World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Potassium perchlorate

Article Id: WHEBN0001024033
Reproduction Date:

Title: Potassium perchlorate  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Perchlorate, Potassium chlorate, Sodium perchlorate, Antithyroid agent, Caesium perchlorate
Collection: Oxidizing Agents, Perchlorates, Potassium Compounds, Pyrotechnic Oxidizers
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Potassium perchlorate

Potassium perchlorate
Names
Other names
Potassium chlorate(VII); Perchloric acid, potassium salt; peroidin
Identifiers
 Y
ChEMBL  N
ChemSpider  Y
EC number 231-912-9
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem
RTECS number SC9700000
UNII  Y
UN number 1489
Properties
ClKO4
Molar mass 138.54 g·mol−1
Appearance colourless/ white crystalline powder
Density 2.5239 g/cm3
Melting point 610 °C (1,130 °F; 883 K)
decomposes from 400 °C[1][2]
0.76 g/100 mL (0 °C)
1.5 g/100 mL (25 °C)[3]
4.76 g/100 mL (40 °C)
21.08 g/100 mL (100 °C)[4]
1.05·10−2[5]
Solubility negligible in alcohol
insoluble in ether
Solubility in ethanol 47 mg/kg (0 °C)
120 mg/kg (25 °C)[4]
Solubility in acetone 1.6 g/kg[4]
Solubility in ethyl acetate 15 mg/kg[4]
1.4724
Structure
Rhombohedral
Thermochemistry
111.35 J/mol·K[6]
150.86 J/mol·K[6]
-433 kJ/mol[7]
-300.4 kJ/mol[4]
Hazards
Safety data sheet MSDS
GHS pictograms The flame-over-circle pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[2]
GHS signal word Danger
H271, H302[2]
P220[2]
Oxidizing Agent O Harmful Xn
R-phrases R9, R22
S-phrases (S2), S13, S22, S27
NFPA 704
0
1
1
OX
Related compounds
Other anions
Potassium chloride
Potassium chlorate
Potassium periodate
Other cations
Ammonium perchlorate
Sodium perchlorate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

Potassium perchlorate is the inorganic fireworks, ammunition percussion caps, explosive primers, and is used variously in propellants, flash compositions, stars, and sparklers. It has been used as a solid rocket propellant, although in that application it has mostly been replaced by the higher performance ammonium perchlorate. KClO4 has the lowest solubility of the alkali metal perchlorates (1.5 g in 100 mL of water at 25 °C).[3]

Contents

  • Production 1
  • Oxidizing properties 2
  • In medicine 3
  • Other Uses 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Production

Potassium perchlorate in crystal form

KClO4 is prepared industrially by treating an aqueous solution of sodium perchlorate with KCl. This single precipitation reaction exploits the low solubility of KClO4, which is about 100 times less than the solubility of NaClO4 (209.6 g/100 mL at 25 °C).[8] It can also be produced by the reaction of perchloric acid with potassium hydroxide, however this is not used widely, due to the dangers of perchloric acid.

Oxidizing properties

KClO4 is an oxidizer in the sense that it exothermically transfers oxygen to combustible materials, greatly increasing their rate of combustion relative to that in air. Thus, with glucose it gives carbon dioxide:

3 KClO4 + C6H12O6 → 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + 3 KCl

The conversion of solid glucose into hot gaseous CO2 is the basis of the explosive force of this and other such mixtures. Even with cane sugar, KClO4 yields a low explosive, provided the necessary confinement. Otherwise such mixtures simply deflagrate with an intense purple flame characteristic of potassium. Flash compositions used in firecrackers usually consist of fine aluminium powder mixed with potassium perchlorate.

As an oxidizer, potassium perchlorate can be used safely in the presence of sulfur, whereas potassium chlorate cannot. The greater reactivity of chlorate is typical – perchlorates are kinetically poorer oxidants. Chlorate produces chloric acid, which is highly unstable and can lead to premature ignition of the composition. Correspondingly, perchloric acid is quite stable.[9]

In medicine

Potassium perchlorate can be used as an antithyroid agent used to treat hyperthyroidism, usually in combination with one other medication. This application exploits the similar ionic radii and hydrophilicity of perchlorate and iodide.

Other Uses

Since 2005, a cartridge with potassium perchlorate mixed with anthracene and sulfur is used for generating the black smoke signalling the failure of reaching a two-thirds majority needed for the election of new pope by a papal conclave.

References

  1. ^ Benenson, Walter; Stöcker, Horst. Handbook of Physics. Springer. p. 780.  
  2. ^ a b c d Sigma-Aldrich Co., Potassium perchlorate. Retrieved on 2014-05-27.
  3. ^ a b "Potassium Perchlorate MSDS".  
  4. ^ a b c d e http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=519
  5. ^ http://www.solubilityofthings.com/water/ions_solubility/ksp_chart.php
  6. ^ a b Potassium perchlorate in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-27)
  7. ^ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A22.  
  8. ^ Helmut Vogt, Jan Balej, John E. Bennett, Peter Wintzer, Saeed Akbar Sheikh, Patrizio Gallone "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_483
  9. ^ Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.

External links

  • 4WebBook page for KClO
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.