World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Methcathinone

Article Id: WHEBN0000290174
Reproduction Date:

Title: Methcathinone  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Mephedrone, Cathinone, Alpha-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone, Cathine, Methylone
Collection: Cathinones, Euphoriants, Norepinephrine-Dopamine Releasing Agents
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Methcathinone

Methcathinone
Ball-and-stick model of the methcathinone molecule
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenyl-propan-1-one
Clinical data
Legal status
Routes of
administration
Vaporized, insufflated, injected, orally
Pharmacokinetic data
Excretion Urine
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  N (R form)
49656-78-2 (R form · HCl)
112117-24-5 (S form)
66514-93-0 (S form · HCl)
ATC code None
PubChem CID:
ChemSpider  Y
Chemical data
Formula C10H13NO
Molecular mass 163.22 g/mol
 N   

Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff" or "Charlie" ) is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone. It is used as a recreational drug and considered to be addictive.[1] It is usually snorted, but can be smoked, injected, or taken orally.

Methcathinone is listed as a Schedule I controlled substance by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the United States' Controlled Substances Act.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Chemistry 2
  • Effects 3
  • Pharmacology 4
  • Illicit usage 5
  • Addiction 6
  • Intravenous usage 7
  • Clinical use 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

History

Methcathinone was first synthesized in 1928 in the United States[2] and was patented by Parke Davis in 1957.[3] It was used in the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s as an anti-depressant (under the name Эфедронephedrone). Methcathinone has long been used as a drug of abuse in the Soviet Union and Russia.

Circa 1994, the United States government recommended to the UN Secretary-General that methcathinone should be listed as a Schedule I controlled substance in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[4]

In parts of Europe this drug is not listed as a dangerous drug and is under review by the authorities in the United Kingdom where at the moment it is a Class B drug. They want it reclassified as a class A drug when it is dissolved in water for injection use just as amphetamine is.

Chemistry

Methcathinone is a beta-keto N-methylamphetamine and is closely related to the naturally occurring compounds, cathinone and cathine. It is also very closely related to methamphetamine, differing by only the β-ketone substituent and differing from amphetamine by both a keto and N-methyl substituent. Its carbon skeleton is identical to pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine. It differs from pseudoephedrine in that the hydroxide beta to the aromatic ring is oxidized to a ketone.

Methcathinone possesses a chiral carbon atom, and therefore two enantiomers are possible. When it is made semi-synthetically from pseudo/ephedrine as a starting material, then only a single enantiomer is produced. Given that the chiral center is adjacent to the carbonyl group, the molecule will racemize in solution.

Methcathinone production utilizes the oxidation of pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, the former being preferred because of much higher yields achieved. Oxidation of pseudoephedrine to methcathinone requires little chemistry experience, making it (relatively) easy to synthesize.[5] Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is most commonly used as the oxidant.

In clandestine laboratories, synthesizing methcathinone using potassium permanganate is considered undesirable because of the low yields and the high toxicity of this oxidant. A method that yields more methcathinone is oxidizing (pseudo)ephedrine with chromium (VI) compounds. If done in a proper laboratory using the proper procedures, however, potassium permanganate can be a high-yielding reactant.

Methcathinone as free base is very unstable; it easily loses its ketone group, which is substituted with a hydroxyl group . Structurally, this occurs when the C=O bond at the Rβ-position is converted into a C-OH bond. Additionally, a dimerization reaction has been observed in solutions of freebase methcathinone, which yields a biologically inactive compound.[6] In other words, basic methcathinone will turn into (& also metabolize to) pseudoephedrine, from which it was synthesized.

Effects

Methcathinone hydrochloride increases spontaneous rodent methamphetamine, initially deemed to be less intense by the inexperienced user, and often more euphoric. The effects have been compared to those of cocaine, since it commonly causes hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and tachycardia (elevated heart rate).

Reported effects include:

  • Feelings of euphoria
  • Increased alertness
  • Slurred speech
  • Shaking of the limbs
  • Increased heart rate
  • Risk of blood clots on the brain, heart attacks or strokes
  • Headaches or Migraine attacks
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) or pains in the stomach
  • Increased empathy and sense of communication
  • Both decreased and increased sexual function and desire
  • Bruxism

The effects of methcathinone usually last from four to six hours.

Pharmacology

Methcathinone has very strong affinities for the dopamine transporter and the norepinephrine (noradrenaline) transporter. Its affinity for the serotonin transporter is less than that of methamphetamine.[8]

The C=O bond at the Rβ-position (directly right of the benzene ring) is slightly polar, and as a result the drug does not cross the lipid blood–brain barrier quite as well as amphetamine. Nevertheless, it is a potent CNS stimulant and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Chronic high dosage use may result in acute mental confusion ranging from mild paranoia to psychosis. These symptoms typically disappear quickly if use is stopped.

Anecdotal reports have provided some information on patterns of methcathinone use. The most common route of administration is via nasal insufflation (snorting). Other routes of administration include per os, IV injection and smoking.

Illicit usage

Methcathinone binges resemble amphetamine binges in that the user may not sleep or eat, and takes in little in the way of liquids. The methcathinone binge is followed by long periods of sleep, excess eating, long-lasting nosebleeds and, in some cases, depression.

Addiction

In preclinical studies, methcathinone hydrochloride produces an abuse potential similar to that of the amphetamines.[9]

Methcathinone can be highly psychologically addictive, and can produce a methamphetamine-like withdrawal, which is somewhat less in intensity than methamphetamine.

In drug discrimination studies, methcathinone hydrochloride evokes responses similar to those induced by both dextroamphetamine sulfate and cocaine hydrochloride. When examined in particular pharmacological assays for psychomotor stimulant-like activity, both the dextrorotary and levorotary enantiomeric forms of methcathinone hydrochloride have been found to be pharmacologically active. In these assays, the l-form of methcathinone is more active than either d-methcathinone or dextroamphetamine.

Some street dealers are selling methcathinone as dextroamphetamine or methamphetamine but the drug is more dangerous to people who inject it than the more common amphetamine.

Intravenous usage

Injecting this substance has recently been associated with symptoms similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's Disease (Manganism) due to the compound manganese dioxide which is a byproduct of synthesis with permanganate.[10]

Clinical use

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances lists methcathinone as a Schedule I substance.[11]

  • In the United States, methcathinone is listed as a Schedule I drug, for which there is no clinical use.[12]
  • In the Netherlands, methylcathinone is listed as a Level I substance of the Opium Law, for which there is no clinical use.
  • In the United Kingdom, methcathinone is listed as a Class B drug with no clinical uses.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Calkins RF, Aktan GB, Hussain KL (1995). "Methcathinone: the next illicit stimulant epidemic?". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 27 (3): 277–85.  
  2. ^ Hyde JF, Browning E, Adams R (1928). "Synthetic Homologs of d,l-Ephedrine". Journal of the American Chemical Society 50 (8): 2287–2292.  
  3. ^ US Patent 2802865 -ETHYLAMINOPROPIOPHENONE COMPOUNDS
  4. ^ Erowid
  5. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/35411/The-Clandestine-Chemists-Notebook The Clandestine Chemists Notebook
  6. ^ http://chromsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/12/552.full.pdf+html
  7. ^ a b Glennon RA, Yousif M, Naiman N, Kalix P (1987). "Methcathinone: a new and potent amphetamine-like agent". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 26 (3): 547–51.  
  8. ^ Rothman, B. R.; et al. (June 2003). "In Vitro Characterization of Ephedrine-Related Stereoisomers at Biogenic Amine Transporters and the Receptorome Reveals Selective Actions as Norepinephrine Transporter Substrates". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 307 (1): 138–45.  
  9. ^ Kaminski BJ, Griffiths RR (April 1994). "Intravenous self-injection of methcathinone in the baboon". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 47 (4): 981–3.  
  10. ^ De Bie RM, Gladstone RM, Strafella AP, Ko JH, Lang AE (Jun 2007). "Manganese-induced Parkinsonism associated with methcathinone (Ephedrone) abuse". Archives of Neurology 64 (6): 886–9.  
  11. ^ "https://www.unodc.org/pdf/convention_1971_en.pdf" (PDF). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  12. ^ http://www.drugfree.org/drug-guide/methcathinone
  13. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 1998 (SI 1998 No. 750)".  

External links

  • Cathinone & Methcathinone from Erowid
  • International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; Certain Stimulant/Hallucinogenic Drugs and Certain Nonbarbiturate Sedative Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, June 20, 1994.
  • Methcathinone from lycaeum
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.