World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Robert Emmet

Robert Emmet
Born (1778-03-04)4 March 1778
Dublin, Ireland
Died 20 September 1803(1803-09-20) (aged 25)
Dublin
Allegiance United Irishmen
Years of service 1793–1803
Rank Commander
Battles/wars 1798 Rebellion
Irish Rebellion of 1803
Relations Thomas Addis Emmet

Robert Emmet (4 March 1778 – 20 September 1803) was an Irish nationalist and Republican, orator and rebel leader. He led an abortive rebellion against British rule in 1803. He was captured by the British, tried and executed for high treason against the British king.[1]

Robert Emmet came from a wealthy Protestant family who sympathised with Irish Catholics and their lack of fair representation in Parliament. The Emmet family also sympathised with the American Revolution. While his own efforts to rebel against British rule failed, his actions and speech after his conviction inspired his compatriots.[2]

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • 1803 rebellion 2
  • Capture and trial 3
  • Burial 4
  • Legacy 5
  • Statues 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
    • Bibliography 8.1
  • External links 9

Early life

Emmet was born at 109 St. Stephen's Green,[3][4] in Dublin on 4 March 1778. He was the youngest son of Dr Robert Emmet (1729–1802), a court physician, and his wife, Elizabeth Mason (1739–1803). The Emmets were financially comfortable, with a house at St Stephen's Green and a country residence near Milltown. One of his elder brothers was the nationalist Thomas Addis Emmet, a close friend of Theobald Wolfe Tone, who was a frequent visitor to the house when Robert was a child.

He was sent to Oswald's school, in Dopping's-court, off Golden-lane.[5] Emmet entered Trinity College, Dublin in October 1793, at the age of fifteen. In December 1797 he joined the College Historical Society, a debating society. While he was at college, his brother Thomas and some of his friends became involved in political activism. Robert himself became secretary of a secret United Irish Committee in college, and was expelled in April 1798 as a result. That same year he fled to France to avoid the many arrests that were taking place in Ireland. While in France, Emmet garnered the support of Napoleon who had promised to lend support when the upcoming revolution started.[6]

After the 1798 rising, Emmet was involved in reorganising the defeated United Irish Society. In April 1799 a warrant was issued for his arrest. He escaped and soon after travelled to the continent in the hope of securing French military aid. His efforts were unsuccessful, as Napoleon was concentrating his efforts on invading England. Emmet thus returned to Ireland in October 1802. In March the following year, he began preparations for another uprising.

1803 rebellion

"Robert Emmet - The Irish Patriot"; a posthumous imaginary portrait of 1872.

After his return to Ireland, Emmet began to prepare a new rebellion, with fellow revolutionaries Thomas Russell and James Hope. He began to manufacture weapons and explosives at a number of premises in Dublin and even innovated a folding pike which could be concealed under a cloak, being fitted with a hinge. Unlike in 1798, the preparations for the uprising were successfully concealed, but a premature explosion at one of Emmet's arms depots killed a man and forced Emmet to bring forward the date of the rising before the authorities' suspicions were aroused.

Emmet was unable to secure the help of Michael Dwyer's Wicklow rebels,[7] and many Kildare rebels who had arrived turned back due to the scarcity of firearms they had been promised, but the rising went ahead in Dublin on the evening of 23 July 1803. About 10,000 copies were printed of a proclamation in the name of the "Provisional Government", which influenced the 1916 Proclamation; most were destroyed by the authorities.[8] Emmet wore a uniform of a green coat with white facings, white breeches, top-boots, and a cocked hat with feathers.[5] Failing to seize Dublin Castle, which was lightly defended, the rising amounted to a large-scale disturbance in the Thomas Street area. Emmet personally witnessed a dragoon being pulled from his horse and piked to death, the sight of which prompted him to call off the rising to avoid further bloodshed. However, he had lost all control of his followers, and in one incident, the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, Lord Kilwarden, who was reviled as chief prosecutor of William Orr in 1797 but was also the judge who granted habeas corpus to Wolfe Tone in 1798, was dragged from his carriage where he then received numerous pike wounds; found still alive, he was taken to a watch-house where he died shortly thereafter. Also killed was Kilwarden's nephew, the Rev. Mr. Wolfe. Sporadic clashes continued into the night until finally quelled by British military forces.

Capture and trial

Robert Emmet's cell in Kilmainham Gaol

Emmet fled into hiding, but moved his hiding place from Rathfarnam to Harold's Cross so that he could be near his sweetheart, Sarah Curran. In all probability he might have escaped to France, had he not insisted upon returning with Anne Devlin for the purpose of taking leave of Sarah Curran, daughter of John Philpot Curran, to whom he was engaged.[5] He was captured on 25 August. Emmet was at once taken to the Castle, and thence removed to Kilmainham. Vigorous but ineffectual efforts were made to procure his escape.

Depiction of Robert Emmet's trial

He was tried for treason on 19 September; the Crown repaired the weaknesses in its case by secretly buying the assistance of Emmet's defence attorney, Leonard McNally, for £200 and a pension.[9] However his assistant Peter Burrowes could not be bought and pleaded the case as best he could.[7] On 19 September, Emmet was found guilty of high treason.

Before sentencing Emmet delivered a speech, the Speech from the Dock, which is especially remembered for its closing sentences and secured his posthumous fame among executed Irish republicans. It was printed in Manchester for the bookseller TP Carlile in 1835.[10]

Let no man write my epitaph; for as no man who knows my motives dare now vindicate them, let not prejudice or ignorance, asperse them. Let them and me rest in obscurity and peace, and my tomb remain uninscribed, and my memory in oblivion, until other times and other men can do justice to my character. When my country takes her place among the nations of the earth, then and not till then, let my epitaph be written. I have done.[11]

An earlier and perhaps more accurate version of the speech was published in 1818, in a biography on Sarah Curran's father John, emphasising that Emmet's epitaph would be written on the vindication of his character, and not specifically when Ireland took its place as a nation. It closed:[12]

I am here ready to die. I am not allowed to vindicate my character; no man shall dare to vindicate my character; and when I am prevented from vindicating myself, let no man dare to calumniate me. Let my character and my motives repose in obscurity and peace, till other times and other men can do them justice. Then shall my character be vindicated; then may my epitaph be written.
Depiction of Robert Emmet's execution

Chief Justice Lord Norbury's sentence him to be hanged, drawn and quartered. The following day, 20 September, Emmet was executed in Thomas Street near St. Catherine's. He was hanged and then beheaded once dead.[1] As family members and friends of Robert had also been arrested, including some who had nothing to do with the rebellion, no one came forward to claim his remains out of fear of arrest.

Robert Emmet is described as slight in person; his features were regular, his forehead high, his eyes bright and full of expression, his nose sharp, thin, and straight, the lower part of his face slightly pock-marked, his complexion sallow.[5]

Burial

Emmet's remains were first delivered to Newgate Prison and then back to Kilmainham Gaol, where the jailer was under instructions that if no one claimed them they were to be buried in a nearby hospital's burial grounds called 'Bully's Acre' in Kilmainham. A later search there found no remains as it appeared that Emmet's remains were secretly removed from Bully's Acre and reinterred in St Michan's, a church with strong United Irish associations, though it was never confirmed.[13]

There is much mystery and speculation regarding the whereabouts of Emmet's remains. It was suspected that they were buried secretly in the vault of a Dublin Anglican church. When the vault was inspected in the 1950s a headless corpse was found, suspected of being Emmet's, but could not be identified. Widely accepted as the most plausible theory put forth was that Emmet's remains were transferred to the Church of Ireland in St Peter's Church in Dublin under cover of the burial of Robert's sister, Mary Anne Holmes, in 1804.[1] In the 1980s the church was turned into a night club and all the coffins removed from the vaults. The church has since been demolished.

Legacy

Robert Emmet was honoured on two Irish postage stamps issued in 1953, commemorating the 150th anniversary of his death

Emmet became a heroic figure in Irish history. His speech from the dock is widely quoted and remembered, especially among Irish nationalists.[14][15] Emmet's housekeeper, Anne Devlin, is also remembered in Irish history for enduring torture without providing information to the authorities.[1]

Robert Emmet wrote a letter from his cell in his parting letter to her made him into a romantic character, which appealed to the Victorian Era's appetite for Romanticism.

His story became the subject of stage melodramas during the 19th century, most notably Dion Boucicault's inaccurate 1884 play Robert Emmet, inaccuracies including Emmet and Sarah being portrayed as Roman Catholics, John Philpot Curran being portrayed as a Unionist, and Emmet being killed onstage by firing squad.

Robert's friend from Trinity College, Thomas Moore, championed his cause by writing popular ballads about him and Sarah Curran, such as

Oh breathe not his name! let it sleep in the shade,
Where cold and unhonoured his relics are laid!

The poem "On Robert Emmet's Grave" by Percy Bysshe Shelley states that Emmet's grave will "remain unpolluted by fame", as its location is unknown:

No trump tells thy virtues--the grave where they rest
With thy dust shall remain unpolluted by fame,
Till thy foes, by the world and by fortune caressed,
Shall pass like a mist from the light of thy name.
[16]

Washington Irving, devoted "The Broken Heart" in his The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. to the romance between Emmet and Sarah Curran, citing it as an example of how a broken heart can be fatal.

Robert Emmet's older brother, Thomas Addis Emmet emigrated to the United States shortly after Robert's execution and eventually served as the New York State Attorney General. His great-grand-nieces are the prominent American portrait painters Lydia Field Emmet, Rosina Sherwood Emmet, Jane Emmet de Glehn. Robert Emmet's great-great nephew was the American playwright Robert Emmet Sherwood.

Places named after Emmet include Emmetsburg, Iowa;[14] Emmet, Nebraska;[17] Emmet County, Iowa; Emmett, Michigan and Emmet County, Michigan.[18] There is a statue of Emmet in front of the California Academy of Sciences, in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco and Robert Emmet Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois.

There is a 1915 American film by Irish-Canadian Sidney Olcott entitled All for Old Ireland, also known as Bold Emmett, Ireland's Martyr or Robert Emmet, Ireland's Martyr.[19]

A public commemoration of Emmet's execution and legacy is held annually on the fourth Sunday in September at the Robert Emmet statue in Washington, DC by the Irish American Unity Conference.

Robert Emmet's GAC Sluaghtneil, in County Derry is named after him as is the Killoe Young Emmets GAC in County Longford.

Statues

A statue also resides in the courthouse square in Emmetsburg, Iowa.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d , Dublin, Ireland; 2010Irish Historical MysteriesMurphy, Sean. "The Grave of Robert Emmet",
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b c d , M.H. Gill & Son, Dublin, 1878A Compendium of Irish BiographyWebb, Alfred.
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ 1835 text online; accessed April 8, 2014
  11. ^ Speeches from the Dock, T.D., A.M., and D.B. Sullivan, Re Edited by Seán Ua Cellaigh, M.H. Gill & Son, Dublin, 1953 pg.60
  12. ^ Phillips, C. Recollections of Curran (1818 Milliken, Dublin) pp.256-259.
  13. ^ Sean Murphy, Bully's Acre and Royal Hospital Kilmainham Graveyards: History and Inscriptions, Dublin 1989
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^
  16. ^ Esdaile manuscript book by Dowden, "Life of Shelley", 1887; dated 1812
  17. ^ Campbell, Dorine. "Emmet". Nebraska...Our Towns Retrieved 2010-06-16.
  18. ^
  19. ^ The Story of Irish Film, by Arthur Flynn, Currach Press, Dublin, 2005 ISBN 1-85607-914-7.
  20. ^

Bibliography

  • Elliott, Marianne. Robert Emmet: The Making of a Legend
  • Geoghegan, Patrick. Robert Emmet: A Life (Gill and Macmillan) ISBN 0-7171-3387-7
  • Gough, Hugh & David Dickson, editors. Ireland and the French Revolution
  • McMahon, Sean. Robert Emmet
  • O Bradaigh, Sean. Bold Robert Emmet 1778-1803
  • O'Donnell, Ruan. Robert Emmet and the Rebellion of 1798
  • _____. Robert Emmet and the Rising of 1803
  • _____. Remember Emmet: Images of the Life and legacy of Robert Emmet
  • Smyth, Jim. The Men of No Property: Irish Radicals and Popular Politics in the Late Eighteenth Century
  • Stewart, A.T.Q. A Deeper Silence: The Hidden Origins of the United Irish Movement

External links

  • Robert Emmet
  • Robert Emmet index of articles in History Ireland
  • History of Dublin Castle, Chapter 13. Emmet's execution
  • DNA tests to tell if skull is Emmet's
  • Emmet's 'Proclamation of Independence'
  • Robert Emmet's Speech (Unabridged) From the Dock
  • Bronze sculpture of Robert Emmet (1916), by Jerome Stanley Connor, in Emmet Park, Washington, DC (photos)
  • Éamon De Valera unveils statue of Robert Emmet in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, 20 July 1919
  • Smithsonian American Art Museum's Art Inventories Catalog record of the Robert Emmet Statue in Washington, D.C.
  • Robert Emmet Museum
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.