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Open-mid back rounded vowel

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Open-mid back rounded vowel

Open-mid back rounded vowel
ɔ
IPA number 306
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɔ
Unicode (hex) U+0254
X-SAMPA O
Kirshenbaum O
Braille ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
Sound
 ·

The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɔ. The IPA symbol is a turned letter c and both the symbol and the sound are commonly called "open-o". The name open-o represents the sound, in that it is like the sound represented by o, the close-mid back rounded vowel, except it is more open. It also represents the symbol, which can be remembered as an o which has been "opened" by removing part of the closed circular shape.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Few speakers in the former Transvaal Province[1] daar [dɔːr] 'there' Much more often open [ɒː]. It is unrounded [ɑː] in standard Afrikaans.[2] See Afrikaans phonology
Albanian po [pɔ] 'yes'
Armenian Eastern[3] հողմ [hɔʁm] 'storm'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Urmian dialect khwara [χwɔːra] 'white' Corresponds to [ɒ] in other varieties.
Bamana wɔɔrɔ [wɔːrɔ] 'six'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[4] May be transcribed in IPA as ɒ.[4]
Bengali বস [bɔʃ] 'sit' See Bengali phonology
Catalan[5] soc [ˈsɔk] 'clog' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /ngo5 [ŋɔː˩˧] 'I' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /wǒ [wɔ˨˩˦] 'I' See Mandarin phonology
Min /gōo [ɡɔ˨] 'five'
Wu /bo [bɔ˨˩˦] 'run'
Danish Standard[6][7][8][9] og [ɔʊ̯] 'and' Slightly lowered,[6][7][8][9] also described as [ɒ][10] - the way it is most often transcribed. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[11] och     'alas' 'Very tense, with strong lip-rounding',[12] strongly pharyngealized[13] (although less so in standard Belgian[14]) and somewhat fronted.[11][15] See Dutch phonology
Standard Netherlandic[15]
Amelands hôl [hɔːl] 'hollow'
Belgian nauw [nɔ̞ː] 'narrow' Some dialects. Corresponds to [ɔu] in standard Belgian Dutch.
Dutch Low Saxon taol [tɔːɫ] 'language' May be lower [ɒː] in some dialects.
English Australian[16] not     'not' See Australian English phonology
Estuary[17]
New Zealand[18] May be somewhat fronted.[19] Often transcribed in IPA as ɒ.
Received Pronunciation[20] /ɒ/ has shifted up in emerging RP.
General American[21] thought [θɔːt] 'thought' Mainly in speakers without the cot–caught merger. It may be from lower [ɒ]. See English phonology
Norfolk[22]
Older Received Pronunciation[23] Higher [ɔ̝ː] for most other speakers.
Scottish[24] Many Scottish dialects exhibit the cot-caught merger, the outcome of which is a vowel of [ɔ] quality.
Sheffield[25] goat [ɡɔːt] 'goat'
Newfoundland[26] but [bɔt] 'but' Less commonly unrounded [ʌ].[26] See English phonology
Faroese góðan morgun [ˌɡɔuwan ˈmɔɹɡʊn] 'good morning'
French[27] sort [sɔ̜ːʁ] 'fate' See French phonology
[28] რისწ [st͡sʼɔɾi] 'correct'
German Northern Bernese grad [ˈɡ̊rɔd̥] 'just now' May be lower [ɒ]. See Bernese German phonology
Standard[29] voll     'full' See German phonology
Icelandic[30][31][32] loft [ˈlɔft] 'air' Often diphthongized to [oɔ] when long.[33] See Icelandic phonology
Indonesian kodok [kɔdɔʔ] 'frog'
Italian[34] parola     'word' Fronted. See Italian phonology
Kaingang[35] [ˈpɔ] 'stone'
Lao [bɔː] 'origin'
Lingala mbɔ́ngɔ [ᵐbɔ́ᵑɡɔ] 'money'
Macedonian коњ [kɔɲ] 'horse' See Macedonian phonology
Norwegian Some dialects[36] så [sɔː] 'so' Present e.g. in Telemark; realized as mid [ɔ̝ː] in other dialects.[36] See Norwegian phonology
Occitan òme [ˈɔme] 'man'
Polish[37] kot     'cat' See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[38][39] fofoca [fɔˈfɔ̞kə] 'gossip' Stressed vowel might be lower. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨o⟩ allophones, such as [ o ʊ u], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[40] bronca [ˈbɾɔ̃kə] 'scolding' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /õ̞/. See Portuguese phonology
Slovak Standard[41] ohúriť [ˈɔɦu̞ric̟] 'to stun' Most commonly realized as mid [].[42] See Slovak phonology
Swedish moll [mɔl] 'minor' See Swedish phonology
Tajik тоҷикӣ [tɔːdʒɪˈkiː] 'Tajik language'
Ukrainian вовк [ˈvɔwk] 'wolf' See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek O'zbek [ɔzˈbek] 'Uzbek'
Vietnamese to [tɔ] 'large' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian bôle [ˈbɔːɫə] 'bread'
Yoruba[43] Nasalized; may be near-open [ɔ̞̃] instead.[43]

See also

References

  1. ^ Donaldson (1993), p. 6.
  2. ^ Donaldson (1993), pp. 6–7.
  3. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  4. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  5. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  6. ^ a b Grønnum (1998:100)
  7. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:268)
  8. ^ a b Grønnum (2003)
  9. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:47)
  10. ^ Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
  11. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005:245)
  12. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132)
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132, 222 and 224)
  14. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:222)
  15. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  16. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  17. ^ Wells (1982a:305)
  18. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a)
  19. ^ Bauer et al. (2007:98)
  20. ^ Wikström (2013:45), "It seems to be the case that younger RP or near-RP speakers typically use a closer quality, possibly approaching Cardinal 6 considering that the quality appears to be roughly intermediate between that used by older speakers for the LOT vowel and that used for the THOUGHT vowel, while older speakers use a more open quality, between Cardinal Vowels 13 and 6."
  21. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b)
  22. ^ Lodge (2009:168)
  23. ^ Wells (1982a:293)
  24. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  25. ^ Stoddart, Upton and Widowson in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 74
  26. ^ a b Wells (1982b:498)
  27. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  28. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261–262)
  29. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  30. ^ Árnason (2011:60)
  31. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  32. ^ Haugen (1958:65)
  33. ^ Árnason (2011:57–60)
  34. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  35. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  36. ^ a b Popperwell (2010:26)
  37. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  38. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  39. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira
  40. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (Portuguese)
  41. ^ Pavlík (2004:94–95)
  42. ^ Pavlík (2004:94)
  43. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1969:166)

Bibliography

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  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press,  
  • Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966), A Grammar of Yoruba, [West African Languages Survey / Institute of African Studies], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  •  
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 97–102,  
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56,  
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF),  
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94,  
  • Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993), "1. Pronunciation", A Grammar of Afrikaans,  
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Einarsson, Stefán (1945), Icelandic. Grammar texts glossary., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press,  
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand? 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag,  
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  • Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia 12: 71–90.  
  • Harrington, J.; Cox, F.; Evans, Z. (1997), "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics 17: 155–84,  
  •  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107,  
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685 
  •  
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics,  
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  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009b), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
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  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264,  
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 2: 289–333,  
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  •  
  • Wells, John C. (1982b), Accents of English, III: Beyond the British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press,  
  • Wikström, Jussi (2013), "An acoustic study of the RP English LOT and THOUGHT vowels", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 37–47,  
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