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Microbiological culture

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Title: Microbiological culture  
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Microbiological culture

Solid and liquid microbial cultures

A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying Streptococcus pyogenes, the causative agent of strep throat.[1] Furthermore, the term culture is more generally used informally to refer to "selectively growing" a specific kind of microorganism in the lab.

Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in clones of one another.

For the purpose of gelling the microbial culture, the medium of agarose gel (agar) is used. Agar is a gelatinous substance derived from seaweed. A cheap substitute for agar is guar gum, which can be used for the isolation and maintenance of thermophiles.

Contents

  • Bacterial culture 1
    • Culture collections 1.1
  • Virus and phage culture 2
  • Eukaryotic cell culture 3
    • Isolation of pure cultures 3.1
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Bacterial culture

A culture of Bacillus anthracis

Microbiological cultures can be grown in petri dishes of differing sizes that have a thin layer of agar-based growth medium. Once the growth medium in the petri dish is inoculated with the desired bacteria, the plates are incubated at the best temperature for the growing of the selected bacteria (for example, usually at 37 degrees Celsius for cultures from humans or animals, or lower for environmental cultures).

Another method of bacterial culture is liquid culture, in which the desired bacteria are suspended in liquid broth, a nutrient medium. These are ideal for preparation of an antimicrobial assay. The experimenter would inoculate liquid broth with bacteria and let it grow overnight (they may use a shaker for uniform growth). Then they would take aliquots of the sample to test for the antimicrobial activity of a specific drug or protein (antimicrobial peptides).

Liquid cultures of cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002

As an alternative, the microbiologist may decide to use static liquid cultures. These cultures are not shaken and they provide the microbes with an oxygen gradient.[2]

Culture collections

Microbial culture collections focus on the acquisition, authentication, production, preservation, catalogueing and distribution of viable cultures of standard reference microbial systematics.[3][4] Culture collection are also repositories of type strains.

Major national culture collections.[3][4]
Collection Acronym Name Location
ATCC American Type Culture Collection Manassas, Virginia
NCTC National Collection of Type Cultures Public Health England, London, United Kingdom
BCCM Belgium Coordinated Collection of Microorganism Ghent, Belgium
CIP Collection d'Institut Pasteur Paris, France
DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen Braunschweig, Germany
JCM Japan Collection of Microorganisms Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
NCCB Netherlands Culture Collection of Bacteria Utrecht, Netherlands
NCIMB National Collection of Industrial, Food and Marine Bacteria Aberdeen, Scotland
STCC Spanish Type Culture Collection, Valencia University Valencia, Spain

Virus and phage culture

Virus or phage cultures require host cells in which the virus or phage multiply. For bacteriophages, cultures are grown by infecting bacterial cells. The phage can then be isolated from the resulting plaques in a lawn of bacteria on a plate. Virus cultures are obtained from their appropriate eukaryotic host cells.

Eukaryotic cell culture

Isolation of pure cultures

For single-celled eukaryotes, such as yeast, the isolation of pure cultures uses the same techniques as for bacterial cultures. Pure cultures of multicellular organisms are often more easily isolated by simply picking out a single individual to initiate a culture. This is a useful technique for pure culture of fungi, multicellular algae, and small metazoa, for example. m/M;

Developing pure culture techniques is crucial to the observation of the specimen in question. The most common method to isolate individual cells and produce a pure culture is to prepare a streak plate. The streak plate method is a way to physically separate the microbial population, and is done by spreading the inoculate back and forth with an inoculating loop over the solid agar plate. Upon incubation, colonies will arise and single cells will have been isolated from the biomass.

See also

References

  1. ^ Healthwise, Incorporated (2010-06-28). "Throat Culture". WebMD. Retrieved 2013-03-10. 
  2. ^ Old, D.C.; Duguid, J.P. (1970). "Selective Outgrowth of Fimbriate Bacteria in Static Liquid Medium". Journal of Bacteriology (American Society for Microbiology) 103 (2): 447–456.  
  3. ^ a b Madigan, Michael T. (2012). Brock biology of microorganisms (13th ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.  
  4. ^ a b Uruburu, F. (2003). "History and services of culture collections". International Microbiology 6 (2): 101–103.  

External links

  • EFFCA - European Food and Feed Cultutes Association. Information about production and uses of microbial cultures as well as legislative aspects.
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