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Sadaqah

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Sadaqah

Sadaqah or Saddka (Arabic: صدقة‎, IPA: , "charity]", plural ṣadaqāt صدقات) in the modern context has come to signify "voluntary charity", [1] however in earliest Islam it was regarded as compulsory and led Muhammad's successor Abu Bakr to declare war on Arabian tribes that withheld sadaqah. [2] This concept encompasses any act of giving out of compassion, love, friendship (fraternity), religious duty or generosity. The term is synonymous with Tzedakah.

Contents

  • Hadith on Sadaqah 1
  • Quran on Sadaqah 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • Further Reading 5

Hadith on Sadaqah

Muhammad was asked:

We used to sacrifice Atirah in pre-Islamic days during Rajab; so what do you command us? He said: Sacrifice for the sake of Allah in any month whatever; obey Allah, Most High, and feed (the people).

In the hadith collected by Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi in his Jami` at-Tirmidhi

  • "Saddka extinguishes sin as water extinguishes fire." (2541)
  • "Saddka appeases the Lord’s anger and averts an fire death." (1909)
  • "The believer's shade on the Day of Resurrection will be his Saddka'." (1925)

In other hadith

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:
A woman said: Apostle of Allah, my mother suddenly died; if it had not happened, she would have given sadaqah (charity) and donated (something). Will it suffice if I give sadaqah on her behalf? The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Yes, give sadaqah on her behalf.
— Abu Dawood, Sunan Abu Dawood[4]
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah's Apostle said, "There is a (compulsory) Sadaqa (charity) to be given for every joint of the human body (as a sign of gratitude to Allah) every day the sun rises. To judge justly between two persons is regarded as Sadaqa, and to help a man concerning his riding animal by helping him to ride it or by lifting his luggage on to it, is also regarded as Sadaqa, and (saying) a good word is also Sadaqa, and every step taken on one's way to offer the compulsory prayer (in the mosque) is also Sadaqa and to remove a harmful thing from the way is also Sadaqa."
Hammam b. Munabbih reported that-this is out of (those ahadith) which Abu Huraira narrated to us from Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). And he while making a mention of ahadith reported from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said this: Sadaqa is due on every joint of a person, every day the sun rises. Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast, or helping him load his luggage upon it, is a Sadaqa; and a good word is a Sadaqa; and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa, and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa.
'A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Every one of the children of Hell.
— Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri, Sahih Muslim[7]

Quran on Sadaqah

Seest thou one who denies the Judgment (to come)?
Then such is the (man) who repulses the orphan (with harshness),
And encourages not the feeding of the indigent.
So woe to the worshippers
Who are neglectful of their prayers,
Those who (want but) to be seen (of men),
But refuse (to supply) (even) neighbourly needs.
— Quran, sura 107 (Al-Ma'un), ayat 1-7[8]
and spend something (in charity) out of the substance which We have bestowed on you, before Death should come to any of you and he should say, "O my Lord! why didst Thou not give me respite for a little while? I should then have given (largely) in charity, and I should have been one of the doers of good".
But to no soul will Allah grant respite when the time appointed (for it) has come; and Allah is well acquainted with (all) that ye do.
— Quran, sura 63 (Al-Munafiqun), ayat 10-11[9]
Saddka should be given solely out of love for God, out of the desire to do good to His creation, as the Quran says about the righteous:
And they feed, for the love of Allah, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive,-
(Saying),"We feed you for the sake of Allah alone: no reward do we desire from you, nor thanks.
— Quran, sura 76 (Al-Insan), ayat 8-9[10]
Giving Saddka will not diminish a Muslim's wealth. It serves as expiation for sins and yields rewards in the next life. It is stated in the Quran:
For those who give in Charity, men and women, and loan to Allah a Beautiful Loan, it shall be increased manifold (to their credit), and they shall have (besides) a liberal reward.
— .Qur'an, Sura 57 (Al-Hadid), ayah 18[11]

See also

Notes

  • ^Pronunciation variations in Literary Arabic: /sˤadaqa/, the fist and the last vowels could be backed to [ɑ] and the last vowel could be turned to [ɐ]. The second vowel could also be backed to [ɑ] or fronted to [æ]. Thus [sˤɑdæqɑ, sˤɑdæqɐ, sˤɑdɑqɑ]. See Arabic phonology.
  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 15:2824
  4. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 17:2875
  5. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:232
  6. ^ Sahih Muslim, 5:2204
  7. ^ Sahih Muslim, 5:2199
  8. ^ Quran 107:1–7
  9. ^ Quran 63:10–11
  10. ^ Quran 76:8–9
  11. ^ Quran 57:18

Further Reading

  • Debasa, Ana Maria Carballeira, Charity and Poverty, in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol. I, pp. 92-96. 1610691776
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