World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Referral chain

Article Id: WHEBN0023452838
Reproduction Date:

Title: Referral chain  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Tourism, Budget Host, Business travel, Homestay, Justice tourism
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Referral chain

A referral hotel chain is a type of hotel franchise. It is a type of hotel that operates independently but maintains affiliation with a given chain. To stay within the chain, the hotel must meet certain minimum criteria.[1]

History

The referral chain in lodging originated in the early 1930s, originally serving to promote the cabins and tourist courts which were the predecessors to the standardised motel architecture of the 1950s.

Often, motel owners would organize "referral chains" in which each member lodge would voluntarily meet a set of standards and each property would promote the others. Each property would proudly display the group's name alongside its own; a printed directory of all member locations would generally be freely distributed at each member hotel or motel.

United Motor Courts, founded 1933 by a group of motel owners in the southwestern US, published a guidebook until the early 1950s; those who met its standards advertised its name on their signs and motel postcards.[2] A splinter of this group established Quality Courts United (1939, initially forty motels in the eastern US) because of difficulties in removing existing properties from the large and inclusive United Motor Courts network when they failed to upgrade and modernize. The Best Western Motels (1947) was a similar referral chain of independent western US motels.

Other referral chains included "Superior Courts United" (1950, renamed "A Superior Motel" in 1964, last membership renewals 1979) whose four-leaf clover logo ("Travel Superior Courts United Inc. And Be Sure!") graced over 500 motels (mostly on the Atlantic coast) in the mid-1960s.

Decline

Quality Courts was converted to a franchise operation in 1963, ending a long-running cross-promotion in which Best Western (a western US referral chain) and Quality Courts (originally an eastern US referral chain) were largely marketed together. The brand still exists as franchised Quality Inn.

Friendship Inns (founded 1961 Salt Lake City, became a franchise chain in 1985) once enlisted many older, marginal properties; its trademark was eventually sold as a low-end brand to Choice Hotels. Other 1950s and 1960s referral chains included Emmons Walker, Congress Inns, Imperial 400 Motels, Master Hosts, and Courtesy Courts. Budget Host (1976, 57 locations) and Independent Motels of America (1982) were among the last of this dying breed.

By 1987, franchise chains controlled 64 percent of the market and independent referral chains were being converted to franchises or simply disappearing.[3] The one notable survivor of the referral chains, Best Western, offers the centralized purchasing and reservation systems of a franchise system but nominally remains member-owned.

References

  1. ^ Bardi, James A. "1". Hotel Front Office Management. p. 22. 
  2. ^ William and Nancy Young (March 30, 2007). The Great Depression in America: a cultural encyclopedia. Greenwood. pp. 315–318.  
  3. ^ Jakle, John A.; Sculle, Keith A.; Rogers, Jefferson S. (1996). The Motel in America. Johns Hopkins University Press.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.