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Parametric design

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 Title: Parametric design Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia Language: English Subject: Collection: Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia Publication Date:

Parametric design

Parametric design is a process based on algorithmic thinking that enables the expression of parameters and rules that, together, define, encode and clarify the relationship between design intent and design response.[1][2]

Parametric design is a paradigm in design where the relationship between elements are used to manipulate and inform the design of complex geometries and structures.
The term 'Parametric' originates from mathematics (Parametric equation) and refers to the use of certain parameters or variables that can be edited to manipulate or alter the end result of an equation or system. Parametric design is not a new concept and has always formed a part of architecture and design. The consideration of changing forces such as climate, setting, culture, and use has always formed part of the design process.[3]

Parametric modeling systems can be divided into two main types of systems:

• Propagation based systems where you compute from known to unknowns with a dataflow model.
• Constraint systems which solve sets of continuous and discrete constraints.[4]

Form-finding is one of the strategies implementing a propagation based system. The idea behind form-finding is to optimize certain design goals against a set of design constraints.[4]

Contents

• History (early examples) 1
• Analogue parametric design 1.1
• Properties of the method 2
• Architecture 3
• Urban design 4
• Software 5
• Catia 5.1
• Autodesk 3DS Max 5.2
• Autodesk Maya 5.3
• Grasshopper 3D 5.4
• Autodesk Revit 5.5
• Autodesk Dynamo 5.6
• References 8

History (early examples)

Analogue parametric design

An upside down force model of the Colònia Güell, Sagrada Família Museum

One of the earliest examples of parametric design was the upside down models of churches by Antonio Gaudi. In his design for the Church of Colònia Güell he created a model of strings weighted down with birdshot to create complex vaulted ceilings and arches. By adjusting the position of the weights or the length of the strings he could alter the shape of each arch and also see how this change influence the arches connected to it. He used to place a mirror on the bottom of the model to see how it should look upside-down.

Properties of the method

This method has all the properties of a parametric model (input parameters, equation, output):

• The string length, birdshot weight and anchor point location all form independent input parameters
• The vertex locations of the points on the strings being the outcomes of the model
• The outcomes being derived by explicit functions, in this case gravity or Newtons law of motion.

By modifying individual parameters of these models Gaudi could generate different versions of his model while being certain the resulting structure would stand in pure compression. Instead of having to manually calculate the results of parametric equations he could automatically derive the shape of the catenary curves through the force of gravity acting on the strings.[5]

Where Gaudi used physical laws to speed up his calculation of parametric equations, Ivan Sutherland looked to the processing power of digital computers.

Ivan Sutherland created an interactive computer-aided design program called Sketchpad. Using a light pen, users could draw lines and arcs that could be related to each other using constraints. These constraints contained all the essential properties of parametric equations. Users could experiment and explore different designs by altering the parameters of an entity and let Sketchpad do the calculations and redraw the geometry according to the constraints imposed upon it.[5]

Architecture

Departure Hall of Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport, photo: Gänshirt 2014

Nature has always served as inspiration for architects and designers. Computer technology have given designers and architects the tools to analyse and simulate the complexity observed in nature and apply it to structural building shapes and urban organizational patterns. In the 1980s architects and designers started using computers running software developed for the aerospace and moving picture industries to "animate form".[3]

One of the first architects and theorists that used computers to generate architecture was Greg Lynn. His blob and fold architecture is some of the early examples of computer generated architecture. Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport's new Terminal 3, finished in 2013, designed by Italian architect Massimiliano Fuksas, with parametric design support by the engineering firm Knippers Helbig, is an example for the use of parametric design and production technologies in a large scale building.

Urban design

Parametric urbanism is concerned with the study and prediction of settlement patterns. Architect Frei Otto distinguishes occupying and connecting as the two fundamental processes that are in involved with all urbanisation.[6] Studies look at producing solutions that reduce overall path length in systems while maintaining low average detour factor or facade differentiation.

Software

Catia

CATIA (Computer Aided three-dimensional Interactive Application) was used by architect Frank Gehry to design some of his award winning curvilinear buildings such as the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. Gehry Technologies, the technology arm of his firm have since created Digital Project, their own parametric design software based on their experience with CATIA.

Autodesk 3DS Max

Autodesk 3ds Max is a sophisticated parametric 3D modeling software provides a comprehensive modeling, animation, simulation, and rendering solution for games, film, and motion graphics artists. 3ds Max delivers efficient new tools, accelerated performance, and streamlined workflows to help increase overall productivity for working with complex, high-resolution assets. 3ds Max uses the concept of modifiers and wired parameters to control its geometry and gives the user the ability to script its functionality using the MAXSCRIPT as the Python programming languages. Max Creation Graph is an all-new visual programming node-based tool creation environment in 3ds Max 2016 working similar to Grasshopper and Dynamo. Empowers users to extend 3ds Max with geometric objects and modifiers. With MCG (Max Creation Graph) you can create a new plug-in for 3ds Max in minutes by simply wiring together parameter nodes, computation nodes, and output nodes. The resulting graph can then be saved in an XML file (.maxtool) or be packaged with any compounds (.maxcompound) it depends in a ZIP file (.mcg) which you can share easily with 3ds Max users.

Autodesk Maya

Autodesk Maya is a 3D computer graphics software originally developed by Alias Systems Corporation (formerly Alias|Wavefront) and currently owned and developed by Autodesk, Inc. It is used to create interactive 3D applications, including video games, animated film, TV series, or visual effects. Maya exposes a node graph architecture. Scene elements are node-based, each node having its own attributes and customization. As a result, the visual representation of a scene is based entirely on a network of interconnecting nodes, depending on each other's information. For the convenience of viewing these networks, there is a dependency and a directed acyclic graph. Users who are students, teachers (or veterans or unemplo.Alongside its more recognized visual workflow, Maya is equipped with a cross-platform scripting language, called Maya Embedded Language. MEL is provided for scripting and a means to customize the core functionality of the software, since many of the tools and commands used are written in it. MEL or Python can be used to engineer modifications, plug-ins or be injected into runtime. Outside these superficial uses of the language, user interaction is recorded in MEL, allowing even inexperienced users to implement subroutines.

Grasshopper 3D

The Grasshopper canvas with some nodes

Grasshopper 3d (originally Explicit History) is a plugin for Rhinoceros 3D that presents the users with a visual programming language interface to create and edit geometry.

Components or nodes are dragged onto a canvas in order to build a grasshopper definition. Grasshopper is based on graphs (see Graph (mathematics)) that map the flow of relations from parameters through user-defined functions (nodes), resulting in the generation of geometry. Changing parameters or geometry causes to changes to propagate throughout all functions, and the geometry to be redrawn.[5]

Autodesk Revit

Autodesk Revit is BIM (building information modeling) software used by architects and other building professionals. Revit was developed in response to the need for software that could create three-dimensional parametric models that include both geometry and non-geometric design and construction information. Every change made to an element in Revit is automatically propagated through the model to keep all components, views and annotations consistent. This eases collaboration between teams and ensures that all information (floor areas, schedules, etc.) are updated dynamically when changes in the model are made.

Autodesk Dynamo

Dynamo is an open source graphical programming environment for design. Dynamo extends building information modeling with the data and logic environment of a graphical algorithm editor.