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Rudolf Lange

Rudolf Lange
Rudolf Lange
Born 18 November 1910
Weißwasser, Prussian Silesia
Died 23 February 1945(1945-02-23) (aged 34)
uncertain, but said to be Posen, Warthegau
Allegiance  Nazi Germany
Service/branch Schutzstaffel and Sicherheitsdienst
Years of service 1932–1945
Rank Standartenführer (Colonel)
Unit Einsatzgruppe A, Einsatzkommando 2
Battles/wars Battle of Poznań (1945)
Awards German Cross in Gold
Other work One of the persons most responsible for carrying out The Holocaust in Latvia.

Representative of Einsatzgruppe A
and Einsatzkommando 2

To The Wannsee Conference, 20 January 1942 and 6 March 1942

Rudolf Lange (18 April 1910 – 23 February 1945?) was a prominent Nazi police official. He served as commander of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) and Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) in Riga, Latvia. He attended the Wannsee Conference, and was largely responsible for implementing the extermination of Latvia's Jewish population. Einsatzgruppe A killed over 250,000 people in less than six months.

Contents

  • Early life and career 1
  • Mass murder in Latvia 2
  • Wannsee Conference 3
  • Disappearance 4
  • Character 5
  • SS career 6
  • Notes 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Early life and career

Lange was born in [1]

As a mid-level Gestapo official, Lange rose rapidly. He adopted the SS ideology wholeheartedly, and resigned from the church in 1937.[2] From 1936 he worked in the Gestapo office in [1]

In September 1939 the security and police agencies of [1] In April 1941, he was promoted to SS-Sturmbannführer (major).

Mass murder in Latvia

On 5 June 1941 Lange was ordered to Pretzsch and the command staff of Einsatzgruppe A, headed by SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Polizei Dr. Franz Walter Stahlecker.[3]

Lange was a Teilkommando (detachment) leader in Einsatzkommando 2, or EK2.[4] He was one of the few people aware of the Führerbefehl or "fundamental orders" for the so-called "Jewish problem" in Latvia.[5] According to Lange himself:

On 3 December 1941, he was promoted as commander of EK2, replacing [7] Matters of formal rank and titles were never clear in the Nazi occupation regime for Latvia, as the lines of authority within agencies and the relationship between one agency and others were "ambiguous, overlapping, and unclear".[7] Nevertheless, Lange is widely recognized as one of the primary perpetrators of the Holocaust in Latvia.[8]

His headquarters were in Vagulāns Kommando, which was responsible for the Jelgava massacres in July and August 1941.[11]

Lange also personally supervised executions conducted by the Arājs commando.[12] He appears to have ordered that all the SD officers should personally participate in the killings.[13]

Lange was responsible for the Latvian part of the decision by the Nazi regime to deport Jews from Germany, Salaspils concentration camp, originally intended to accommodate these deportees.[8] Because the Salaspils camp would not be ready by the time the Jews would arrive, Lange decided to send the transports to an abandoned estate near Riga called Jungfernhof or Jumpravmuiza, which would be set up as Jungfernhof concentration camp.[8][14]

In November 1941 Lange was involved in the planning and carrying out the murder of 24,000 Latvian Jews from the Riga ghetto which occurred on 30 November and 8 December 1941.[8] This crime has come to be known as the Rumbula massacre.[15] In addition to the Latvian Jews, another 1,000 Jews from Germany were also murdered. They had been brought to Latvia on the first train of deportees, which arrived on 29 November 1941. Following the 29 November train, more rail transports of Jews began arriving in Riga from Germany, starting on 3 December 1941. The Jews on the first few transports were not immediately housed in the ghetto, but were left at Jungfernhof concentration camp.[16]

In May 1942, Lange issued orders to SS-Obersturmführer Günter Tabbert to kill the surviving Jews in the Daugavpils ghetto. Only about 450 Jews survived in Daugavpils after this action, which involved killing of the sick, children, infants and hospital workers. In addition to Tabbert, the Arajs Kommando of native Latvians was responsible for a major part of these killings.[17]

In 1942, Lange became an SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) in the head office in Riga until 1945, when he became Head of Reichsgau Wartheland's SD and SiPo. He was promoted to SS-Standartenführer (colonel) in 1945.

Wannsee Conference

Lange was called to the Wannsee Conference by Heydrich in January 1942.[8] Along with Adolf Eichmann, the recording secretary of the conference, Lange (an SS major) was the *lowest-ranking officer present.[18] Heydrich viewed Lange's first-hand experience in conducting the mass murder of deported Jews as valuable for the conference.[18] Instead of Lange, Heydrich could have invited either Karl Jäger or Erich Ehrlinger, who commanded the SiPo and SD in Lithuania and Belarus respectively, and were responsible for similar massacres.[18] He chose Lange because Riga was the main deportation destination, and because Lange's doctorate made him seem more intellectual than the other two men.[18] Lange's superior, Franz Walter Stahlecker, was not invited, as he was not familiar with the realities of the Jewish deportations and was not located in Riga.[18]

  • (Note: One possible indication of Lange's low rank may perhaps be evident in Ian Kershaw's Hitler 1936-1945 Nemesis, where the SS major twice is mistakenly referred to as Dr. "Otto" Lange.)[19]

Disappearance

Early in 1945 Lange was appointed head of the SD and the SS in Posen, Warthegau. Soon after he reached the city, Posen was surrounded by the Soviet Red Army and was declared a fortified city (Festung). Lange, who could not have any doubts about his destiny as a prisoner, directed the police under his command with fanaticism. He was wounded during the Battle of Poznan and the siege by Russian forces and was promoted SS-Standartenführer (30 January 1945). At Hitler's behest, on 6 February 1945 he received the German Cross in gold.[20] Lange may have died or committed suicide when the Red Army seized Poznań 23 February 1945 after a last-ditch defence of the city by the remnants of the German garrison.

Character

Lange was said to have been a favourite student of Reinhard Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler.[4] He demanded unconditional obedience from his subordinates.[4] Joseph Berman, a survivor of one of the concentration camps administered by Lange, described him as follows: Lange made himself one of the most feared officials among those responsible for the Riga ghetto.[22] He supervised the arrival of the transports, aided by SS-Obersturmbannführer Gerhard Maywald, whom historian Gertrude Schneider, a survivor of the Riga ghetto, describes as Lange's "sidekick".[16] Lange personally shot a young man, Werner Koppel, whom he felt was not opening a railway car door fast enough.[16] Schneider described Lange's appearance:

SS career

  • Untersturmführer, 6 July 1938
  • Sturmführer, 9 November 1938
  • Hauptsturmführer, 20 April 1940
  • Sturmbannführer, 20 April 1941
  • Obersturmbannführer, 9 November 1943
  • Standartenführer, 1945

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Olokaustos.org.
  2. ^ a b c Angrick & Klein 2009, p. 44.
  3. ^ Angrick & Klein 2009, pp. 44–45.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Ezergailis 1996, pp. 147–151.
  5. ^ Ezergailis 1996, p. 207.
  6. ^ Ezergailis 1996, p. 204.
  7. ^ a b Ezergailis 1996, pp. 152, 153.
  8. ^ a b c d e Lumans 2006, pp. 236, 249, 251, 253–255.
  9. ^ Ezergailis 1996, p. 313.
  10. ^ Ezergailis 1996, p. 184.
  11. ^ Ezergailis 1996, pp. 50, 320.
  12. ^ Ezergailis 1996, p. 190.
  13. ^ Ezergailis 1996, p. 223.
  14. ^ Ezergailis 1996, pp. 352–356.
  15. ^ Ezergailis 1996, pp. 243–247.
  16. ^ a b c Schneider 2001, pp. 11–15.
  17. ^ Ezergailis 1996, p. 279–280.
  18. ^ a b c d e Angrick & Klein 2009, p. 226.
  19. ^
  20. ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001.
  21. ^ Ezergailis 1996, p. 147.
  22. ^ Ezergailis 1996, pp. 321–322.
  23. ^ Schneider 2001, p. 24.

References

  • (German) Klein, Peter. Dr. Rudolf Lange als Kommandant der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD in Lettland. Aspekte seines Dienstalltags, in Wolf Kaiser (Hrsg.): Täter im Vernichtungskrieg. Der Überfall auf die Sowjetunion und der Völkermord an den Juden. Propyläen-Verlag, 2002. ISBN 3-549-07161-2.

External links

  • (German) Wannsee conference villa
  • (Italian) Lange biography and image
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