World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Post-mortem interval

Article Id: WHEBN0000856327
Reproduction Date:

Title: Post-mortem interval  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Decomposition, Post-mortem (disambiguation), ADH, Forensics, PMI
Collection: Death, Forensics, Medical Aspects of Death, Pathology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Post-mortem interval

Stages of death

Pallor mortis
Algor mortis
Rigor mortis
Livor mortis
Putrefaction
Decomposition
Skeletonization

Post-mortem interval (PMI) is the time that has elapsed since a person has died. If the time in question is not known, a number of medical/scientific techniques are used to determine it. This also can refer to the stage of decomposition of the body.

Contents

  • Types of change after death 1
  • Traditional decomposition stages 2
  • More advanced methods 3
  • References 4

Types of change after death

Many types of changes to a body occur after death. Some of those that can be used to determine the post mortem interval are:[1][2]

Traditional decomposition stages

A person who judges the time of death by the means of decomposition can refer to a simple five-stage process:

  • Stage 1: Initial Decay - Bacteria located mainly in the lower intestine begin decomposition, giving a greenish color to the lower abdomen.[1]:17
  • Stage 2: Putrefaction - Bacteria grow throughout the body, releasing gases, which in turn bloat the body and cause unpleasant odor.
  • Stage 3: Black Putrefaction - This stage brings further discoloration to the body. The gases from bacterial decay begin to escape, causing strong odor.
  • Stage 4: Butyric Fermentation - The internal organs liquefy and the body begins to dry out.
  • Stage 5: Mummification - This is the slowest of the five stages. In a hot, dry climate the body may dehydrate, inhibiting bacterial decay; the skin dries to a dark leathery appearance.[1]:17

More advanced methods

More advanced methods include DNA quantification,[4]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Survey of Biological Factors Affecting the Determination of the Postmortem Interval. Bautista, Richard. Spring 2012.
  2. ^ a b Blood, guts, gore and soil: decomposition processes in graves and forensic taphonomic applications. Tibbett, Mark. 2010 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World.
  3. ^ Muñoz, JI; Suárez-Peñaranda, JM; Otero, XL; Rodríguez-Calvo, MS; Costas, E; Miguéns, X; Concheiro, L (2001). "A new perspective in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on vitreous". Journal of Forensic Sciences 46 (2): 209–14.  
  4. ^ Lin, X; Yin, YS; Ji, Q (2011). "Progress on DNA quantification in estimation of postmortem interval". Fa yi xue za zhi 27 (1): 47–9, 53.  
  5. ^ Huang, P; Tuo, Y; Wang, ZY (2010). "Review on estimation of postmortem interval using FTIR spectroscopy". Fa yi xue za zhi 26 (3): 198–201.  
  6. ^ Davla, M; Moore, TR; Kalacska, M; LeBlanc, G; Costopoulos, A (2015). "Nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide dynamics from experimental pig graves". Forensic Science International 247: 41–47.  
  7. ^ Senos Matias, MJ (2004). "An investigation into the use of geophysical methods in the study of aquifer contamination by graveyards". Near Surface Geophysics 2 (3): 131–136.  
  8. ^ Van Belle, LE; Carter, DO; Forbes, SL (2009). "Measurement of ninhydrin reactive nitrogen influx into gravesoil during aboveground and below ground carcass (Sus domesticus) decomposition". Forensic Science International 193: 37–41.  
  9. ^ Vass, A (2012). "Odor mortis". Forensic Science International 222: 234–241.  
  10. ^ Pringle, JK; Cassella, JP; Jervis, JR; Williams, A; Cross, P; Cassidy, NJ (2015). "Soilwater Conductivity Analysis to Date and Locate Clandestine Graves of Homicide Victims". Journal of forensic sciences 60 (4): 1052–1061.  

References

[10] and water conductivity.[9]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.