World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Pope Callixtus I

Pope Saint
Callixtus I
Pope Calixtus institutes the fasts
Papacy began c. 218
Papacy ended c. 223
Predecessor Zephyrinus
Successor Urban I
Personal details
Birth name Callixtus or Callistus
Born ???
???
Died 223
???
Sainthood
Feast day 14 October
Patronage Cemetery workers[1]
Other popes named Callixtus

Pope Callixtus I (died circa 223), also called Callistus I, was the bishop of Rome from c. 218 to his death c. 223.[2] He lived during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. He was martyred for his Christian faith and is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church.

Contents

  • Life 1
  • Death 2
  • Notes 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Life

His contemporaries and enemies, Tertullian and Hippolytus of Rome the author of Philosophumena, relate that Callixtus, as a young slave, was put in charge of collected funds by his master Carpophorus, funds which were given as alms by other Christians for the care of widows and orphans; Callixtus lost the funds and fled from Rome, but was caught near Portus. According to the tale, Callixtus jumped overboard to avoid capture but was rescued and taken back to his master. He was released at the request of the creditors, who hoped he might be able to recover some of the money, but was rearrested for fighting in a synagogue when he tried to borrow money or collect debts from some Jews.[2]

Statue of Pope Callixtus I, Cathedral of Reims

Philosophumena claims that, denounced as a Christian, Callixtus was sentenced to work in the mines of Sardinia. He was released with other Christians at the request of Hyacinthus, a eunuch presbyter, who represented Marcia, the favourite mistress of Emperor Commodus. At this time his health was so weakened that his fellow Christians sent him to Antium to recuperate and he was given a pension by Pope Victor I.[2]

Callixtus was the deacon to whom Pope Zephyrinus entrusted the burial chambers along the Appian Way. In the third century, nine Bishops of Rome were interred in the Catacomb of Callixtus, in the part now called the Capella dei Papi. These catacombs were rediscovered by the archaeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi in 1849.

When Callixtus followed Zephyrinus as

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Zephyrinus
Bishop of Rome
Pope

217–222
Succeeded by
Urban I
  • St. Calixtus, or Callistus, Pope, Martyr
  • St. Callistus I

External links

  • Kelly, J. N. D. (2006). Oxford Dictionary of the Popes (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 13–4.  

References

  1. ^ Jones, Tery M. "Pope Saint Callistus I". Saints.SQPN.com. Star Quest Publication Network. Retrieved 14 October 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c Chapman, John (1908). "Pope Callistus I" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ Philosophoumena IX.7
  4. ^ Pagels, Elaine (1979). The Gnostic Gospels. Weidenfeld and Nicholson. p. 108. 
  5. ^ Hippolytus. Refutation of all heresies. Book 9 Ch. 7. 
  6. ^ "Saint Hippolytus of Rome". Encyclopedia Britannica. 
  7. ^ a b Sabine Baring-Gould, The Lives of the Saints. Vol. 2. (J. Hodges, 1877). Digitized 6 June 2007. Page 506.
  8. ^  

Notes

Callixtus was honoured as a martyr in Todi, Italy, on 14 August. He was buried in the cemetery of Calepodius on the Aurelian Way and his anniversary is given by the 4th-century Depositio Martirum and by subsequent martyrologies on 14 October. The Roman Catholic Church celebrates his optional memorial on 14 October. His relics were translated in the 9th century to Santa Maria in Trastevere.[8]

It is possible that Callixtus was martyred around 222 or 223, perhaps during a popular uprising, but the legend that he was thrown down a well has no historical foundation, though the church does contain an ancient well. According to the apocryphal Acts of Saint Callixtus, Asterius, a priest of Rome, recovered the body of Callixtus after it had been tossed into a well and buried Callixtus' body at night.[7] Asterius was arrested for this action by the prefect Alexander and then killed by being thrown off a bridge into the Tiber River.[7]

Death

The Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere was a titulus of which Callixtus was the patron. In an apocryphal anecdote in the collection of imperial biographies called the Augustan History, the spot on which he had built an oratory was claimed by tavern keepers, but Alexander Severus decided that the worship of any god was better than a tavern, hence the structure's name. The 4th-century basilica of Ss Callixti et Iuliani was rebuilt in the 12th century by Pope Innocent II and rededicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The 8th-century Chiesa di San Callisto is close by, with its beginnings apparently as a shrine on the site of his martyrdom, which is attested in the 4th-century Depositio martyrum and so is likely to be historical.

[6].antipope As a consequence also of doctrinal differences, Hippolytus was elected as a rival bishop of Rome, the first [5][4]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.