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Musaf

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Musaf

Mussaf (also spelled Musaf) is an additional service that is recited on Shabbat, Yom Tov, Chol Hamoed, and Rosh Chodesh. The service, which is traditionally combined with the Shacharit in synagogues, is considered to be additional to the regular services of Shacharit, Mincha, and Maariv.

During the days of the Holy Temple, additional offerings were offered on these festive days. Mussaf is now recited in lieu of these offerings.

Mussaf refers to both the full service (which includes the Amidah and all prayers that follow that are normally recited during Shacharit) and the Amidah itself that is recited for Mussaf. The main addition is a fourth recitation of the Amidah specially for these days. It is permissible to recite the Mussaf prayer at any time during the day on these days. Nevertheless, the tradition is that it be recited immediately following Shacharit as a combined service.[1]

Etymology

The name "Mussaf" refers to addition, since it is an additional prayer service recited on festive days that is taking the place of additional offerings that were once made on these days. It is related to the name Joseph (Yosef).[2]

Beliefs of movements

Orthodox

Orthodox Judaism is most active at reciting Mussaf, including it as part of the regular prayer service on the days it is recited.

Conservative

In Conservative Judaism, Mussaf is recited but has been adapted. The liturgy has been changed, identifying the State of Israel as the Jewish homeland, but recognizing the Temple only as historical and not as a structure that will one day be restored.[3]

Reform

Reform Judaism completely omits Mussaf. There are two reasons why the Reform movement decided not to include Mussaf. One is that it would involve reciting some prayers four times in a row. The other is their lack of belief in sacrifices as a legitimate way to become close to God.[4]

Mussaf by day

Rosh Chodesh

During Shabbat and Yom Tov, Tefillin are not worn at all. But on Rosh Chodesh, they are worn during Shacharit, and they are removed prior to Mussaf.[5]

During leap years on the Hebrew calendar, a verse is inserted for the atonement of willful sin.

Rosh Hashanah

On most days Mussaf is recited, the Amidah contains seven blessings - the three at the beginning and three at the end of every Amidah, and one in the middle in regards to the particular day. But on Rosh Hashanah, the Amidah contains nine blessings. The three middle blessings are in reference to Kingship, Remembrance, and the Shofar blowings.[6]

While not required, the shofar is traditionally blown during Mussaf as well as Shacharit in order to confound the Satan.[7]

Simchat Torah

On most Jewish holidays in the Diaspora, Birkat Kohanim is recited during the chazzan's repetition during Mussaf. But on Simchat Torah, it is recited during Shacharit. This is because there is a tradition to drink prior to Mussaf, and Birkat Kohanim cannot be performed by drunk Kohanim

Prayers included on the Sabbath

The Mussaf service starts with the silent recitation of the Amidah. It is followed by a second public recitation that includes an additional reading known as the Kedushah. This is followed by the Tikanta Shabbat reading on the holiness of Shabbat, and then by a reading from the biblical Book of Numbers about the sacrifices that used to be performed in the Temple in Jerusalem. Next comes Yismechu, "They shall rejoice in Your sovereignty"; Eloheynu, "Our God and God of our Ancestors, may you be pleased with our rest"; and Retzei, "Be favorable, our God, toward your people Israel and their prayer, and restore services to your Temple."

After the Amidah comes the full Kaddish, followed by Ein ke'eloheinu. In Orthodox Judaism this is followed by a reading from the Talmud on the incense offering called Pittum Haketoreth and daily psalms that used to be recited in the Temple in Jerusalem. These readings are usually omitted by Conservative Jews, and are always omitted by Reform Jews.

The Musaf service culminates with the Rabbi's Kaddish, the Aleinu, and then the Mourner's Kaddish. Some synagogues conclude with the reading of An'im Zemirot, "The Hymn of Glory", Mourner's Kaddish, The psalm of the Day and either Adon Olam or Yigdal.

Do women recite Mussaf?

There is a debated over whether, in Orthodox Judaism, women are required to recite Mussaf, being that it is a time-bound commandment, and that women are only obligated to pray once a day. The Mussaf service contains only a commemorative mention of the sacrifices, and does not contain any personal requests, thereby making there be no special reason for women to recite it.[8]

Nevertheless, women are permitted to recite Mussaf.[9] On Rosh Hashanah, a woman who does not wish to remain in the synagogue for the Mussaf service must still listen to the shofar blowing.[10]

Sephardic authorities feel a woman should come to the synagogue and listen to Mussaf, but not recite it.

On High Holidays, women are required to recite Mussaf and Ne'ila.[11]

Offerings

The verses recited during the Mussaf Amidah (which are also read for the Maftir on the corresponding days) are all derived from the Book of Numbers chapters 28 and 29 (Parshat Pinchas). The following additional offerings are commanded on each day Mussaf is recited. Due to the fact that Jewish holidays are observed two days in the Diaspora rather than the one day commanded in the Torah, the schedule for recitation is modified.

Day Offerings Biblical verses Other notes
Shabbat Two lambs
2/10 meal offering of fine flour and olive oil
Numbers 28:9-10
  • When Shabbat coincides with Yom Tov or Chol Hamoed, the Yom Tov Mussaf Amidah is recited with Shabbat verses inserted.
  • When Shabbat coincides with Rosh Chodesh, a special Shabbat-Rosh Chodesh Amidah is recited, beginning with the verse "Ata Yatzarta" and containing verses for the offerings of both.
Rosh Chodesh Elevation offering
Two young bulls
One ram
Seven lambs
Numbers 28:9-11
Passover
Day 1
Fire offering
Elevation offering
Two young bulls
One ram
Seven male lambs
Numbers 28:16-19 Recited days 1-2 in Diaspora
(Nisan 15-16)
Passover
Days 2-7
Fire offering
Elevation offering
Two young bulls
One ram
Seven male lambs
Numbers 28:19 Recited on days 3-8 in Diaspora
(Nisan 17-22)
Shavuot Elevation offering
Two young bulls
One ram
Seven male lambs
Numbers 28:26-27 Recited two days in Diaspora
(Sivan 6-7)
Rosh Hashanah
Yom Kippur
Sukkot
Day 1
Elevation offering
Fire offering
13 young bulls
2 rams
14 lambs
Numbers 29:12-13 Recited on first two days of Sukkot in Diaspora
(Tishrei 15-16)
Sukkot
Day 2
12 young bulls
2 rams
14 lambs
Numbers 29:17 Recited on the first day of Chol Hamoed (third day of Sukkot) in the Diaspora
Sukkot
Day 3
11 young bulls
2 rams
14 lambs
Numbers 29:20 Recited on the first and second days of Chol Hamoed (third and fourth days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora
Sukkot
Day 4
10 young bulls
2 rams
14 lambs
Numbers 29:23 Recited on the second and third days of Chol Hamoed (fourth and fifth days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora
Sukkot
Day 5
9 young bulls
2 rams
14 lambs
Numbers 29:26 Recited on the third and fourth days of Chol Hamoed (fifth and sixth days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora
Sukkot
Day 6
8 young bulls
2 rams
14 lambs
Numbers 29:29 Recited on the fourth and fifth days of Chol Hamoed (sixth and seventh days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora
Sukkot
Day 7
(Hoshana Rabbah)
7 young bulls
2 rams
14 lambs
Numbers 29:32
Shemini Atzeret/
Simchat Torah
Elevation offering
Fire offering
one bull
one ram
7 lambs
Numbers 29:35-36

See also

References

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