World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Mohel

Article Id: WHEBN0000599091
Reproduction Date:

Title: Mohel  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Brit milah, Circumcision and law, Hasidic Judaism, Religious male circumcision, Judaism
Collection: Circumcision, Hebrew Words and Phrases, Jewish Religious Occupations, Mohel
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Mohel

A mohel (Hebrew: מוֹהֵל, Ashkenazi pronunciation , plural: מוֹהֲלִים mohalim , Aramaic: מוֹהֲלָאmohala, "circumciser") is a Jewish person trained in the practice of brit milah, the "covenant of circumcision."

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • Origins of circumcision 2
  • Functions 3
  • Female mohels 4
  • References 5

Etymology

The noun mohel (mohala in Aramaic) "circumciser", is derived from the same verb stem as milah "circumcision."[1] The noun appeared for the first time in the fourth century as the title of a circumciser (Shabbat 156a).[2]

Origins of circumcision

For Jews, male circumcision is mandatory, as it is prescribed in the Torah. In the Book of Genesis as a mark of the Covenant between God and the descendants of Abraham: "Throughout all generations, every male shall be circumcised when he is eight days old...This shall be my covenant in your flesh, an eternal covenant. The uncircumcised male whose foreskin has not been circumcised, shall have his soul cut off from his people; he has broken my Covenant".[3] In Leviticus: "God spoke to Moses, telling him to speak to the Israelites: When a woman conceives and gives birth to a boy ... on the eighth day, the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised."[4]

Functions

Biblically, the infant's father (avi haben) is commanded to perform the circumcision himself. However, as most fathers are not comfortable or do not have the training, they designate a mohel. The mohel is specially trained in circumcision and the rituals surrounding the procedure. Many mohalim are doctors or rabbis (and some are both) or cantors and are required to receive appropriate training both from the religious and medical fields.

Traditionally, the mohel uses a knife to circumcise the newborn. Today, doctors and some non-Orthodox mohalim use a perforating clamp before they cut the skin. The clamp makes it easier to be precise and shortens recovery time. Orthodox mohalim have rejected perforating clamps, arguing that by crushing and killing the skin it causes a great amount of unnecessary pain to the newborn, cutting off the blood flow completely, which according to Jewish law is dangerous to the child and strictly forbidden, and also renders the orlah (foreskin) as cut prior to the proper ritual cut.[5][6][7]

Under Jewish law, a mohel must draw blood from the circumcision wound. Most mohels do it by hand with a suction device, but some Orthodox groups use their mouth to draw blood after cutting the foreskin.[8][9][10][11] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a warning in 2012 about the health implications of this practice, citing 11 cases of neonatal HSV and two recorded fatalities.[12] A 2013 review of cases of neonatal HSV infections in Israel identified ritual circumcision as the source of HSV-1 transmission in 31.8% of the cases.[13]

Female mohels

According to traditional Jewish law, in the absence of a grown free Jewish male expert, a woman, a slave, or a child, that has the required skills, is also authorized to perform the circumcision, provided that she or he is Jewish.[14] However, most streams of non-Orthodox Judaism allow female mohels, called mohalot (Hebrew: מוֹהֲלוֹת‎, plural of מוֹהֶלֶת mohelet, feminine of mohel), without restriction. In 1984, Dr. Deborah Cohen became the first certified Reform mohelet; she was certified by the Berit Mila program of Reform Judaism.[15]

References

  1. ^ Maslin, Simeon J. (1979). Gates of Mitzvah: A Guide to the Jewish Life Cycle.  
  2. ^ Bloch, Abraham P. (1980). The Biblical and historical background of Jewish customs. p. 10. Beginning with the fourth century, the term mohel (mohala in Aramaic) appeared for the first time as the title of a circumciser (Shabbat 156a). 
  3. ^ Genesis 17:9-14 at bible.ort.org
  4. ^ Leviticus 12:1-3 at bible.ort.org
  5. ^ Gesundheit; et al. (August 2004). "Neonatal genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection..." (PDF). Pediatrics 114 (2): e259–63. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  6. ^ Gesundheit; et al. (February 2005). "Infectious complications with herpes virus after ritual Jewish circumcision: a historical and cultural analysis". Harefuah (in עברית) 144 (2): 126–32, 149, 148.  
  7. ^ Ben-Yami, Hanoch (2013). "Circumcision: What should be done?" (PDF). J Med Ethics (39): 459–462. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  8. ^ Hartog, Kelly (17 February 2005). "Death spotlights old circumcision rite". JewishJournal.com. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  9. ^ Rabbi probed for circumcised infants' herpes, nbcnews.com, 2 February 2005. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  10. ^ Distel, R; Hofer, V; Bogger-Goren, S; Shalit, I; Garty, BZ (2003). "Primary genital herpes simplex infection associated with Jewish ritual circumcision". Isr Med Assoc J 5: 893–94.  
  11. ^ Yossepowitch, O; Gottesman, T; Schwartz, O; Stein, M; Serour, F; Dan, M (June 2013). "Penile herpes simplex virus type 1 infection presenting two and a half years after Jewish ritual circumcision of an infant". Sex Transm Dis. 40 (6): 516–17.  
  12. ^ Baum, SG (8 June 2012). "CDC: Neonatal HSV Infection from Circumcision-Related Orogenital Suction". Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61: 405–409. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  13. ^ Amir Koren; et al. (2013). "Neonatal Herpes Simplex virus infections in Israel" (PDF). Pediatr Infect Dis. J 32: 120–23. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  14. ^ Talmud Avodah Zarah 26b; Menachot 42a; Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, Milah, ii. 1; Shulkhan Arukh, Yoreh De'ah, l.c.
  15. ^ Berit Mila Program of Reform Judaism Retrieved 2 February 2015
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.