World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Persian and Urdu

 

Persian and Urdu

The Persian language influenced the formation of many modern languages of all Asia, Europe, Central Asia, and South Asian regions, including the South Asian language Urdu.[1]

Following the Turko-Persian Ghaznavid conquest of South Asia, the speech based in Delhi's Khariboli and other dialects of the South Asia received a large influx of Persian, Turkish and Arabic vocabulary, as well as a limited number of grammatical patterns from these languages. The subsequent Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate gave way for a further continuation of this. The basis in general for the introduction of Persian language into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties.[2] Eventually, this lexically hybrid language that emerged in the northern subcontinent, was called Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Mualla ('language of the exalted (army) camp') to distinguish it from Farsi, the court language, and was later shortened to just Urdu. It grew from the interaction of Persian and Turkic speaking Muslim soldiers and the native peoples.[3] Under Persian influence from the state, the Persian script and Nasta'liq form of cursive writing was adopted, with additional figures added to accommodate the Indo-Aryan phonetic system.

Urdu is grammatically an Indo-Aryan language, written in the Perso-Arabic script, and contains literary conventions and specialized vocabulary largely from Persian.[4] Some grammatical elements peculiar to Persian, such as the enclitic ezāfe, and the use of the takhallus, were readily absorbed into Urdu literature both in the religious and secular spheres.

Urdu soon gained distinction in literary and cultural spheres in South Asia because of the hybrid nature of the language, producing a distinct Indo-Persian blending. A famous cross-over writer was Amir Khusro, whose Persian and Urdu couplets are to this day read in South Asia. Allama Iqbal was also a prominent South Asian writer who wrote in Persian and Urdu.

Contents

  • Urdu scholars in Persian literature 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Urdu scholars in Persian literature

Urdu Persian scholars include:

  • Amir Khusro[5]
  • Allama Iqbal[6]
  • Mirza Ghalib[7]
  • Dr. Rais Numani[8]
  • Allama Jamil mazhari[9]
  • Dr. Shamim Hashimi[10]
  • Ataur Rahman Ata Kakwi[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/15/show_family.asp?subid=90019
  2. ^ Sigfried J. de Laet. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century UNESCO, 1994. ISBN 9231028138 p 734
  3. ^ Hindi by Yamuna Kachru http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ooH5VfLTQEQC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=urdu+heavy+persian&source=bl&ots=dG3qgmaV95&sig=WivP7AW9eRlTcp4oscBoHCBFEE0&hl=en&ei=9sp8SqzpLI6y-AaM5vxG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9#v=onepage&q=urdu%20heavy%20persian&f=false
  4. ^ Hindi By Yamuna Kachru http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ooH5VfLTQEQC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=urdu+heavy+persian&source=bl&ots=dG3qgmaV95&sig=WivP7AW9eRlTcp4oscBoHCBFEE0&hl=en&ei=9sp8SqzpLI6y-AaM5vxG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9#v=onepage&q=urdu%20heavy%20persian&f=false
  5. ^ http://allpoetry.com/Amir_Khusro
  6. ^ http://www.allamaiqbal.com/publications/journals/review/apr79/2.htm
  7. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/30458478/Kulliat-e-Mirza-Ghalib-Nazme-Farsi
  8. ^ http://www.mintocircle.com/staff-directory/teaching-staff/41-teachers/5-dr-rais-ahmad-nomani.html
  9. ^ http://www.patnauniversity.ac.in/pgdebt-urdu.html
  10. ^ Zaheer Ghazipuri.2009. "http://connemara.tnopac.gov.in", Jhārkhanḍ aur Bihār ke aham ahl-i qalam, New Delhi. Nirali Dunya Publishers.184-192.
  11. ^ "ciillibrary.org", Jamal ghazal Ataur Rahman Ata Kakwi.

External links

  • English to Urdu and Persian trilingual dictionary
  • Urdu and Persian Forum
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.