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Nuclear power by country

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Nuclear power by country

The Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant in France. France produces around three quarters of its electricity by nuclear power.[1]
The Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Plant in Germany. Chancellor Angela Merkel's coalition announced on 30 May 2011, that Germany’s 14 nuclear power stations will be shut down by 2022, in a policy reversal following Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.[2]

Nuclear power stations operate in 31 countries. China has 28 new reactors under construction,[3] and there are also a considerable number of new reactors being built in South Korea, India, and Russia. At the same time, at least 100 older and smaller reactors will "most probably be closed over the next 10-15 years".[4] So the expanding nuclear programs in Asia are balanced by retirements of ageing plants and nuclear reactor phase-outs.[5]

In 2010, before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, it was reported that an average of about 10 nuclear reactors were expected to become operational per year, although according to the World Nuclear Association, of the 17 civilian reactors planned to become operational between 2007 and 2009, only five actually came on stream.[4] As of June 2011, Germany and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power[6][7] which will be replaced mostly by fossil fuels, and a smaller part renewable energy.

As of 2012, countries such as Australia, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, and Portugal remain opposed to nuclear power.[6][8] Global nuclear electricity generation in 2012 was at its lowest level since 1999.[9][10]

Contents

  • Overview 1
  • List of nuclear reactors by country 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Overview

Of the thirty countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Belgium, Hungary and Slovakia use them as the primary source of electricity, although many other countries have a significant nuclear power generation capacity.[11] According to the World Nuclear Association, a nuclear power advocacy group, over 45 countries are giving "serious consideration" to introducing a nuclear power capability, with Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Vietnam, Belarus, and Jordan at the forefront.[12] China, South Korea and India are pursuing ambitious expansions of their nuclear power capacities, with China aiming to increase capacity to at least 80 GWe by 2020, 200 GWe by 2030 and 400 GWe by 2050.[13] South Korea plans to expand its nuclear capacity from 20.7 GWe in 2012 to 27.3 GWe in 2020 and to 43 GWe by 2030.[14] India aims to have 14.6 GWe nuclear power generation capacity by 2020 and 63 GWe by 2032 and to have 25% of all electricity supplied by nuclear power by 2050.[15][16]

Timeline of commissioned and decommissioned nuclear capacity since the 1950s[16]
Global status of nuclear deployment as of 2009 (source: see file description)

      Operating reactors, building new reactors
      Operating reactors, planning new build
      No reactors, building new reactors
      No reactors, planning new build

      Operating reactors, stable
      Operating reactors, considering phase-out
      Civil nuclear power is illegal
      No reactors

Nations based on nuclear output as a percentage of national power output.
Nuclear power plants in Europe
Nuclear power by Country in 2014[11]
Country Number of
operated reactors
Capacity
Net-total (MWe)
Generated
electricity (GWh)
%-share of
domestic generation
 France 58 63130 418001.40 76.9%
 Slovakia 4 1814 14420.34 56.8%
 Hungary 4 1889 14777.73 53.6%
 Ukraine 15 13107 83122.79 49.4%
 Belgium 7 5927 32093.74 47.5%
 Sweden 10 9470 62270.05 41.5%
 Switzerland 5 3333 26467.90 37.9%
 Slovenia 1 688 6060.82 37.2%
 Czech Republic 6 3904 28636.78 35.8%
 Finland 4 2752 22645.96 34.6%
 Bulgaria 2 1926 15013.99 31.8%
 Armenia 1 375 2265.64 30.7%
 Korea, Republic of 23 20717 149199.22 30.4%
 Spain 7 7121 54860.38 20.4%
 United States 100 99244 798616.26 19.5%
 Russia 34 24654 169064.84 18.6%
 Romania 2 1300 10753.68 18.5%
 United Kingdom 16 9373 57918.48 17.2%
 Canada 19 13500 98588.12 16.8%
 Germany 9 12074 91783.70 15.8%
 South Africa 2 1860 14762.70 6.2%
 Mexico 2 1330 9311.60 5.6%
 Pakistan 3 690 4577.53 4.3%
 Argentina 3 1627 5258.17 4.0%
 Netherlands 1 482 3873.51 4.0%
 India 21 5780 37835.00 3.7%
 Brazil 2 1884 14463.39 2.9%
 China 29 24140 123807.69 2.4%
 Iran 1 915 3723.60 1.5%
 Japan 48 42388 0.00 0.0%
 Taiwan 6 5032 40801.06 18.9%
World total 439 376,821 MWe 2,410 TWh 10.9%[17]

List of nuclear reactors by country

Only the commercial reactors registered with the International Atomic Energy Agency are listed below.

Country Operating Under
construction
References and notes
 Argentina 3 1
 Armenia 1 0 Replacement[18]
 Belarus 0 2 Under construction
 Belgium 7 0
 Brazil 2 1 [19]
 Bulgaria 2 0 Four reactors were shut down in 2004 and 2007. Belene Nuclear Power Plant construction was officially terminated in March 2012.[20]
 Canada 19 0 2 new reactors at Darlington planned
 China 26 23 80 GWe by 2020(~6%)[21]
 Czech Republic 6 0
 Finland 4 1 As of 2012, TVO is planning a new reactor to be built and operational by 2020.[22]
 France 58 1 First French EPR under construction at Flamanville
 Germany 9 0 Phase-out in place by 2022.
 Hungary 4 0 Paks2 [2*1200MW] signed with Rosatom in 2014.
 India 21 6 Six reactors with a cumulative capacity of 4300 MW are under construction as of 2015.
 Iran 1 0 The first reactor of Bushehr Plant has power generation capacity of 915 MW[23]
 Japan 43 3 After Fukushima, Japan shut down all of its 54 nuclear reactors, 6 of them permanently; 48 remain operational, but only 2 have been approved for restart.[24][25]
 Mexico 2 0
 Netherlands 1 0
 Pakistan 3 2 Pakistan plans on constructing 32 nuclear power plants by 2050.[26]
 Romania 2 0 20 January 2011, GDF Suez, Iberdrola and RWE pulled out of the project.
 Russia 34 9 9 new reactors by 2017
 Slovakia 4 2 Under construction
 Slovenia 1 0
 South Africa 2 0 South Africa will be building a further 9600 MW, 6-8 reactors, by 2030[27][28]
 South Korea 24 4
 Spain 7 0 Stable[29]
 Sweden 10 0
 Switzerland 5 0 Phase-out in place, first decommissioning 2029.[30]
 Taiwan 6 0
 Turkey 0 2
 Ukraine 15 2 (IAEA) or 0 (WNA) 2 new reactors by 2018.[31][32] One destroyed in 1986.
 United Arab Emirates 0 4 4 reactors expected to be operational 2017-2020[33][34]
 United Kingdom 16 0
 United States 99 5
World 437 69 (IAEA) or 65 (WNA)

References:[1][16]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "World Nuclear Power Reactors & Uranium Requirements". World Nuclear Association. 2010-10-01. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 
  2. ^ Annika Breidthardt (30 May 2011). "German government wants nuclear exit by 2022 at latest". Reuters. 
  3. ^ "China Nuclear Power - Chinese Nuclear Energy". 
  4. ^ a b Michael Dittmar. Taking stock of nuclear renaissance that never was Sydney Morning Herald, 18 August 2010.
  5. ^  
  6. ^ a b Duroyan Fertl (5 June 2011). "Germany: Nuclear power to be phased out by 2022". Green Left. 
  7. ^ James Kanter (25 May 2011). "Switzerland Decides on Nuclear Phase-Out". New York Times. 
  8. ^ "Nuclear power: When the steam clears". The Economist. 24 March 2011. 
  9. ^ WNA (20 June 2013). "Nuclear power down in 2012". World Nuclear News. 
  10. ^ "The Nuclear Renaissance". 
  11. ^ a b "Nuclear Share of Electricity Generation in 2014". IAEA. 2015-04-30. Retrieved 2015-05-01. 
  12. ^ "Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries". World Nuclear Association. April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  13. ^ "China Nuclear Power". World Nuclear Association. April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  14. ^ "Nuclear Power in South Korea". World Nuclear Association. February 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  15. ^ "Nuclear Power in India". World Nuclear Association. 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  16. ^ a b c "Operational & Long-Term Shutdown Reactors". IAEA. 2013-04-13. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  17. ^ "2014 Key World Energy Statistics" (PDF). http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/. IEA. 2014. p. 24. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. World electricity generation by fuels in 2012; from the international Energy Agency report Key World Energy Statistic, 2014 edition. 
  18. ^ "USA supports new nuclear build in Armenia". World Nuclear News. 2007-11-23. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  19. ^ Agência Estado (12-09-2008). "Lobão diz que país fará uma usina nuclear por ano em 50 anos" (in Portuguese). G1.globo.com. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  20. ^ Bulgaria quits Belene Nuclear Power Plant project, Novinite, 28 March 2012
  21. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  22. ^ "Kolme uutta reaktoria, Jees!". Tekniikka ja talous. 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  23. ^ F_405. "Iran's Bushehr nuke power plant at full capacity from May 23: Russian contractor - People's Daily Online". English.peopledaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  24. ^ Japan/Nuclear Power in Japan, World Nuclear Association, 27 January 2015
  25. ^ Gerhardt, Tina (22 July 2012). "Japan's People Say NO to Nuclear Energy".  
  26. ^ "32 nuclear plants to produce 40,000MW: PAEC". The News International, Pakistan. 27 February 2014. 
  27. ^ "Nuclear Power in South Africa". Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  28. ^ "S.Africa wants nuclear contracts to stay at home". Reuters. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  29. ^ Nuclear power in Spain, World Nuclear Association, URL accessed 13 June 2006
  30. ^ Associated Press (28 September 2011). "Swiss Nuclear Power Plan Moves Toward Phase-Out Of Reactors". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  31. ^ "BBC NEWS | Politics | New nuclear plants get go-ahead". News.bbc.co.uk. 10 January 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
  32. ^ "Nuclear Power in Ukraine". World Nuclear Association. August 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  33. ^ "Nuclear Power United Arab Emirates | UAE Nuclear Energy | Abu Dhabi | Dubai". www.world-nuclear.org. https://plus.google.com/104928353979483214508/. Retrieved 2015-10-19. 
  34. ^ "UAE's fourth power reactor under construction - EE Publishers". EE Publishers (in en-US). Retrieved 2015-10-19. 

External links

  • World Nuclear Statistics
  • 2006 statistics in Neutron Physics by Paul Reuss
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