World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Open-mid front rounded vowel

Article Id: WHEBN0000597251
Reproduction Date:

Title: Open-mid front rounded vowel  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Open front rounded vowel, French orthography, Swedish phonology, Ö, Table of vowels
Collection: Vowels
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Open-mid front rounded vowel

Open-mid front rounded vowel
œ
IPA number 311
Encoding
Entity (decimal) œ
Unicode (hex) U+0153
X-SAMPA 9
Kirshenbaum W
Braille ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
Sound
 ·

The open-mid front rounded vowel, or low-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is an open-mid front-central rounded vowel.[1] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is œ. The symbol œ is a lowercase ligature of the letters o and e. Note that ɶ, a small caps version of the Œ ligature, is used for a distinct vowel sound: the open front rounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Contents

  • Open-mid front compressed vowel 1
    • Features 1.1
    • Occurrence 1.2
  • Open-mid front protruded vowel 2
    • Features 2.1
    • Occurrence 2.2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4

Open-mid front compressed vowel

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •
  • Its vowel height is open-mid, also known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel (a low vowel) and a mid vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Azeri öküz [œˈcyz] 'ox'
Afrikaans Standard[2] lug [lœχ] 'air' Many speakers merge /œ/ and /ə/ into [ɪ̈], especially in natural speech.[2] See Afrikaans phonology
Armenian Western Armenian Էօժենի [œʒɛˈni] 'Eugenie'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] Seil [sœ̠ː] 'rope' Near-front; may be transcribed /ɶ/.[3]
Chinese Cantonese /hoe1 [hœː˥] 'boots' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /y [ɥœ˥˩] 'moon' See Mandarin phonology
Wu [ɰœ˩˧] 'bowl'
Danish Standard[4][5][6] gøre [ˈɡ̊œ̠ːɐ] 'to do' Near-front.[4][5] Most often, it is transcribed [œ̞ː] or the same as [ɶː]. See Danish phonology
Dutch Southern uit [œːt] 'out' Some dialects, corresponds to [œy] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
The Hague[7] Corresponds to [œy] in standard Dutch.
Limburg hut [hœt] 'hut' Some dialects. Corresponds to [ɵ] in standard Dutch.
English Cockney[8] bird [bœ̠ːd] 'bird' Near-front.[8] May as well be unrounded [ɜ̟ː], or the RP variant /ɜː/.
New Zealand[9] Near-front;[9] may be [ɵ̟ː] or [ø̞̈ː] instead. See English phonology
General
South African[10]
go [ɡœː] 'go' Some speakers. Can be a diphthong of the type [œʉ]~[œɤ̈] instead. Other South African varieties don't monophthongize.
Faroese løgdu [lœdːʊ] 'laid' (pl.)
French[11] jeune [ʒœn] 'young' See French phonology
German Standard[12] Hölle [ˈhœ̞̈lə] 'hell' Near-front and somewhat lowered.[12] See German phonology
Lori shö [ʃœ] 'night'
Mongolian Chakhar ᠣᠨᠢᠰᠤ [œnʲs] 'lock' The standard dialect in Inner Mongolia.
North Frisian blömk [blœmk] 'flower'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[13] øl [œ̠l̪] 'beer' Near-front.[13] See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Limousin puei [pœj] 'then'
Some Auvergnat varieties Most common in the north.
Western Lombard fioeu [fjœː] 'son' Allophone of /ø/.
West Frisian Hindeloopers[14] See West Frisian phonology
Súdwesthoeksk[14][15] skoalle [ˈskœlə] 'school'

Icelandic ö is often transcribed as /œ/, but it is actually central [ɞ].[16][17][18]

Open-mid front protruded vowel

Open-mid front protruded vowel
œ̫
œʷ
ɛʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, œʷ (an open-mid front rounded vowel modified by endolabialization) will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded open-mid front vowels.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Swedish Central Standard[19][20][21] öra     'ear' Allophone of /œ/ and most often also /øː/ before /r/.[19][20][21] May be more open [ɶ, ɶː] for younger speakers from Stockholm.[21] See Swedish phonology
Stockholm[21] köpa [ˈɕœ̠ʷːˈpa] 'to buy' Realization of /øː, œ/ for younger speakers.[21] Higher [øː, œ̝] for other speakers. See Swedish phonology
Southwestern dialects Corresponds to [øː] in Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology

References

  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ a b Donaldson (1993:5)
  3. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ a b Grønnum (1998:100)
  5. ^ a b Grønnum (2003)
  6. ^ Basbøll (2005:46): "Nina Grønnum uses two different symbols for the vowels in these and similar words: gøre she transcribes with [œ̞] (semi-narrow transcription) and [œ] (narrow transcription), and grøn she transcribes with [ɶ] (semi-narrow transcription) and [ɶ̝] (narrow transcription). Clearly, there is variation within Standard Danish on this point, cf. the end of the present s. 2.2."
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:136)
  8. ^ a b Wells (1982:305)
  9. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:188)
  10. ^ Lass (2002:118)
  11. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  12. ^ a b Mangold (2005:37)
  13. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:13)
  14. ^ a b van der Veen (2001:102)
  15. ^ Hoekstra (2001:83)
  16. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  17. ^ Haugen (1958:65)
  18. ^ "Icelandic Phonetic Transcription.PDF - ptg_ice.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  19. ^ a b Eliasson (1986:273)
  20. ^ a b Thorén & Petterson (1992:13–14)
  21. ^ a b c d e Riad (2014:38)

Bibliography

  •  
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF),  
  • Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993), "1. Pronunciation", A Grammar of Afrikaans,  
  • Einarsson, Stefán (1945), Icelandic. Grammar texts glossary., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press,  
  • Eliasson, Stig (1986), "Sandhi in Peninsular Scandinavian", in Anderson, Henning, Sandhi Phenomena in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 271–300 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand? 
  • Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia 12: 71–90.  
  •  
  • Hoekstra, Jarich (2001), "12. Standard West Frisian", in Munske, Horst Haider; Århammar, Hans, Handbook of Frisian studies, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag GmbH, pp. 83–98,  
  •  
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press,  
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37,  
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press,  
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing 
  • Thorén, Bosse; Petterson, Nils-Owe (1992), Svenska Utifrån Uttalsanvisningar,  
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 2: 289–333,  
  • van der Veen, Klaas F. (2001), "13. West Frisian Dialectology and Dialects", in Munske, Horst Haider; Århammar, Hans, Handbook of Frisian studies, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag GmbH, pp. 98–116,  
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo,  
  •  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.