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Major religious groups

 

Major religious groups

The world's principal religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups, although this is by no means a uniform practice. This theory began in the 18th century with the goal of recognizing the relative levels of civility in societies.[1]

Contents

  • History of religious categories 1
  • Classification 2
  • Religious demographics 3
    • Largest religions 3.1
    • Medium-sized religions 3.2
  • By region 4
  • Trends in adherence 5
    • World Christian Encyclopedia 5.1
  • Maps of self-reported adherence 6
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8
  • References 9
  • Sources 10
  • External links 11

History of religious categories

An 1821 map of the world, where "Christians, Mahometans, and Pagans" correspond to levels of civilization (The map makes no distinction between Buddhism and Hinduism).
An 1883 map of the world divided into colors representing "Christians, Buddhists, Hindus, Mohammedans and Pagans".

In world cultures, there have traditionally been many different groupings of religious belief. In Indian culture, different religious philosophies were traditionally respected as academic differences in pursuit of the same truth. In Islam, the Quran mentions three different categories: Muslims, the People of the Book, and idol worshipers. Initially, Christians had a simple dichotomy of world beliefs: Christian civility versus foreign heresy or barbarity. In the 18th century, "heresy" was clarified to mean Judaism and Islam; along with paganism, this created a fourfold classification which spawned such works as John Toland's Nazarenus, or Jewish, Gentile, and Mahometan Christianity, which represented the three Abrahamic religions as different "nations" or sects within religion itself, the "true monotheism."

Daniel Defoe described the original definition as follows: "Religion is properly the Worship given to God, but 'tis also applied to the Worship of Idols and false Deities." At the turn of the 19th century, in between 1780 and 1810, the language dramatically changed: instead of "religion" being synonymous with spirituality, authors began using the plural, "religions", to refer to both Christianity and other forms of worship. Therefore, Hannah Adams's early encyclopedia, for example, had its name changed from An Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects... to A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations.[2]

In 1838, the four-way division of Christianity, Judaism, Mahommedanism (archaic terminology for Islam) and Paganism was multiplied considerably by Josiah Conder's Analytical and Comparative View of All Religions Now Extant among Mankind. Conder's work still adhered to the four-way classification, but in his eye for detail he puts together much historical work to create something resembling our modern Western image: he includes Druze, Yezidis, Mandeans, and Elamites under a list of possibly monotheistic groups, and under the final category, of "polytheism and pantheism", he listed Zoroastrianism, "Vedas, Puranas, Tantras, Reformed sects" of India as well as "Brahminical idolatry", Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Lamaism, "religion of China and Japan", and "illiterate superstitions".[3]

The modern meaning of the phrase "world religion", putting non-Christians at the same level as Christians, began with the 1893 Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago. The Parliament spurred the creation of a dozen privately funded lectures with the intent of informing people of the diversity of religious experience: these lectures funded researchers such as William James, D. T. Suzuki, and Alan Watts, who greatly influenced the public conception of world religions.[4]

In the latter half of the 20th century, the category of "world religion" fell into serious question, especially for drawing parallels between vastly different cultures, and thereby creating an arbitrary separation between the religious and the secular.[5] Even history professors have now taken note of these complications and advise against teaching "world religions" in schools.[6] Others see the shaping of religions in the context of the nation-state as the "invention of traditions".

Classification

Religious traditions fall into super-groups in comparative religion, arranged by historical origin and mutual influence. Abrahamic religions originate in the Middle East, Indian religions in the Indian subcontinent and East Asian religions in East Asia. Another group with supra-regional influence are Afro-American religion, which have their origins in Central and West Africa.

Religious demographics

One way to define a major religion is by the number of current adherents. The population numbers by religion are computed by a combination of census reports and population surveys (in countries where religion data is not collected in census, for example the United States or France), but results can vary widely depending on the way questions are phrased, the definitions of religion used and the bias of the agencies or organizations conducting the survey. Informal or unorganized religions are especially difficult to count.

There is no consensus among researchers as to the best methodology for determining the religiosity profile of the world's population. A number of fundamental aspects are unresolved:

  • Whether to count "historically predominant religious culture[s]"[11]
  • Whether to count only those who actively "practice" a particular religion[12]
  • Whether to count based on a concept of "adherence"[13]
  • Whether to count only those who expressly self-identify with a particular denomination[14]
  • Whether to count only adults, or to include children as well.
  • Whether to rely only on official government-provided statistics[15]
  • Whether to use multiple sources and ranges or single "best source(s)"

Largest religions

The table below lists religions classified by philosophy; however, religious philosophy is not always the determining factor in local practice. Please note that this table includes heterodox movements as adherents to their larger philosophical category, although this may be disputed by others within that category. For example, Christianity and Islam include those are culturally Christian and Muslim as well as indigenous people combining folk religions or shamanism with either.

The population numbers below are computed by a combination of census reports, random surveys (in countries where religion data is not collected in census, for example the United States or France), and self-reported attendance numbers, but results can vary widely depending on the way questions are phrased, the definitions of religion used and the bias of the agencies or organizations conducting the survey. Informal or unorganized religions are especially difficult to count. Some organizations may wildly inflate their numbers.

Religion Number of followers
(in millions)
Cultural tradition Founded References
Christianity 2,200 Abrahamic religions Levant region [16]
Islam 1,600 Abrahamic religions Arabian Peninsula [16]
Hinduism 1,100 Indian religions Indian subcontinent [16]
Chinese folk religion 754 — 1,000 Chinese religions China 1:;[17] 2:[18]
Buddhism 488 — 535 Indian religions Indian subcontinent [16]

Medium-sized religions

The following are medium-sized world religions:

Religion Number of followers
(in millions)
Cultural tradition Founded References
Taoism 12–173 Chinese religions China [17]
Shinto 100[nb 1] Japanese religions Japan [19][20]
Sikhism 28 Indian religions Indian subcontinent [21]
Judaism 14 Abrahamic religions Levant region [16]
Korean shamanism 5–15 Korean religions Korea [22]
Caodaism 5–9 Vietnamese religions Vietnam, 20th century [23]
Bahá'í Faith 5–7.3 Abrahamic religions Iran, 19th century [24][25][nb 2]
Jainism 4.2 Indian religions Indian subcontinent, 7th to 9th century BC [26]
Cheondoism 3–4 Korean religions Korea, 19th century [27]
Hoahaoism 1.5–3 Vietnamese religions Vietnam, 20th century [28]
Tenriism 5 Japanese religions Japan, 19th century [29]

By region

Trends in adherence

Since the late 19th century, the demographics of religion have changed a great deal. On the one hand, since the 19th century, large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa have been converted to Christianity, and this area of the world has the highest population growth rate. On the other hand, some countries with a historically large Christian population have experienced a significant decline in the numbers of professed active Christians: see demographics of atheism. Symptoms of the decline in active participation in Christian religious life include declining recruitment for the priesthood and monastic life, as well as diminishing attendance at church. In the realm of Western culture, there has been an increase in the number of people who identify themselves as secular humanists. In many countries, such as the People's Republic of China, communist governments have discouraged religion, making it difficult to count the actual number of believers. However, after the collapse of communism in numerous countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, religious life has been experiencing resurgence there, both in the form of traditional Eastern Christianity and particularly in the forms of Neopaganism and East Asian religions.

World Christian Encyclopedia

Following is some available data based on the work of the World Christian Encyclopedia:[30]

Trends in annual growth of adherence
1970–1985[31] 1990–2000[32][33] 2000–2005[34] % change 1970–2010 (40 yrs)[25]
3.65%: Bahá'í Faith 2.65%: Zoroastrianism 1.84%: Islam 9.85%: Daoism
2.74%: Islam 2.28%: Bahá'í Faith 1.70%: Bahá'í Faith 4.26%: Bahá'í Faith
2.34%: Hinduism 2.13%: Islam 1.62%: Sikhism 4.23%: Islam
1.67%: Buddhism 1.87%: Sikhism 1.57%: Hinduism 3.08%: Sikhism
1.64%: Christianity 1.69%: Hinduism 1.32%: Christianity 2.76%: Buddhism
1.09%: Judaism 1.36%: Christianity 2.62%: Hinduism
1.09%: Buddhism 2.60%: Jainism
2.50%: Zoroastrianism
across 40 yrs, world total 2.16%
2.10%: Christianity
0.83%: Confucianism
0.37%: unaffiliated (inc. atheists, agnostics, religious but not affiliated)

Maps of self-reported adherence

Map showing self-reported religiosity by country. Based on a 2006–2008 worldwide survey by Gallup. 
World map showing the percentages of people who regard religion as "non-important" according to a 2002 Pew survey 
Religions of the world, mapped by distribution. 
Predominant religions of the world, mapped by state 
Map showing the prevalence of "Abrahamic religion" (purple), and "Indian religion" (yellow) religions in each country. 
Map showing the relative proportion of Christianity (red) and Islam (green) in each country as of 2006 
Map showing the distribution of world religions by country/state, and by smaller administrative regions for the largest countries (China, India, Russia, United States), according to the most recent data available (2012).
  Islam
 

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Controversial, see the references.
  2. ^ Historically, the Bahá'í Faith arose in 19th century Persia, in the context of Shia Islam, and thus may be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Bahá'í Faith considers itself an independent religious tradition, which draws from Islam but also other traditions. The Bahá'í Faith may also be classed as a new religious movement, due to its comparatively recent origin, or may be considered sufficiently old and established for such classification to not be applicable.

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Masuzawa 2005. pp. 49–61
  3. ^ Masuzawa 2005, pp. 65–6
  4. ^ Masuzawa 2005, 270–281
  5. ^ Stephen R. L. Clark. "World Religions and World Orders". Religious studies 26.1 (1990).
  6. ^ Joel E. Tishken. "Ethnic vs. Evangelical Religions: Beyond Teaching the World Religion Approach". The History Teacher 33.3 (2000).
  7. ^ a b c , Encyclopedia BritannicaClassification of religions: geographicalCharles Joseph Adams,
  8. ^
  9. ^ Samuel 2010.
  10. ^ Anthony 2007.
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b c d e
  17. ^ a b 2010 Chinese Spiritual Life Survey conducted by the Purdue University's Center on Religion and Chinese Society. Statistics published in: Katharina Wenzel-Teuber, David Strait. People’s Republic of China: Religions and Churches Statistical Overview 2011. On: Religions & Christianity in Today's China, Vol. II, 2012, No. 3, pp. 29-54, ISSN: 2192-9289.
  18. ^ 1995 survey results published by the Information Office of the State Council of China. Source: Xinzhong Yao. Chinese Religion: A Contextual Approach. Bloomsbury Academic, 2011. ISBN 1847064760. p. 9
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ Indian Registrar General & Census Commissioner. "Religious Composition". Census of India, 2001
  22. ^ Self-reported figures from 1999; North Korea only (South Korean followers are minimal according to census). In The A to Z of New Religious Movements by George D. Chryssides. ISBN 0-8108-5588-7
  23. ^ Sergei Blagov. "Caodaism in Vietnam : Religion vs Restrictions and Persecution". IARF World Congress, Vancouver, Canada, July 31, 1999.
  24. ^ Other Religions. Pew Forum report.
  25. ^ a b
  26. ^ 2001 Census of India data on religions. Government of India.
  27. ^ Self-reported figures from North Korea (South Korean followers are minimal according to census):
  28. ^ Janet Alison Hoskins. What Are Vietnam's Indigenous Religions?. Center for Southeast Asian Studies Kyoto University.
  29. ^ Self-reported figures printed in Japanese Ministry of Education's 宗教年間 Shuukyou Nenkan, 2003
  30. ^ The results have been studied and found "highly correlated with other sources of data", but "consistently gave a higher estimate for percent Christian in comparison to other cross-national data sets."
  31. ^ .
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^

Sources

External links

  • Animated history of World Religions—from the "Religion & Ethics" part of the BBC website, interactive animated view of the spread of world religions (requires Flash plug-in).
  • BBC A-Z of Religions and Beliefs
  • Major World Religions
  • International Council for Inter-Religious Cooperation
  • International Imam Organization
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