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Savitri Upanishad

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Savitri Upanishad

Savitri
Gayatri Mantra also known as Savitri mantra personified as a goddess
Devanagari सावित्री
IAST Sāvitrī
Meaning of name Name of the Gayatri Mantra dedicated to Savitr
Associated Veda Samaveda
Number of verses 15

The Savitri Upanishad is one of 108 Upanishads, which are Hindu texts written in Sanskrit. It is one of the sixteen Upanishads associated with the Samaveda and one of the 15 Samanya Upanishads.[1][2] This Upanishad explains the relationship of Savitr and Savitri and their all-encompassing presence.[3] The emphasis in the Upanishad is elaboration on benefits of the Gayatri Mantra.[4]

The significance of the recitation of the Gayatri Mantra is explained in three steps. The first step, signified by the mantra tatsavitruvarenyam, is a confirmation of Savitr as an appropriate selection. The second step of the mantra is bhargo devasya dhimahi which denotes concerted prayer in praise of the benevolence of God. The third step is the mantra dhiyo yo nah prachodayat the recitation of which gives fillip to intellectual enhancement.[3][5] Utterance of the sacred words Bala (Strength) and Atibala (Super Strength) are personification of the sage Virat Purusha, chandas (meter) of Gayatri and AUM as god.[6]

Contents

Savitri Upanishad, which has 15 verses, begins with an invocation hymn seeking blessings for strong functioning of motory and sensory organs such as limbs, prana (cosmic energy), speech, eyes, ears and life force to honour brahman so that he benefits a person in every respect, and that Atman remains integral part of oneself. The hymn ends with a wish for Peace.[7]

The Upanishad explains the attribution of Savitar and Savitri or Gayatri mantra which exist as a mutually complimenting pair in many facets of universal creation. These aspects are listed in the table.[7]

Pair Types Savitar/Association Savitri/Association
1 Earth (Prithvi) Agni (fire)
2 Varuna (wind) water (Jal)
3 Air (Vayu) Ether (Sky)
4 Sacrifice metres (Chandas)
5 Thunder Lightning
6 Moon Stars
7 Man Woman
8 Mind (Consciousness) World (Universe)

Elaborating on the three steps of the Savitri mantra or Gayatri mantra, the Upanishad states: The first step tatsavitruvarenyam represents earth, the praiseworthy role of fire, water and Moon; the second step bhargo devasya dhimahi denotes the mind, the Bhuvar which is known for the brightness of fire, sun and moon; the third step dhiyo yo nah prahcdoyat relates to the firmament (sky) that stimulates the thought process in men and women. Knowing about Savitri saves one from death.[5][7]

Incantation of the sacred words Bala (Strength) and Atibala (Super Strength), which are personification of the sage Virat Purusha, Chandas (Vedic meter), of Gayatri, and AUM as god, will eliminate starvation. These two divine words provide the blessings of Moon who sustains all, removes all sins, provides the knowledge derived from the Vedas.[7]

References

  1. ^ Prasoon 2008, pp. 82–83.
  2. ^ Tinoco, Carlos Alberto. Upanishads. IBRASA. p. 87.  
  3. ^ a b Paliwal 2005, p. 154.
  4. ^ Vanamali 2008, p. 323.
  5. ^ a b "Savitryopanishad" (pdf) (in Sanskrit). gayathrimanthra.com. 
  6. ^ Nair 2008, p. 387.
  7. ^ a b c d Warrier, Dr. A. G. Krishna. "Savitri Upanishad". Vedanta Spiritual Library. 

Bibliography

  • Nair, Shantha N. (1 January 2008). Echoes of Ancient Indian Wisdom. Pustak Mahal.  
  • Paliwal, B. B. (December 2005). Message of the Upanishads. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.  
  • Prasoon, Prof.S.K. (1 January 2008). Indian Scriptures. Pustak Mahal.  
  • Vanamali (21 July 2008). Shakti: Realm of the Divine Mother. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co.  
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