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Rsfsr

"Soviet Russia" redirects here. For the Soviet Union as a whole, see Soviet Union. For the "In Soviet Russia" jokes, see Yakov Smirnoff. For other uses, see Soviet Russia (disambiguation).
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика

1917–1991
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Worker's Marseillaise (1917–1918)
The Internationale (1918–1944)
National Anthem of the Soviet Union (1944–1991)
Patrioticheskaya Pesnya (1990–1991)a
World War II (1954).
Capital Petrograd (1917–1918)
Moscow (March 1918 – 1991)[1]
Languages Russianb
Government Federal Soviet republic
Head of state
 -  1917 (first) Lev Kamenevc
 -  1990-1991 (last) Boris Yeltsind
Head of government
 -  1917-1924 (first) Vladimir Lenine
 -  1990-1991 Ivan Silayevf
 -  1991 (last) Boris Yeltsing
Legislature VTsIK / All-Russian Congress (1917–38)
Supreme Soviet (RSFSR) (1938–90)
Supreme Soviet (RSFSR) / Congress
of People's Deputies
(1990–91)
Historical era 20th century
 -  Bolshevik revolution 7 November 1917
 -  Established 9 November 1917
 -  Renamed[2] into Russian Federation 25 December 1991
a. Remained the national anthem of Russia until 2000.
b. Official language in the courts from 1937.[3]
c. As Chairman of the VTsIK (All-Russian Central Executive Committee).
d. As Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, from 29 May 1990 to 10 July 1991, then as President of Russia.
e. As Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR
f. As Chairmen of the Council of Ministers — Government of the Russian SFSR
g. Served as acting head of government while President of Russia
Hero City awards
The Russian Democratic Federative Republic existed briefly on January 19, 1918, but actual sovereignty was still in the hands of the Soviets even after the Russian Constituent Assembly opened its first and last session.[4]

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика[5], tr. Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), commonly referred to as Soviet Russia, the Russian Federation, or simply Russia,[2][6] was the largest, most populous, and most highly economically developed republic of the Soviet Union.[7] The Republic comprised sixteen autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais, and forty oblasts.[7] Russians formed the largest ethnic group.

The RSFSR's economy was heavily industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR. It was the third largest producer of petroleum, trailing only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. Health care was provided through a network of territorially organized public health services.[7]

In 1990, the Supreme Council changed the name of the state to simply the "Russian Federation" which, since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, continues to administer the country today.

Nomenclature

Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, the Bolsheviks established the Soviet state on 7 November [O.S. 25 October] 1917, immediately after the Russian Provisional Government, which governed the Russian Republic, was overthrown during the October Revolution. Initially, the state did not have an official name and wasn't recognized by neighboring countries for five months.

On 25 January 1918, at the third meeting of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the unrecognized state was renamed the Soviet Russian Republic.[8] The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed on 3 March 1918, giving away much of the land of the former Russian Empire to Germany in exchange for peace during the rest of World War I. On 10 July 1918, the Russian Constitution of 1918 renamed the country the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.[9] By 1918, during the Russian Civil War, several states within the former Russian Empire seceded, reducing the size of the country even more.

Internationally, in 1920, the RSFSR was recognized as an independent state only by Estonia, Finland, Latvia and Lithuania in the Treaty of Tartu and by the Irish Republic.[10]

On 30 December 1922, with the creation of the Soviet Union, Russia became one of six republics within the federation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the final Soviet name for the republic, was adopted in the Soviet Constitution of 1936 — by that time, Soviet Russia gained roughly the same borders of the old Tsardom of Russia before the Great Northern War of 1700.

For most of the Soviet Union's existence, "Russia" was commonly used as a name for the Soviet Union as a whole, even though technically "Russia" was only one republic within the larger union--albeit by far the largest and most powerful.

On 25 December 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the republic was renamed the Russian Federation, which it remains to this day.[11] This name and "Russia" were specified as the official state names in the 21 April 1992 amendment to the Russian Constitution of 1978 and retained as such in the 1993 Constitution of Russia.

Geography

The international borders of the RSFSR touched Poland on the west; Norway and Finland on the northwest; and to its southeast were the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolian People's Republic, and the People's Republic of China. Within the Soviet Union, the RSFSR bordered the Ukrainian, Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian SSRs to its west and Azerbaijan, Georgian and Kazakh SSRs to the south.[7]

Roughly 70% of the area in the RSFSR consisted of broad plains, with mountainous regions mainly concentrated in the east. The area is rich in mineral resources, including petroleum, natural gas, and iron ore.[12]

History

Part of a series on the
History of Russia
Early Slavs / Rus' pre-9th century
Volga Bulgaria 7th–13th century
Khazar Khaganate 7th–10th century
Rus' Khaganate 8th–9th century
Kievan Rus' 9th–12th century
Vladimir-Suzdal 12th–14th century
Novgorod Republic 12th–15th century
Tatar Yoke 13th–15th century
Grand Duchy 1283–1547
Tsardom of Russia 1547–1721
Russian Empire 1721–1917
Russian Republic 1917
Russian SFSR / Soviet Union 1917–1991
Russian Federation 1992–present
Timeline
Russia portal

Early years (1917–20)

The Soviet regime first came to power on 7 November 1917, immediately after the Russian Provisional Government, which governed the Russian Republic, was overthrown in the October Revolution. The state it governed, which did not have an official name, would be unrecognized by neighboring countries for another five months.

On 25 January 1918, at the third meeting of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the unrecognized state was renamed the Soviet Russian Republic.[8] On 3 March 1918 the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed, giving away much of the land of the former Russian Empire to Germany, in exchange for peace in World War I. On 10 July 1918 the Russian Constitution of 1918 renamed the country the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.[9] By 1918, during the Russian Civil War, several states within the former Russian Empire seceded, reducing the size of the country even more.

The RSFSR was recognized as an independent state internationally by only Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania, in the Treaty of Tartu in 1920.

1920s

On 30 December 1922, the First Congress of the Soviets of the USSR approved the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, by which Russia was united with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic into a single federal state, the Soviet Union. Later treaty was included in the 1924 Soviet Constitution, adopted on 31 January 1924 by the Second Congress of Soviets of the USSR.

Paragraph 3 of Chapter 1 of the 1925 Constitution of the RSFSR states the following:[13]

By the will of the peoples of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, who decided on the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics during the Tenth All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, being a part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, devolves to the Union the powers which according to Article 1 of the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics are included within the scope of responsibilities of the government bodies of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

1930s

Many regions in Russia were affected by the Soviet famine of 1932–1933: Volga; Central Black Soil Region; North Caucasus; the Urals; the Crimea; part of Western Siberia; and the Kazak ASSR.

With the adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution on 5 December 1936, the size of the RSFSR was significantly reduced. The Kazakh ASSR and Kirghiz ASSR were transformed into the Kazakh and Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republics. The Karakalpak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic was transferred to the Uzbek SSR.

The final name for the republic during the Soviet era was adopted by the Russian Constitution of 1937, which renamed it the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

1940s

On 11 October 1944, the Tuvan People's Republic joined the Russian SFSR as the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast, in 1961 becoming an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

At the end of World War II Soviet troops occupied southern Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands, making them part of the RSFSR. The status of the southernmost Kurils remains in dispute with Japan.

On 17 April 1946, the Kaliningrad Oblast—the northern portion of the former German province of East Prussia—was annexed by the Soviet Union and made part of the Russian SFSR.

1950s

Nikita Khrushchev transferred Crimea from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954.

The Karelo-Finnish SSR was transferred back to the RSFSR as the Karelian ASSR in 1956.

1960s–1980s

Early 1990s


On 29 May 1990, at his third attempt, Boris Yeltsin was elected the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR.

On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies of the Republic adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian SFSR, which was the beginning of the "War of Laws", pitting the Soviet Union against the Russian Federation and other constituent republics.

On 17 March 1991, an all-Russian referendum created the post of President of the RSFSR. On 12 June, Boris Yeltsin was elected President of Russia by popular vote.

During an unsuccessful coup attempt on 19–21 August 1991 in Moscow, the capital of the Soviet Union and Russia, President of Russia Yeltsin strongly supported the President of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev.

On 23 August, after the failure of GKChP, in the presence of Gorbachev, Yeltsin signed a decree suspending all activity by the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR in the territory of Russia.[14] On 6 November, he went further, banning the Communist Parties of the USSR and the RSFSR from the territory of the RSFSR.[15]

On 8 December 1991, at Viskuli near Brest (Belarus), the President of the Russian SFSR and the heads of Byelorussian SSR and Ukrainian SSR signed the "Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States" (known in media as Belavezha Accords). The document, consisting of a preamble and fourteen articles, stated that the Soviet Union ceased to exist as a subject of international law and geopolitical reality. However, based on the historical community of peoples, relations between them, given the bilateral treaties, the desire for a democratic rule of law, the intention to develop their relations based on mutual recognition and respect for state sovereignty, the parties agreed to the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States. On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR by an overwhelming majority: 188 votes for, 6 against, 7 abstentions. On the same day, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and recalled all Russian deputies from the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The legality of this act is the subject of discussions because, according to the 1978 Constitution (Basic Law) of the Russian SFSR, the Russian Supreme Soviet had no right to do so.[16] However, by this time the Soviet government had been rendered more or less impotent, and was in no position to object.

On 24 December, Yeltsin informed the Secretary-General of the United Nations that the Russian Federation would assume the membership of the Soviet Union in all UN organs (including membership in the UN Security Council). Thus, Russia is considered to be an original member of the UN (since 24 October 1945) along with Ukraine (Ukrainian SSR) and Belarus (Byelorussian SSR).

On 25 December, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation (Russia), and remains so to this day.[2] The change was originally published on 6 January 1992 (Rossiyskaya Gazeta). According to law, during 1992, it was allowed to use the old name of the RSFSR for official business (forms, seals and stamps).

The Russian Federation's Constitution (Fundamental Law) of 1978, though with the 1991–1992 Amendements, remained in effect until the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis.

The name "Russian Federation" has been also used in Soviet times.[17]

Government

Main article: Government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Government was known officially as the Council of People's Commissars (1917–1946), Council of Ministers (1946–1978) and Council of Ministers – Government (1978–1991). The first government was headed by Vladimir Lenin as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR" and the last by Boris Yeltsin as both head of government and head of state under the title "President".

The Russian SFSR was controlled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, until the abortive 1991 August coup, which prompted President Yeltsin to suspend the recently created Communist Party of the Russian SFSR.

Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs) within the Russian SFSR

  • Turkestan ASSR – Formed on 30 April 1918, on the territory of the former Turkestan General-Governorate. As part of the delimitation programme of Soviet Central Asia, the Turkestan ASSR along with the Khorezm SSR and the Bukharan PSR were disbanded on 27 October 1924, and in their place came the Union republics of Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR. The latter contained the Tajik ASSR until December 1929 when it too became a full Union republic, the Tajik SSR. The RSFSR retained the newly formed Kara-Kirghiz and the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Oblasts. The latter was part of the Kirgiz, then the Kazak ASSR until 1930, when it was directly subordinated to Moscow.
  • Bashkir ASSR – Formed on 23 March 1919 from several northern districts of the Orenburg Guberniya populated by Bashkirs. 11 October 1990 declared its sovereignty, as Bashkir SSR, which is renamed in 1992 as the Republic of Bashkortostan.
  • Tatar ASSR – Formed on 27 May 1920 on the territory of the western two thirds of the Kazan Governorate populated by Tatars. On 30 October 1990, declared sovereignty as the Republic of Tatarstan and on 18 October 1991 – independence. The Russian constitutional court overturned the declaration on 13 March 1992. On February 1994 a separate agreement was reached with Moscow on the status of Tatarstan as an associate state in Russia with confederate status.
  • Kirgiz ASSR Formed on 26 August 1920, from the Ural, Turgay, Semipalatinsk Oblasts, and parts of Transcaspia, Bukey Horde and Orenburg Guberniya populated by Kirgiz-Kaysaks (former name of Kazakh people). Further enlarged in 1921 upon gaining land from Omsk Guberniya and again in 1924 from parts of Jetysui Guberniya and Syr Darya and Samarkand Oblasts. On 19 April 1925 renamed as the Kazak ASSR (see below)
  • Mountain ASSR Formed on 20 January 1921, after the Bolshevik Red Army evicted the short-lived Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus. Initially composed of several national districts, one-by-one these left the republic until 7 November 1924, when the remains of the republic was partitioned into the Ingush Autonomous Oblast, the North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and the Sunzha Cossack district (all subordinates to the North Caucasus Kray).
  • Dagestan ASSR – Formed on 20 January 1921, from the former Dagestan Oblast. On 17 September 1991, declared sovereignty as the Dagestan SSR.
  • Crimean ASSR Formed on 18 October 1921, on the territory of Crimean peninsula, following the Red Army's eviction of Baron Wrangel's army, ending the Russian Civil War in Europe. On 18 May 1944 disbanded following the deportation of the Crimean Tatars, and transformed into the Crimean Oblast. On 19 February 1954, transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. Re-established on 12 February 1991, and on 4 September of that year declared sovereignty. On 5 May 1992 – declared independence as the Republic of Crimea, on 13 May the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine overturned the declaration, but compromised on an Autonomous Republic of Crimea, which exists to this day.
  • Yakut ASSR – Formed on 16 February 1922 upon the elevation of the Yakut Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. On 27 September 1990, declared sovereignty as the Yakut-Sakha Soviet Socialist Republic. From 21 December 1991 – the Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya).
  • Buryat ASSR – Formed on 30 March 1923 as due to merger of the Mongol-Buryat Autonomous Oblast of the RSFSR and the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Oblast of the Far Eastern Republic. Until 7 July 1958 – Mongol-Buryat ASSR. 27 March 1991 – Republic of Buryatia.
  • Karelian ASSR – Formed on 23 July 1923 when the Karelian Labour Commune was integrated into the RSFSR administrative structure. On 31 March 1940, elevated into a full Union republic as the Karelo-Finnish SSR. On 16 July 1956, downgraded back into an ASSR, and re-subordinated to RSFSR. Declared sovereignty on 13 October 1991, as the Republic of Karelia.
  • Volga German ASSR – Formed on 19 December 1924, upon elevation of the Volga German Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. On 28 August 1941, upon the deportation of Volga Germans to Kazakhstan, the ASSR was disbanded. The territory was partitioned between the Saratov and Stalingrad Oblasts.
  • Kazak ASSR Formed on 19 April 1925, when the first Kirgiz ASSR was renamed and partitioned. Upon the ratification of the new Soviet constitution, the ASSR was elevated into a full Union Republic on 3 December 1936. On 25 October 1990 declared sovereignty and on 16 December 1991 – independence as the Republic of Kazakhstan.
  • Chuvash ASSR – Formed on 21 April 1925 upon the elevation of the Chuvash Autonomous Olbast into an ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 26 October 1990 as the Chuvash SSR.
  • Kirghiz ASSR Formed on 1 February 1926, upon elevation of the Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast. Upon the ratification of the new Soviet constitution, the ASSR was elevated into a full Union Republic on 3 December 1936. On 12 December 1990 declared sovereignty as the Republic of Kyrgyztan and on 31 August 1991 independence.
  • Kara-Kalpak ASSR – Formed on 20 March 1932, upon elevation of the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Oblast into the Kara-Kalpak ASSR, from 5 December 1936, part of the Uzbek SSR. In 1964 renamed as the Karakalpak ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 14 December 1990.
  • Mordovian ASSR – Formed on 20 December 1934 upon the elevation of the Mordovian Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 13 December 1990 as the Mordovian SSR. From 25 January 1991 – Republic of Mordovia.
  • Udmurt ASSR – Formed on 28 December 1934 upon the elevation of the Udmurt Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 20 September 1990. From 11 October 1991 – Udmurt Republic.
  • Kalmyk ASSR – Formed on 20 October 1935, upon the elevation of the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. On 27 December 1943, upon the deportation of the Kalmyks the ASSR was disbanded and split between the newly established Astrakhan Oblast and parts adjoined to the Rostov Oblast, Krasnodar Kray and Stavropol Kray. On 9 January 1957, the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast was re-established in present borders, first as part of Stavropol Kray and from 19 July 1958 – the Kalmyk ASSR. On 18 October 1990 declared sovereignty as the Kamlmyk SSR.
  • Kabardino-Balkar ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936, upon the departure of the Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast from the North Caucasus Kray. After the deportation of the Balkars on 8 April 1944, the republic is renamed as Kabardin ASSR and parts of its territory transferred to Georgian SSR, upon the return of the Balkars, the KBASSR is re-instated on 9 January 1957. On 31 January 1991, the republic declared sovereignty as the Kabardino-Balkar SSR, and from 10 March 1992 – Kabardino-Balkarian Republic.
  • Northern Ossetian ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936, upon the disbandment of the North Caucasus Kray, and its constituent North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast was raised into an ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 26 December 1990 as the North Ossetian SSR.
  • Chechen-Ingush ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936, when the North Caucausus Kray was disestablished and its constituent Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast was elevated into an ASSR and subordinated to Moscow. Following the en masse deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, on 7 March 1944, the ChIASSR was disbanded, and the Grozny Okrug was temporarily administered by Stavropol Kray until the 22 March, when the territory was portioned between North Ossetian and Dagestan ASSRs, and the Georgian SSR. The remaining land was merged with Stavropol Krays Kizlyar district and organised as Grozny Oblast, which existed until 9 January 1957, when the ChIASSR was re-established, though only the southern border's original shape was retained. Declared sovereignty on 27 November 1990 as the Chechen-Ingush Republic. On 8 June 1991, the 2nd Chechen National Congress proclaimed a separate Chechen-Republic (Noxchi-Cho), and on 6 September, began a coup which overthrew the Soviet local government. De facto, all authority passed to the self-proclaimed government which was renamed as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria in early 1993. In response, the western Ingush districts after a referendum on 28 November 1991, were organised into an Ingush Republic which was officially established on 4 June 1992, by decree of Russian President as the Republic of Ingushetia. The same decree de jure created a Chechen republic, although it would be established only on 3 June 1994 and carry out partial governance during the First Chechen War. The Khasavyurt Accord would again suspend the government on 15 November 1996. The present Chechen Republic government was re-established on 15 October 1999.
  • Komi ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936 upon the elevation of the Komi (Zyryan) Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 23 November 1990 as the Komi SSR. From 26 May 1992 – the Republic of Komi.
  • Mari ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936 upon the elevation of the Mari Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. Declared Sovereignty on 22 December 1990 as the Mari Soviet Socialist Republic (Mari El).
  • Tuva ASSR – Formed on 10 October 1961 when the Tuva Autonomous Oblast was elevated into an ASSR. On 12 December 1990 declared sovereignty as the Soviet Republic of Tyva.
  • Gorno Altay ASSR – Formed on 25 October 1990, when the Gorno Altay Autonomous Oblast declared sovereignty, from 3 July 1991 – Gorno Altay SSR.
  • Karachayevo-Cherkessian ASSR – Formed on 17 November 1990, when the Karachayevo-Cherkessian Autonomous Oblast was elevated into an ASSR and, instead of Stavropol Kray, subordinated directly to Moscow. Declared sovereignty on 3 July 1991 as the Karachayevo-Cherkessian SSR.

References

External links

  • (Russian) Full Texts and All Laws Amending Constitutions of the Russian SFSR
  • by D. S. Polyanski.
  • Full 1918 RSFSR Constitution

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