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Pulkovo Airport

Pulkovo Airport (ICAO: ULLI) is an international airport serving Saint Petersburg, Russia. It consists of one terminal, Terminal 1 which is located 23 km (14 mi) south of the city centre.[1] The airport serves as a hub for Rossiya Airlines[2] (formerly Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise), and as focus city for Nordavia. Pulkovo International Airport is responsible for serving the citizens of Saint Petersburg, as well as the Leningrad Oblast: a total of 6,120,000 people.


  • Description 1
  • History 2
    • 1931-1986 2.1
    • 1986-2007 2.2
    • 2007-Present 2.3
  • Passenger Statistics 3
  • Infrastructure 4
    • Pulkovo 2 4.1
    • Pulkovo 1 4.2
    • Terminal 1 4.3
  • Airlines and destinations 5
    • Passenger 5.1
    • Cargo 5.2
  • Statistics 6
  • Ground transportation 7
  • Accidents and incidents 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11


Pulkovo Airport was officially opened on June 24, 1932, as a state-owned domestic airport. In 2013, 12,854,366 passengers (a +15.6% increase from that of 2012) traveled through Pulkovo airport, making it the 3rd busiest airport in Russia and Post-Soviet states.[1] Pulkovo had a passenger traffic rate of 9,874,941 (+12.6%) as of September 1, 2014. The airport holds the title of being one of the largest airports in Russia and Eastern Europe.



In January 1931, construction of an aerodrome near Saint Petersburg commenced and was completed on June 24, 1932, with the first aircraft arriving at 17:31 that day, after a two-and-a-half hour flight from Moscow carrying passengers and mail.[3] This aerodrome was at first named Shosseynaya Airport: the name coming from the nearby Shosseynaya train station.[4] Soon after the airport opened regular flights to Petrozavodsk, Pudozh, Arkhangelsk, and Murmansk.

In 1936, a foundation for a new terminal was laid out. Leningrad's (Saint Petersburg's official name between 1924-1991 and where the field's IATA code of "LED" was derived from[1]) airport was also provided with new G-2s and PS-84s.[5] In 1941, a new completely commercial passenger route between Moscow and Leningrad was opened; before it was a mixed passenger-mail route. Construction of the new terminal thrived between 1937-1941. The architects of the new 3-story terminal were Aleksandr Ivanovich Gegello and N.E. Lansere. Construction was abruptly put on hold in July 1941, 1 month after Nazi Germany's invasion of the USSR on June 22, 1941. The airport was the frontline in the Nazi Siege of Leningrad. There were no flights between 1941-1944. The nearby Pulkovo hills were occupied by the Nazis and were used by the long-range artillery for daily bombardments of Leningrad. The airport was cleared of the Nazis in January 1944, and resumed cargo and mail flights after the runways were repaired in 1945. In February 1948, after the damage was completely repaired, the airport resumed scheduled passenger flights. In 1949, there were scheduled flights to 15 major cities of the USSR, and 15 more short-range flights within the north-western Russia.[6] In 1949 Shosseynaya Airport recorded a passenger traffic rate of 6,305, 333 tons of mail, and 708 tons of cargo.[7]

In 1951, the construction of the new terminal was complete. In the mid-1950s the new extended runway was completed, allowing to handle larger aircraft such as Ilyushin-18 and Tupolev-104.[8] in that same time period the exploitation of jet engine planes began in Shosseynaya Airport. On March 15, 1959, the USSR-42419 Tu-104 was the first commercial jet airplane to take of from the Shosseynaya Airport.

In the early 1960s long-distance airplanes such as the An-24 and Yak-40 began to appear in the airport. Flights to Vladivostok began to emerge in the flight lists. ICAO category 1 standards were implemented in 1965, making way for international operations. By the late 1960s, over 60 airlines had flights to and from Saint Petersburg's airport. On February 8, 1971, Shosseynaya was awarded the Order of the October Revolution.[9] The airport was renamed to Pulkovo Airport on April 24, 1973. In May 1973, the new Pulkovo 1 terminal was opened. The famous 5-cup Pulkovo 1 was designed by Alexandr Zyk. The 5 cups on top were put intentionally to give the terminal a more spacious feeling, as well as to allow more natural sunlight to pass through. This terminal is regarded as a masterpiece of Soviet postmodern architecture.[10] Pulkovo 1 was a domestic-only terminal. Domestic air traffic increased approximately 45% every decade between the 1970-1990s. The old pre-war building of the airport was renamed to Pulkovo 2 and the terminal was exploited for international flights only.[11]

On April 11, 1986, the new departure and arrival zones for the international terminal were completed, doubling the passenger traffic rate capacity of Pulkovo 1.


In 1990 Pulkovo Airport reach its passenger traffic rate peak of over 10,000,000 passengers. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the number of passengers declined. In 2005 Pulkovo Airport gained independence as it separated from the Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise. Also in 2005 Rosavia declares that Pulkovo Airport (still state-owned) is to have an open tender on an investment project of the new terminal construction.This allowed it to sell shares and begin working on investment bidding projects. In 2006 Pulkovo Airport served just over 5,000,000 passengers: only 50% of the number from 1990.


In 2007, the winner was announced. Grimshaw Architects wins the tender. In 2009 The Saint Petersburg Transportation Ministry requests that an operating company for Pulkovo Airport be created.

NCG (Northern Capital Gateway),a consortium, is set up by Russian VTB Capital Bank, international Fraport AG Company and Greek Copelouzos Group. On April 29, 2010. NCG wins the tender for a 30-year operating lease over Pulkovo Airport. On November 24, 2010, Vladimir Putin (being the PM of Russia at that time) attends the construction ceremony and on that same day construction of the new 150,000 m² Terminal 1.

Passenger Statistics

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013


Increase 4,337,749 Increase 4,654,405 Increase 5,101,842 Increase 6,137,805 Increase 7,071,537 Decrease 6,758,352 Increase 8,443,753 Increase 9,610,767 Increase 11,154,560 Increase 12,854,366 Increase 14,264,732


Exterior of old terminal 1

Pulkovo 2

Pulkovo 2 is approximately 25,000 m2 (270,000 sq ft). The terminal used to serve as the international departures and arrivals zone. It was last renovated in 2009. Today, Pulkovo 2 is used as a second-hand terminal for government officials and VIP members.

Pulkovo 1

This terminal is 43,000 m2 (460,000 sq ft).[12] It served as the main terminal for over 30 years. Pulkovo 1 was built for 6,500,000 passengers annually, but by 2008 it surpassed its maximum capacity.[13] Today Pulkovo 1 is under a major reconstruction. This terminal is planned to be used as the domestic transit/departure zone. The zone is planned to have several duty-free shops, restaurants, and 6 jet bridges. When Pulkovo 1 is completed, Pulkovo Airport's capacity will increase to 17,000,000 passengers annually. Reconstruction of Pulkovo 1 is scheduled for completion at the end of 2015,but it was already finished in the end of 2014.Now, the renewed terminal 1 is used for domestic flights.

Terminal 1

The terminal under reconstruction.

Construction of Terminal 1 was delayed several times and began in 2010. In November 2013, the airport was tested for errors by over 5,200 residents of Saint Petersburg who partook in the process. Several days after the testings the The new Terminal 1 opened on December 3, 2013. On February 14, 2014, all operations were consolidated into the new terminal as the old Pulkovo 1 and Pulkovo 2 terminals have been shut down.[12] The new terminal contains several business lounges, restaurants (including chains such as Starbucks, Burger King, and McDonalds),[14] pharmacies, and an Irish pub. Terminal 1 is 147,000 m SQ and has 400,000 m² airport dock in front of it.[15] The airport has 88 check-in counters, 110 passport booths, 7 baggage carousels, 110 parking stands, 17 gates, and 17 escalators. The interior of the new airport was designed by Grimshaw Architects and directly correlates with the designs and style of Saint Petersburg city. The new Terminal also sought many artistic sculptures and paintings to give a sense of thriving culture to passengers. Four sculptures from Dmitry Shorin's project named I Believe in Angels decorate the departure hall.[16][17]

Airlines and destinations


Ukraine International Airlines Boeing 737-300 taxiing at Pulkovo Airport.
Yamal Airlines Boeing 737-500 taxiing at Pulkovo Airport.
Avia Traffic Boeing 737-300 taking off at Pulkovo Airport.
Azerbaijan Airlines Airbus A319 taking off at Pulkovo Airport.
Donavia Airbus A319 taxiing at Pulkovo Airport.
Germanwings Airbus A319 taking off at Pulkovo Airport.
Flybe Nordic ATR 72-500 landing at Pulkovo Airport.
Korean Air Airbus A330-200 in Future Artist Olympiad Livery taxiing at Pulkovo Airport.
S7 Airlines Airbus A321 taxiing at Pulkovo Airport.
SAS Airbus A320 preparing for take off at Pulkovo Airport.
Turkish Airlines Airbus A321 departing at Pulkovo Airport.
Airlines Destinations
Aegean Airlines Seasonal: Athens, Heraklion, Rhodes,[18] Thessaloniki
Aeroflot Moscow-Sheremetyevo
operated by Donavia
Mineralnye Vody, Rostov-on-Don, Sochi
operated by Rossiya
Almaty, Arkhangelsk, Barcelona, Berlin-Schönefeld, Chelyabinsk, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Istanbul-Atatürk, Kaliningrad, Kazan, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk-Yemelyanovo, Milan-Malpensa, Mineralnye Vody, Moscow-Domodedovo, Moscow-Vnukovo, Munich, Murmansk, Nice, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Perm, Prague, Rome-Fiumicino, Rostov-on-Don, Samara, Samarkand, Simferopol, Sochi, Surgut, Syktyvkar, Tashkent, Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion, Tyumen, Ufa, Urgench, Yekaterinburg
Seasonal: Anapa, Antalya, Burgas, Chișinău, Gelendzhik, Geneva, Larnaca, Stockholm-Arlanda, Tivat, Varna
Air Astana Almaty, Astana
airBaltic Riga
Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle
Air Moldova Chișinău
Alitalia Seasonal: Rome-Fiumicino
Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise Mirny, Novosibirsk
Seasonal: Anapa
Avia Traffic Company Bishkek, Osh
Austrian Airlines Seasonal: Vienna[19]
Azerbaijan Airlines Baku, Ganja
Azur Air Seasonal charter: Antalya, Dalaman, Heraklion, Hurghada, Nha Trang, Sharm el-Sheikh
Belavia Minsk-National
British Airways London-Heathrow
Brussels Airlines Brussels[20]
China Southern Airlines Lanzhou, Ürümqi[21]
Czech Airlines Karlovy Vary, Prague
Ellinair Seasonal: Corfu, Thessaloniki, Zakynthos
Emirates Dubai-International
Estonian Air Tallinn
operated by Nordic Regional Airlines
Gazpromavia Moscow-Vnukovo
Georgian Airways Tbilisi[23]
Hainan Airlines Beijing-Capital
Iberia Seasonal: Madrid
Izhavia Izhevsk
KLM Amsterdam
Komiaviatrans Astrakhan,[24] Kaluga,[25] Saratov,[26] Syktyvkar,[26] Usinsk
Korean Air Seasonal: Seoul-Incheon
Kostroma Air Enterprise Kostroma
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw-Chopin
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich
Mahan Air Tehran-Imam Khomeini[27]
Metrojet Seasonal charter: Hurghada, Sharm el-Sheikh
Meridiana Seasonal: Naples[28]
Mistral Air Seasonal charter: Verona
Montenegro Airlines Seasonal: Tivat
Nordavia Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad,[29] Murmansk, Naryan-Mar, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara,[30] Syktyvkar, Volgograd, Yerevan (begins 2 December 2016)
NordStar Khujand, Lankaran, Norilsk
Seasonal charter: Burgas, Rimini, Tivat, Varna
Nordwind Airlines Seasonal charter: Antalya, Bangkok, Bodrum, Heraklion, Hurghada, Goa, Monastir, Phuket, Sharm el-Sheikh
Nouvelair Seasonal charter: Enfidha, Monastir
Orenair Orenburg
Pskovavia Apatity/Kirovsk, Bryansk, Kotlas, Kursk, Pskov, Vladimir[31]
Red Wings Airlines Makhachkala
Royal Flight Seasonal charter: Barcelona, Bodrum, Rhodes
RusLine Belgorod,[32] Cheboksary, Ivanovo, Kirov,[33] Lipetsk, Makhachkala, Naryan-Mar, Nizhnekamsk, Penza, Ulyanovsk, Vilnius, Voronezh, Yaroslavl
S7 Airlines Moscow-Domodedovo, Novosibirsk
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Stockholm-Arlanda
Severstal Air Company Apatity/Kirovsk, Cherepovets, Ukhta, Veliky Ustyug
Somon Air Dushanbe, Khujand
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich
Tajik Air Dushanbe, Kulob, Qurghonteppa, Khujand
Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Atatürk
Turkmenistan Airlines Aşhgabat
Ural Airlines Barnaul, Chelyabinsk, Chita,[34] Kaliningrad, Kazan, Khabarovsk, Lankaran (begins 29 October 2015),[35] Moscow-Domodedovo, Novosibirsk, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Rostov-on-Don,[36] Tbilisi,[37] Vladivostok, Yakutsk, Yekaterinburg, Yerevan,
Seasonal: Simferopol
Seasonal charter: Antalya, Barcelona, Hurghada, Rhodes, Sharm el-Sheikh
UTair Aviation Khanty-Mansiysk, Magas,[38] Moscow-Vnukovo, Naryan-Mar, Nizhny Novgorod, Novy Urengoy, Noyabrsk, Surgut, Tomsk, Vladikavkaz
Seasonal: Anapa, Budapest
Uzbekistan Airways Andizhan, Bukhara, Ferghana, Karshi, Namangan, Navoi, Samarkand, Tashkent, Termez,[39] Urgench
Vologda Aviation Enterprise Vologda
Vueling Barcelona
Seasonal: Alicante, Malaga
Yakutia Airlines Yakutsk
Seasonal: Magadan, Novosibirsk
Yamal Airlines Simferopol, Tyumen[40]
Seasonal charter: Tivat


Airlines Destinations
Asiana Cargo Gothenburg-Landvetter, Seoul-Incheon, Vienna


Emirates Boeing 777-300 landing in Pulkovo Airport
Busiest domestic routes at Pulkovo Airport (by number of passengers) 2013[41]
Rank City Region Airports Airlines Number of passengers
1 Moscow Moscow
Moscow Oblast
Domodedovo, Sheremetyevo, Vnukovo Aeroflot, Gazpromavia, Rossiya, S7 Airlines, UTair Aviation 2,965,331
2 Kaliningrad  Kaliningrad Oblast Khrabrovo Airport Rossiya 0287,796
3 Arkhangelsk  Arkhangelsk Oblast Talagi Airport Nordavia, Rossiya 0248,298
4 Murmansk  Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Airport Nordavia, Rossiya 0247,633
5 Sochi Adler-Sochi International Airport Donavia, Rossiya 0237,678
6 Yekaterinburg Koltsovo Airport Rossiya, Ural Airlines 0181,933
7 Krasnodar Pashkovsky Airport Rossiya, Yakutia Airlines 0169,533
8 Novosibirsk Tolmachevo Airport Rossiya, S7 Airlines, Ural Airlines 0150,629
9 Rostov-on-Don Rostov-on-Don Airport Donavia, Rossiya, Ural Airlines 0124,281
10 Samara Kurumoch International Airport Ak Bars Aero, Rossiya 0115,542
Busiest CIS routes at Pulkovo Airport (by number of passengers) 2013[41]
Rank City Country Airports Airlines Number of passengers
1 Kiev Boryspil International Airport
Kiev International Airport (Zhuliany)
Rossiya, Ukraine International Airlines, UTair-Ukraine 177,838
2 Tashkent Tashkent International Airport Rossiya, Uzbekistan Airways 129,151
3 Samarkand Samarkand Airport Rossiya, Uzbekistan Airways 105,747
4 Dushanbe Dushanbe International Airport Rossiya, Somon Air, Tajik Air 086,141
5 Minsk Minsk National Airport Belavia, Rossiya 084,778
6 Simferopol Simferopol International Airport Air Onix, Rossiya 080,826
7 Almaty Almaty International Airport Air Astana, Rossiya 074,700
8 Baku Heydar Aliyev International Airport Azerbaijan Airlines, Rossiya 061,570
9 Urgench Urgench International Airport Rossiya, Uzbekistan Airways 055,707
10 Khujand Khujand Airport Nordstar Airlines, Rossiya, Somon Air, Tajik Air 043,925
Busiest international routes at Pulkovo Airport (by number of passengers) 2013[41]
Rank City Country Airports Airlines Number of passengers
1 Antalya Antalya International Airport Rossiya, Ural Airlines 0451,046
2 Frankfurt Frankfurt Airport Lufthansa, Rossiya 0307,103
3 Hurghada Hurghada International Airport Ural Airlines 0287,363
4 Munich Munich Airport Lufthansa, Rossiya 0235,710
5 Larnaca Larnaca International Airport Rossiya, Transaero 230,291
6 Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport Air France, Rossiya 0228,564
7 Sharm el-Sheikh Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport Metrojet, Rossiya 0222,671
8 Berlin Tegel Airport, Schönefeld Airport Air Berlin (TXL), Rossiya (SXF) 0186,644
9 Dubai Dubai International Airport Emirates, Rossiya 0177,120
10 Prague Prague Václav Havel Airport Czech Airlines, Rossiya 0143,956

Ground transportation

  • "Marshrutka" minibuses № K-39 run on several lines, some of them following the city bus routes (and using matching line numbers).
  • Pulkovo Airport is served by the shuttle buses(№39 and №39A).They are connecting the airport with metro station "Moskovskaya" on line M2.
  • Railroad station "Аirport" (Russian "Аэропорт") in 15 munutes walk from the terminal 1.

For private car travel, Pulkovo Airport is accessible via the nearby Pulkovo Highway (Pulkovskoe shosse) from St. Petersburg city center. There are drop offs and pick up areas at both terminals, as well as short and long stay outdoor car parking.

Accidents and incidents

  • April 27, 1974, an Ilyushin Il-18V passenger aircraft of Aeroflot flying to Krasnodar crashed right after take off from Pulkovo after engine fire. All 108 passengers and 10 members of crew died.
  • June 26, 1991, an Antonov An-24 cargo aircraft of the AKF Polet company heading to Voronezh crashed in the Gulf of Finland five minutes after take off from Pulkovo. All ten people on board died.

For a more comprehensive list, see Aviation Safety Network Entry for LED.

See also


  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^ About Us - STC Russia, Rossiya Airlines, retrieved January 2, 2009
  3. ^
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  12. ^ a b
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  26. ^ a b
  27. ^
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  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^ a b c

External links

  • Official site (English) (Russian)
  • Rossiya Airlines (English) (Russian)
  • Current weather for ULLI at NOAA/NWS
  • Accident history for LED at Aviation Safety Network

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