title: List of plants used in herbalism  
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List of plants used in herbalism

The Chelsea Physic Garden has cultivated medicinal plants since 1673. The plant shown here is montbretia (crocosmia aurea), used as a remedy for dysentery.

This is a list of plants that have been used as herbal medicine. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases. At least 12,000 such compounds have been isolated so far; a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total.[1][2] These phytochemicals are divided into (1) primary metabolites such as sugars and fats, which are found in all plants; and (2) secondary metabolites – compounds which are found in a smaller range of plants, serving a more specific function.[3] For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination. It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove.[3] Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs; thus herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work. This enables herbal medicines to be as effective as conventional medicines, but also gives them the same potential to cause harmful side effects.[1][2]

In Europe, apothecaries stocked herbal ingredients for their medicines. In the Latin names for plants created by Linnaeus, the word officinalis indicates that a plant was used in this way. For example, the marsh mallow has the classification Althaea officinalis, as it was traditionally used as an emollient to soothe ulcers.[4] Ayurvedic medicine, herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are other examples of medical practices that incorporate medical uses of plants. Pharmacognosy is the branch of modern medicine about medicines from plant sources. Plants included here are those that have been or are being used medicinally, in at least one such medicinal tradition.

Modern medicine now tends to use the active ingredients of plants rather than the whole plants. The phytochemicals may be synthesized, compounded or otherwise transformed to make pharmaceuticals. Examples of such derivatives include Digoxin, from digitalis; capsaicine, from chili; and aspirin, which is chemically related to the salicylic acid found in white willow. The opium poppy continues to be a major industrial source of opiates, including morphine. Few traditional remedies, however, have translated into modern drugs, although there is continuing research into the efficacy and possible adaptation of traditional herbal treatments.

A

Aloe vera

B

C

Chili peppers

D

Dandelion flower

E

F

G

Garlic bulbs

H

J

K

  • Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Kratom is known to prevent or delay withdrawal symptoms in an opioid-dependent individual, and it is often used to mitigate cravings thereafter. It can also be used for other medicinal purposes. Kratom has been traditionally used in regions such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.
  • Kanna (Sceletium tortuosum) African treatment for depression. Suggested to be an SSRI or have similar effects, but unknown mechanism of activity.

L

Lavender blossoms

M

N

O

  • Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the plant source of morphine, used for pain relief. Morphine made from the refined and modified sap is used for pain control in terminally ill patients. Dried sap was used as a traditional medicine until the 19th century.
  • Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Used as an abortifacient in folk medicine in some parts of Bolivia and other northwestern South American countries, though no evidence of efficacy exists in Western medicine. Hippocrates used oregano as an antiseptic, as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. A Cretan oregano (O. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece as a palliative for sore throat. Evidence of efficacy in this matter is lacking.

P

  • Passion Flower (Passiflora) - Thought to have Anti-depressant properties. Unknown MOA. Used in traditional medicine to aid with sleep or depression.

R

S

  • Syrian Rue (aka Harmal) (Peganum harmala) - MAOI. Can be used as an antidepressant, but carries significant risk. Used in traditional shamanistic rites in the amazon, and is a component of Ayahuasca, Caapi or Yajé (which is actually usually Banisteriopsis caapi but has the same active alkaloids).
  • Summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extracts show antibacterial and antifungal effects on several species including some of the antibiotic resistant strains.[111][112][113]

T

U

Valerian flowers

V

W

X

Xanthoparmelia scabrosa is a lichen used for sexual dysfunction.[135]

Y

Databases

  • Elizabeth M. Manhã, Maria C. Silva, Maria G. C. Alves, Maurício B. Almeida, Maria G. L. Brandão (October 3, 2008). "PLANT - A bibliographic database about medicinal plants". Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  • James Duke. "Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases". Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  • "Protabase: Useful Plants of Tropical Africa". Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  • "Tropical Plant Database". Raintree. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  • "Plant Database".  
  • "Vitamins & Supplements Center". WebMD. Retrieved 2015-04-06. 

See also

Notes

  • ^ Digitalis use in the United States is controlled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and can only be prescribed by a physician. Misuse can cause death.
  • This encyclopedia is not a substitute for medical advice nor a complete description of these herbs, their dangers (up to and including death), and their (in)compatibility with alcohol or other drugs.

References

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  7. ^ "Alfalfa".  
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  21. ^ "Bilberry".  
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  26. ^ "Black cohosh".  
  27. ^ "Blessed thistle".  
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  38. ^ "Chamomille".  
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  41. ^ "Chasteberry".  
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  44. ^ "Clove".  
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  49. ^ "Cranberry".  
  50. ^ "Dandelion".  
  51. ^ Arthur C. Gibson. "The Lifesaving Foxglove". Economic Botany Manual. 
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  53. ^ "Dong quai (Angelica sinensis [Oliv.] Diels)". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  54. ^ "European Elderberry".  
  55. ^ "Ephedra". Health Notes. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  56. ^ "Ephedra". National Institute of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved 2010-10-06. 
  57. ^ "Eucalyptus". Health Notes. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  58. ^ "Eucalyptus spp.". Medicinal Plants for Livestock.  
  59. ^ "Mistletoe".  
  60. ^ "Evening primrose oil".  
  61. ^ "Fenugreek".  
  62. ^ "Feverfew".  
  63. ^ "Flaxseed".  
  64. ^ Nicole Johnston (April 2002). "Garlic: a natural antibiotic". Modern Drug Discovery 5 (4). 
  65. ^ Cai, Yun; Wang, Rui; Pei, Fei; Liang, Bei-Bei (2007). "Antibacterial Activity of Allicin Alone and in Combination with β-Lactams against Staphylococcus spp. And Pseudomonas aeruginosa". The Journal of Antibiotics 60 (5): 335–8.  
  66. ^ Eja, ME; Asikong, BE; Abriba, C; Arikpo, GE; Anwan, EE; Enyi-Idoh, KH (2007). "A comparative assessment of the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and antibiotics on diarrheagenic organisms". The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 38 (2): 343–8.  
  67. ^ Tessema, B; Mulu, A; Kassu, A; Yismaw, G (2006). "An in vitro assessment of the antibacterial effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on bacterial isolates from wound infections". Ethiopian Medical Journal 44 (4): 385–9.  
  68. ^ Rahman, K; Lowe, GM (2006). "Garlic and cardiovascular disease: A critical review". The Journal of Nutrition 136 (3 Suppl): 736S–740S.  
  69. ^ Gardner, C. D.; Lawson, L. D.; Block, E.; Chatterjee, L. M.; Kiazand, A.; Balise, R. R.; Kraemer, H. C. (2007). "Effect of Raw Garlic vs Commercial Garlic Supplements on Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Adults with Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial". Archives of Internal Medicine 167 (4): 346–53.  
  70. ^ "Ginger quells nausea from chemotherapy". CBCNews.ca. May 15, 2009. 
  71. ^ "Gingko".  
  72. ^ Dónal O'Mathúna and Walt Larimore (2001). Alternative Medicine: The Christian Handbook. Zondervan. pp. 371–372.  
  73. ^ "Goldenseal".  
  74. ^ "Grape seed".  
  75. ^ "Guava". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  76. ^ J. Hawrelak (2003). "Medicinal herb monograph: Guava". J Aust Tradit-Med Soc (9): 25–29. 
  77. ^ "Acacia". WebMD. Retrieved 2015-04-06. 
  78. ^ "Hawthorn".  
  79. ^ Maji, HS; Banerjee, D; Maji, S (April 2014). "Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Lawsonia Inermis". PharmaTutor 2 (4): 133–136. 
  80. ^ Alia, BH; AK, Bashir; MOM, Tanira. "Anti-Inflammatory, Antipyretic, and Analgesic Effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) in Rats". International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 51 (6). Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  81. ^ "Hoodia".  
  82. ^ "Horse chestnut".  
  83. ^ "Horsetail". Encyclopedia of Health. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  84. ^ "Jamaica dogwood". WebMD. Retrieved 2013-08-26. 
  85. ^ Costello, Christopher H.; Butler, Calvin L. (2006). "An investigation of Piscidia erythrina (Jamaica dogwood)". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 37 (3): 89–97.  
  86. ^ "Kava".  
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  89. ^ Keithley, J; Swanson, B (2005). "Glucomannan and obesity: A critical review". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 11 (6): 30–4.  
  90. ^ Marzio, L; Del Bianco, R; Donne, MD; Pieramico, O; Cuccurullo, F (1989). "Mouth-to-cecum transit time in patients affected by chronic constipation: Effect of glucomannan". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 84 (8): 888–91.  
  91. ^ Chen, HL; Sheu, WH; Tai, TS; Liaw, YP; Chen, YC (2003). "Konjac supplement alleviated hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic subjects—a randomized double-blind trial". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 22 (1): 36–42.  
  92. ^ "Lavender".  
  93. ^ Antonio Imbesi, Anna de Pascuale (2002). "Citrus species and their essential oils in traditional medicine". In Giovanni Dugo, Angelo Di Giacomo. Citrus: the genus citrus. CRC Press. pp. 577ff.  
  94. ^ "Licorice root".  
  95. ^ "Sacred Lotus". Drugs.com. 
  96. ^ "Calendula: Herbal Remedies". Discovery Fit & Health. 
  97. ^ .  
  98. ^ S. Ganguli (June 10, 2002). "Neem: A therapeutic for all seasons" (PDF). Current Science 82 (11). 
  99. ^ "Noni".  
  100. ^ Gurung, S; Skalko-Basnet, N (2009). "Wound healing properties of Carica papaya latex: In vivo evaluation in mice burn model". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 121 (2): 338–41.  
  101. ^ "Peppermint Oil".  
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  103. ^ "Echinacea".  
  104. ^ "Red clover".  
  105. ^ Akhondzadeh, S.; Noroozian, M.; Mohammadi, M.; Ohadinia, S.; Jamshidi, A. H.; Khani, M. (2003). "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: A double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial". Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 28 (1): 53–9.  
  106. ^ "Sage".  
  107. ^ Gaster, B.; Holroyd, J (2000). "St John's Wort for Depression: A Systematic Review". Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (2): 152–6.  
  108. ^ Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (2002). "Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial". JAMA 287 (14): 1807–14.  
  109. ^ "St. John's wort".  
  110. ^ "Saw palmetto".  
  111. ^ Güllüce, M.; Sökmen, M.; Daferera, D.; Aǧar, G.; Özkan, H.; Kartal, N.; Polissiou, M.; Sökmen, A.; Şahi̇n, F. (2003). "In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Herbal Parts and Callus Cultures of Satureja hortensis L". J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (14): 3958–3965.  
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  114. ^ "Tea tree oil".  
  115. ^ "Thunder God Vine".  
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  117. ^ NIIR Board, National Institute of Industrial Research (India) (2004). Compendium of Medicinal Plants. 2004. National Institute of Industrial Research. p. 320.  
  118. ^ "Turmeric".  
  119. ^ Kamin W., Maydannik V., Malek F.A., Kieser M.; Maydannik; Malek; Kieser (2010). "Efficacy and tolerability of EPs 7630 in children and adolescents with acute bronchitis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial with a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides roots". International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 48 (3): 184–191.  
  120. ^ "Valerian".  
  121. ^ "Abuta". WebMD. Retrieved 2015-04-06. 
  122. ^ "Verbena". WebMD. Retrieved 2015-04-06. 
  123. ^ "Veronica". WebMD. Retrieved 2015-04-06. 
  124. ^ "Vetiver". WebMD. Retrieved 2015-04-06. 
  125. ^ "Wafer Ash". WebMD. 
  126. ^ "Wahoo". WebMD. 
  127. ^ "Wallflower". WebMD. 
  128. ^ "Water Fennel". WebMD. 
  129. ^ "Water Germander". WebMD. 
  130. ^ "Water Hemlock". WebMD. 
  131. ^ "Water Plantain". WebMD. 
  132. ^ "Watercress". WebMD. 
  133. ^ "Wheatgrass". WebMD. 
  134. ^ Mahdi JG, Mahdi AJ, Mahdi AJ, Bowen ID (2006). "The historical analysis of aspirin discovery, its relation to the willow tree and antiproliferative and anticancer potential". Cell Proliferation 39. 
  135. ^ "Xanthoparmelia". WebMD. 
  136. ^ James D. Adams Jr, Cecilia Garcia; Garcia (2005). "Palliative Care Among Chumash People". ECAM 2 (2): 143–147.  

Further reading

  • Bown, Deni (1995). Encyclopedia of herbs and their uses. Dorling Kindersley.  
  • Mitchell, William; Bastyr, John B. (2003). Plant medicine in practice: using the teachings of John Bastyr. Churchill Livingstone.  
  • Harrod Buhner, Stephen (1996). Sacred plant medicine: explorations in the practice of indigenous herbalism. Roberts Rinehart Publishers.  
  • Cech, Richard A.; Cech, Sena K.; Gunter, Anne (2000). Making Plant Medicine. Horizon Herbs.  
  • Hoffmann, David (2003). Medical herbalism: the science and practice of herbal medicine (Google eBook). Inner Traditions / Bear & Co.  
  • Garrett, J. T. (2003). The Cherokee herbal: native plant medicine from the four directions. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co.  
  •  
  • Neuwinger, H.D. (2000). African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm Scientific.  
  • Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
  • Journal of Ethnopharmacology
  • Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A.; Phillipson, J.D. (2007). Herbal Medicines (3rd ed.). London: Pharmaceutical Press.  

External links

  • The dictionary definition of herbalism at Wiktionary
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