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Richmond, Indiana

City of Richmond, Indiana
City
Wayne County Courthouse in Richmond
Wayne County Courthouse in Richmond
Location in the state of Indiana
Location in the state of Indiana
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Indiana
County Wayne
Township Boston, Center, Wayne
Government
 • Mayor Sarah L. "Sally" Hutton (D)
Area[1]
 • Total 24.08 sq mi (62.37 km2)
 • Land 23.92 sq mi (61.95 km2)
 • Water 0.16 sq mi (0.41 km2)
Elevation 981 ft (299 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 36,812
 • Estimate (2012[3]) 36,599
 • Density 1,539.0/sq mi (594.2/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 47374-47375
Area code(s) 765
FIPS code 18-64260[4]
GNIS feature ID 0441976[5]
Website .gov.richmondindianawww

Richmond is a city largely within Wayne Township, Wayne County, in east central Indiana, United States, which borders Ohio. The city also includes the Richmond Municipal Airport, which is in Boston Township and separated from the rest of the city. It is sometimes called the "cradle of recorded jazz" because some early jazz records were made here at the studio of Gennett Records, a division of the Starr Piano Company.[6]

Richmond is the county seat of Wayne County,[7] and in the 2010 census, it had a population of 36,812. The city has twice received the All-America City Award, most recently in 2009.

Contents

  • Geography 1
  • Demographics 2
    • 2010 census 2.1
    • 2000 census 2.2
  • History 3
  • 20th-century challenges 4
  • Architecture 5
  • Educational institutions 6
  • Religious groups 7
  • Transportation 8
    • Air 8.1
    • Road 8.2
  • Media 9
  • Points of interest 10
  • Notable people 11
  • Sister cities 12
  • Notes 13
  • External links 14

Geography

Richmond is located at .[8]

According to the 2010 census, Richmond has a total area of 24.067 square miles (62.33 km2), of which 23.91 square miles (61.93 km2) (or 99.35%) is land and 0.157 square miles (0.41 km2) (or 0.65%) is water.[1]

Demographics

According to an estimate released in 2009 by the United States Census Bureau, Wayne County, of which Richmond is the county seat, had a relatively high population of divorced residents: 19.2 percent. Among 54,810 native-born residents 19.4 percent were divorced, and among 550 foreign-born residents none were divorced. Among whites, 18.7 percent were divorced, while 11.6 percent of blacks or African Americans were divorced. The age category with the highest percentage of divorced person was 45-54. (males: 35 percent; females 33.5 percent). Among males and females aged 15–19, the percent divorced was zero.[10]

2010 census

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 36,812 people, 15,098 households, and 8,909 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,539.0 inhabitants per square mile (594.2/km2). There were 17,649 housing units at an average density of 737.8 per square mile (284.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.9% White, 8.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, and 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population.

There were 15,098 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.0% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.91.

The median age in the city was 38.4 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.4% were from 25 to 44; 25.6% were from 45 to 64; and 16.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female.

2000 census

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 39,124 people, 16,287 households, and 9,918 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,685.3 people per square mile (650.8/km²). There were 17,647 housing units at an average density of 760.2 per square mile (293.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 86.78% White, 8.87% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, and 2.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.03% of the population.

Richmond lies on the flat lands of eastern Indiana.

There were 16,287 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,210, and the median income for a family was $38,346. Males had a median income of $30,849 versus $21,164 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,096. About 12.1% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.8% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.

History

In 1806 the first European Americans, Quaker families from North Carolina, settled along the East Fork of the Whitewater River. This was part of a general westward migration in the early decades after the American Revolution. John Smith and David Hoover were among the earliest settlers. Richmond is still home to several Quaker institutions, including Friends United Meeting, Earlham College and the Earlham School of Religion.

The settlement was incorporated as a town on Sept. 1, 1818. At that time, it had 24 adult settlers. The first post office in Richmond was established in 1818.[11]

Early cinema and television pioneer Charles Francis Jenkins grew-up on a farm north of Richmond, where he began inventing useful gadgets. As the Richmond Telegram reported, on June 6, 1894, Jenkins gathered his family, friends and newsmen at Jenkins' cousin's jewelry store in downtown Richmond and projected a filmed motion picture for the first time in front of an audience. The motion picture was of a vaudeville entertainer performing a butterfly dance, which Jenkins had filmed himself. Jenkins filed for a patent for the Phantoscope projector in November 1894 and it was issued in March of '95. A modified version of the Phantoscope was later sold to Thomas Edison who named it Edison's Vitascope and began projecting motion pictures in New York City vaudeville theaters, raising the curtain on American cinema.

Richmond is believed to have been the smallest community in the United States to have supported a professional opera company and symphony orchestra. The Whitewater Opera has since closed but the Richmond Symphony Orchestra has continued. In 1899 Will Earhart formed the first complete high school orchestra in the nation. A later high school orchestra director, Joseph E. Maddy, went on to found what is now known as the Interlochen Center for the Arts in Michigan.

In the 1920s during the national revival of the Salvation Army.[18] Thomas Barr, son of Daisy Douglas Barr, nationally prominent Quaker minister and Klan official,[19] attended Earlham College and was a KKK campus recruiter.[20]

Also notable was the fact that Hoagy Carmichael recorded "Stardust" for the first time in Richmond at the Gennett recording studio. Famed trumpeter and singer Louis Armstrong was first recorded at Gennett as a member of King Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band.[21]

A group of Maude Kaufman Eggemeyer and John Albert Seaford, among others. The Richmond Art Museum has a collection of regional and American art.[22] Many consider the most significant painting in the collection to be a self-portrait of Indiana-born William Merritt Chase.[23]

The city was connected to the National Road, the first road built by the federal government and a major route west for pioneers of the 19th century.[24] It became part of the system of National Auto Trails. The highway is now known as U.S. Route 40. One of the extant Madonna of the Trail monuments was dedicated at Richmond on October 28, 1928[25] The monument sits in a corner of Glen Miller Park adjacent to US 40.

Richmond's cultural resources include two of Indiana's three Egyptian mummies. One is held by the Wayne County Historical Museum and the second by Earlham College's Joseph Moore Museum, leading to the local nickname of "Mummy capital of Indiana". [26] [27]

The arts were supported by a strong economy increasingly based on manufacturing. Richmond was once known as "the lawn mower capital" because it was a center for manufacturing of lawn mowers from the late 19th century through the mid-20th century. Manufacturers included Davis, Motomower, Dille-McGuire and F&N. The farm machinery builder Gaar-Scott was based in Richmond. The Davis Aircraft Co.,[28][29] builder of a light parasol wing monoplane, operated in Richmond beginning in 1929.

After starting out in nearby Davis; the Pilot; the Westcott and the Crosley.

In the 1950s, Wayne Works changed its name to Wayne Corporation, by then a well-known bus and school-bus manufacturer. In 1967 it relocated to a site adjacent to Interstate 70. The company was a leader in school-bus safety innovations, but it closed in 1992 during a period of school-bus manufacturing industry consolidations.

Richmond was known as the "Rose City" because of the many varieties once grown there by Hill's Roses. The company had several sprawling complexes of greenhouses, with a total of about 34 acres (140,000 m2) under glass. The annual Richmond Rose Festival honored the rose industry and was a popular summer attraction.

20th-century challenges

On April 6, 1968, a natural gas explosion and fire destroyed or damaged several downtown blocks and killed 41 people; more than 150 were injured.[30] The book Death in a Sunny Street is about the event.

In the rebuilding effort, the city closed the main street through downtown to traffic and built the Downtown Promenade in 1972 (expanded in 1978). When studies showed that car traffic helped businesses, the city had the five-block pedestrian mall broken up. It reopened the street to traffic in 1997 as part of an urban revitalization effort.

On March 17, 1999, the 155-year-old family run business, Swayne, Robinson and Company was destroyed in a fire. The site is now the location of the Wayne County Jail.[31][32]

Architecture

Wayne County Court House
Richmond is noted for its rich stock of historic architecture. In 2003, a book entitled Richmond Indiana: Its Physical Development and Aesthetic Heritage to 1920 by Cornell University architectural historians, Michael and Mary Raddant Tomlan, was published by the Indiana Historical Society. Particularly notable buildings are the 1902 Pennsylvania Railroad Station designed by Daniel Burnham of Chicago and the 1893 Wayne County Court House designed by James W. McLaughlin of Cincinnati. Local architects of note include John A. Hasecoster, William S. Kaufman and Stephen O. Yates.

The significance of the architecture has been recognized. Five large districts, such as the Depot District, and several individual buildings are listed in the National Register of Historic Places, the Historic American Buildings Survey and the Historic American Engineering Record.

Educational institutions

The Richmond Japanese Language School (リッチモンド(IN)補習授業校 Ritchimondo(IN)Hoshū Jugyō Kō) a part-time Japanese school, holds its classes at the Highland Heights School.[33]

Religious groups

Transportation

Air

Richmond Municipal Airport is a public-use airport located five nautical miles (6 mi, 9 km) southeast of the central business district of Richmond. It is owned by the Richmond Board of Aviation Commissioners.[34]

Road

Richmond is served by Interstate 70 at exits 149, 151, 153, and 156. Public transit service is provided by city-owned Roseview Transit, operating daily except Sundays and major holidays.[35]

Media

The daily newspaper is the Gannett-owned Palladium-Item.

Full-power radio stations include WKBV, WFMG, WQLK, WHON, WKRT, and Earlham College's student-run public radio station WECI. Richmond is also served by WJYW which is repeated on 94.5 and 97.7. Area NPR radio stations include WBSH in Hagerstown, Indiana and WMUB in Oxford, OH.

Richmond is considered to be within the Dayton, Ohio television market and has one full-power television station, WKOI, which is affiliated with TBN. The city also has one county-wide Public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable television station, Whitewater Community Television.[36]

Points of interest

Hicksite Friends Meeting House, 1150 North A Street, Richmond, Indiana, now houses the Wayne County Historical Museum.

Notable people

Sister cities

Notes

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^
  6. ^ Starr Gennett Foundation, http://starrgennett.org/ URL accessed May 29, 2006.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Wayne County, Indiana S1201. Marital Status; United States Census Bureau http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-state=st&-context=st&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_S1201&-ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_&-tree_id=308&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=05000US18177&-format=&-_lang=en URL accessed September 23, 2009.
  11. ^
  12. ^ "Ku Klux Klan", Wayne County, Indiana Records, 1916–1933, Indiana History, URL accessed Sep. 23, 2013.
  13. ^ Leonard J. Moore, Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928, North Carolina Press, 1997.
  14. ^ , October 6, 1923, pp. 1-2, URL accessed January 11, 2014Richmond Item"Spectacular array presented by Klan in mamoth (sic) parade",
  15. ^
  16. ^ "Klan issue in Democrat race for president", Richmond Item, May 14, 1924, p. 1.
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ Giants in Their Time: Representative Americans from the Jazz Age to the Cold War, p. 13. Norman K. Risjord, ISBN 0742527859. 2005
  22. ^ Richmond Art Museum, http://www.richmondartmuseum.org/ URL accessed May 30, 2006.
  23. ^ , URL accessed May 30, 2006Self-portrait: The Artist in his Studio, 1916William Merritt Chase,
  24. ^ "Road through the Wilderness: The Making of the National Road", URL accessed May 30, 2006.
  25. ^ "Madonna of the Trail", Wayne County, URL accessed May 30, 2006.
  26. ^ Wayne County Historical Museum, http://waynecountyhistoricalmuseum.com/ URL accessed December 13, 2008.
  27. ^ Joseph Moore Museum, http://www.waynet.org/nonprofit/jos_moore.htm URL accessed December 13, 2008.
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ , URL accessed May 29, 2006.Death in a Sunny Street : The Civil Defense Story of the Richmond, Indiana Disaster, April 6, 1968
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^ "北米の補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在)." (Archive) MEXT. Retrieved on May 5, 2014. "Highland Heights School , 1751 Chester Rd. Richmond, IN 47374 U.S.A."
  34. ^ FAA Airport Master Record for RID (Form 5010 PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. Effective May 31, 2012.
  35. ^
  36. ^ Whitewater Community Television home page.
  37. ^
  38. ^ Polly Bergen, http://www.meredy.com/pollybergen/ URL accessed May 30, 2006.
  39. ^ Space Age Pop Music: George Duning, http://www.spaceagepop.com/duning.htm URL accessed September 9, 2006.
  40. ^ Weeb Ewbank, http://www.profootballhof.com/hof/member.jsp?player_id=65 URL accessed May 30, 2006.
  41. ^ FindAGrave: Norman Foster, http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=11777752&pt=%3Cb%3ENorman%3C/b%3E%20Foster URL accessed September 9, 2006.
  42. ^ FindAGrave: Harry Frankel, http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=10193921 URL accessed September 9, 2006.
  43. ^ Jazz at Newport 2006, http://www.jazzatnewport.org/home.cfm?dir_cat=47265 URL accessed September 9, 2006.
  44. ^ Mendel Medal recipient: Charles A. Hufnagel, http://astro4.ast.vill.edu/mendel/hufnagel.htm URL accessed September 9, 2006.
  45. ^ Harry Keenan, http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0444645/ URL accessed September 9, 2006.
  46. ^ Esther A. Kellner (1908-1998), http://www.mrlinfo.org/history/biography/kellner.htm URL accessed May 29, 2006.
  47. ^ Wheaton College Special Collections, http://www.wheaton.edu/learnres/ARCSC/collects/sc38/bio.htm 2006.
  48. ^ Kenneth MacDonald, http://www.surfnetinc.com/chuck/villan27.htm URL accessed September 9, 2006.
  49. ^ Oliver Hazard Perry Throck Morton, http://www.civilwarhome.com/mortonbio.htm URL accessed May 30, 2006.
  50. ^ Official Ned Rorem Website, http://www.nedrorem.com/ URL accessed May 30, 2006.
  51. ^ nwi.com Johnny Ross a region music resource
  52. ^ American Sportscasters Hall of Fame Inductee, http://www.americansportscasters.com/schenkel.html URL accessed September 9, 2006.
  53. ^ Wendell M. Stanley, http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/1946/stanley-bio.html URL accessed May 30, 2006.
  54. ^ D. Elton Trueblood, http://www.waynet.org/people/biography/trueblood.htm URL accessed May 30, 2006.
  55. ^ Carol Lou Trio, http://carolloutrio.pbwiki.com/ URL accessed January 20, 2008.
  56. ^ "The Wright Brother", URL accessed May 30, 2006

External links

  • Official website
  • Morrison-Reeves Library Digital Collection
  • Richmond/Wayne County Convention and Tourism Bureau Inc.
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