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Mimas (moon)

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Mimas (moon)

Mimas
Mimas with its large crater Herschel. Other bright-walled craters include Ban just left of center near top, and Percivale two thirds of the way left of Herschel. (Cassini, 2010)
Discovery
Discovered by William Herschel
Discovery date 17 September 1789[1]
Designations
Pronunciation
Saturn I
Adjectives Mimantean, Mimantian
Orbital characteristics[2]
Periapsis 181902 km
Apoapsis 189176 km
185539 km
Eccentricity 0.0196
0.942 d
Average orbital speed
14.28 km/s (calculated)
Inclination 1.574° (to Saturn's equator)
Satellite of Saturn
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 415.6 × 393.4 × 381.2 km
(0.0311 Earths)[3]
Mean radius
198.2±0.4 km[3]
490000500000 km2
Volume 32600000±200000 km3
Mass (3.7493±0.0031)×1019 kg[4][5]
(6.3×106 Earths)
Mean density
1.1479±0.007 g/cm³[3]
0.064 m/s2 (0.00648 g)
0.159 km/s
synchronous
zero
Albedo 0.962±0.004 (geometric)[6]
Temperature ≈ 64 K
12.9 [7]

Mimas is a moon of Saturn which was discovered in 1789 by William Herschel.[8] It is named after Mimas, a son of Gaia in Greek mythology, and is also designated Saturn I.

With a diameter of 396 kilometres (246 mi) it is the smallest astronomical body that is known to be rounded in shape because of self-gravitation.

Contents

  • Discovery 1
    • Name 1.1
  • Physical characteristics 2
  • Orbital resonances 3
  • Exploration 4
  • In popular culture 5
  • Gallery 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Discovery

Mimas was discovered by the astronomer William Herschel on 17 September 1789. He recorded his discovery as follows: "The great light of my forty-foot telescope was so useful that on the 17th of September, 1789, I remarked the seventh satellite, then situated at its greatest western elongation."[9]

Name

Mimas is named after one of the Giants in Greek mythology, Mimas. The names of all seven then-known satellites of Saturn, including Mimas, were suggested by William Herschel's son John in his 1847 publication Results of Astronomical Observations made at the Cape of Good Hope.[10][11] He named them after Titans specifically because Saturn (the Roman equivalent of Cronus in Greek mythology), was the leader of the Titans and ruler of the world for some time.

The adjectival form of Mimas is Mimantean or Mimantian.[12][13]

Physical characteristics

Cassini view of Mimas's trailing hemisphere, showing craters up to 6 km deep and 1-km-deep chasmata (grooves). The large crater near center is Morgan; Arthur is close to the lower right limb. Pelion Chasma is faintly visible as a horizontal trough left of Arthur and below Morgan.

The surface area of Mimas is slightly less than the land area of Spain. The low density of Mimas, 1.15 g/cm³, indicates that it is composed mostly of water ice with only a small amount of rock. Due to the tidal forces acting on it, Mimas is noticeably prolate; its longest axis is about 10% longer than the shortest. The ellipsoidal shape of Mimas is especially noticeable in some recent images from the Cassini probe.

Mimas's most distinctive feature is a giant impact crater 130 kilometres (81 mi) across, named Herschel after the discoverer of Mimas. Herschel's diameter is almost a third of Mimas's own diameter; its walls are approximately 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) high, parts of its floor measure 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) deep, and its central peak rises 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) above the crater floor. The impact that made this crater must have nearly shattered Mimas: fractures can be seen on the opposite side of Mimas that may have been created by shock waves from the impact travelling through Mimas's body.[14]

The Mimantean surface is saturated with smaller impact craters, but no others are anywhere near the size of Herschel. Although Mimas is heavily cratered, the cratering is not uniform. Most of the surface is covered with craters larger than 40 kilometres (25 mi) in diameter, but in the south polar region, there are generally no craters larger than 20 kilometres (12 mi) in diameter.

Three types of geological features are officially recognized on Mimas: craters, chasmata (chasms) and catenae (crater chains).

Enhanced-color map (17.5 MB) showing a bluish band across the leading hemisphere (right)
Enhanced-color maps
north and south hemispheres
Enhanced-color maps
trailing and leading hemispheres

Orbital resonances

A number of features in Saturn's rings are related to resonances with Mimas. Mimas is responsible for clearing the material from the Cassini Division, the gap between Saturn's two widest rings, the A Ring and B Ring. Particles in the Huygens Gap at the inner edge of the Cassini division are in a 2:1 resonance with Mimas. They orbit twice for each orbit of Mimas. The repeated pulls by Mimas on the Cassini division particles, always in the same direction in space, force them into new orbits outside the gap. The boundary between the C and B ring is in a 3:1 resonance with Mimas. Recently, the G Ring was found to be in a 7:6 co-rotation eccentricity resonance with Mimas; the ring's inner edge is about 15,000 kilometres (9,300 mi) inside Mimas's orbit.

Mimas is also in a 2:1 mean-motion resonance with the larger moon Tethys, and in a 2:3 resonance with the outer F Ring shepherd moonlet, Pandora.

Exploration

Pioneer 11 flew by Saturn in 1979, and its closest approach to Mimas was 104,263 km on September 1, 1979.[15] Voyager 1 flew by in 1980, and Voyager 2 in 1981.

Mimas has been imaged several times by the Cassini orbiter, which entered into orbit around Saturn in 2004. A close flyby occurred on February 13, 2010, when Cassini passed by Mimas at 9,500 km (5,900 mi).

In popular culture

When seen from certain angles, Mimas resembles the Death Star, a fictional space station known from the film Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, which is said to be roughly 140 kilometres in diameter. Herschel resembles the concave disc of the Death Star's "superlaser". This is coincidental, as the film was made nearly three years before Mimas was resolved well enough to see the crater.[16]

In 2010, NASA revealed a temperature map of Mimas, using images obtained by Cassini. The warmest regions, which are along one edge of Mimas, create a shape similar to the video game character Pac-Man, with Herschel Crater assuming the role of an "edible dot" or "power pellet" known from Pac-Man gameplay.[17][18][19]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Imago Mundi: La Découverte des satellites de Saturne" (in French). 
  2. ^ Harvey, Samantha (April 11, 2007). "NASA: Solar System Exploration: Planets: Saturn: Moons: Mimas: Facts & Figures". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  3. ^ a b c Roatsch, T.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Thomas, P. C. (2009). "Cartographic Mapping of the Icy Satellites Using ISS and VIMS Data". Saturn from Cassini-Huygens. pp. 763–781.  
  4. ^ Jacobson, R. A.; Antreasian, P. G.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jones, J. B.; Mackenzie, R. A.; Meek, M. C.; Parcher, D.; Pelletier, F. J.; Owen, Jr., W. M.; Roth, D. C.; Roundhill, I. M.; Stauch, J. R. (December 2006). "The Gravity Field of the Saturnian System from Satellite Observations and Spacecraft Tracking Data". The Astronomical Journal 132 (6): 2520–2526.  
  5. ^ Jacobson, R. A.; Spitale, J.; et al. (2005). "The GM values of Mimas and Tethys and the libration of Methone" (PDF). Astronomical Journal 132 (2): 711–713.  
  6. ^ Verbiscer, A.; French, R.; Showalter, M.; Helfenstein, P. (9 February 2007). "Enceladus: Cosmic Graffiti Artist Caught in the Act". Science 315 (5813): 815.   (supporting online material, table S1)
  7. ^ Observatorio ARVAL (April 15, 2007). "Classic Satellites of the Solar System". Observatorio ARVAL. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  8. ^ Herschel, W. (1790). "Account of the Discovery of a Sixth and Seventh Satellite of the Planet Saturn; With Remarks on the Construction of Its Ring, Its Atmosphere, Its Rotation on an Axis, and Its Spheroidical Figure". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 80 (0): 1–20.  
  9. ^ Herschel, William Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 80, reported by Arago, M. (1871). "Herschel". Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 198–223. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  10. ^ As reported by William Lassell, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 42–43 (January 14, 1848)
  11. ^ Lassell, William (1848). "Satellites of Saturn: Observations of Mimas, the closest and most interior Satellite of Saturn". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 8: 42–43.  
  12. ^ "Cassini Equinox Mission: Mimas". Saturn.jpl.nasa.gov. 2005-08-02. Retrieved 2012-02-26. 
  13. ^ The nt comes from the Latin genitive case Mimantis, from Greek Μῑμάντος; the old form of the name had been Mimans Μίμανς (Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon)
  14. ^ Elkins-Tanton, Linda E. (2006). Jupiter and Saturn. Infobase Publishing. p. 144.  
  15. ^ "Pioneer 11 Full Mission Timeline". Dmuller.net. Retrieved 2012-02-26. 
  16. ^ Young, Kelly (2005-02-11). "Saturn's moon is Death Star's twin".  
  17. ^ Cook, Jia-Rui C. (2010-03-29). "1980s Video Icon Glows on Saturn Moon". NASA. Retrieved 2010-04-02. 
  18. ^ "Bizarre Temperatures on Mimas". NASA. 2010-03-29. Retrieved 2010-04-02. 
  19. ^ "Saturn moon looks like Pac-Man in image taken by Nasa spacecraft". The Daily Telegraph. 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2010-04-02. 

External links

  • Cassini mission page – Mimas
  • Mimas Profile at NASA's Solar System Exploration site
  • The Planetary Society: Mimas
  • The Nine PlanetsMimas page at
  • Views of the Solar System – Mimas
  • Cassini images of Mimas
  • Images of Mimas at JPL's Planetary Photojournal
  • 3D shape model of Mimas (requires WebGL)
  • Paul Schenk's Mimas blog entry and movie of Mimas's rotation on YouTube
  • Mimas global and polar basemaps (June 2012) from Cassini images
  • Mimas atlas (July 2010) from Cassini images
  • Mimas nomenclature and Mimas map with feature names from the USGS planetary nomenclature page
  • Figure "J" is Mimas transiting Saturn in 1979, imaged by Pioneer 11 from here
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