World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Simon of Trent

Saint Simon
Born 1472
Trento, Italy
Died 21 March 1475
Trento, Italy
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Canonized 1575 (approximate)[1]
Feast March 24
Attributes Youth, martyrdom
Patronage Children, kidnap victims, torture victims
Controversy Blood libel
Catholic cult suppressed
After the Congregation

Simon of Trent (German: Simon Unverdorben ("Simon Immaculate"); Italian: Simonino di Trento); also known as Simeon; (1472 – March 21, 1475) was a boy from the city of Trento, Italy recognized as a saint and martyr in the Catholic church, whose disappearance and murder was blamed on the leaders of the city's Jewish community based on his dead body allegedly being found in the cellar of a Jewish family's house.[2]

Contents

  • Events 1
  • Cult 2
  • Image gallery 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Sources 6
  • External links 7

Events

The story of Simon of Trent belongs to the reign of Prince-Bishop Johannes IV Hinderbach, an Austrian noble, under the jurisdiction of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. Shortly before Simon went missing, Bernardine of Feltre, an itinerant Franciscan preacher, had delivered a series of sermons in Trent in which he vilified the local Jewish community. When Simon went missing around Easter, 1475, according to his story, the Jews had drained him of his blood for use in baking their Passover matzo and for occult rituals that they practiced in private (q.v. blood libel).

According to historian Ronnie Po-chia Hsia:

"On Easter Sunday 1475, the dead body of a 2-year-old Christian boy named Simon was found in the cellar of a Jewish family's house in Trent, Italy. Town magistrates arrested eighteen Jewish men and five Jewish women on the charge of ritual murder — the killing of a Christian child in order to use his blood in Jewish religious rites. In a series of interrogations that involved liberal use of judicial torture, the magistrates obtained the confessions of the Jewish men. Eight were executed in late June, and another committed suicide in jail".:[2]

The exact place where the boy's body was found seems to be unclear. According to the Catholic historian Cölestin Wolfsgrüber, the body was found in a ditch.[3]

The consequences, however, are well documented. The entire Jewish community (both men and women) were arrested and forced to confess under torture. Fifteen of them, including Samuel, the head of the community, were sentenced to death and burnt at the stake. The Jewish women accused as accomplices were tortured, but freed from prison in 1478 due to papal intervention. The case at Trent also inspired accusations of ritual murder against Jews throughout the surrounding regions.

Pope Sixtus IV commanded Bishop Hinderbach on August 3 to again suspend proceedings, until the arrival of the papal representative, Bishop Giambattista dei Sindici of Ventimiglia, who, jointly with the Bishop of Trent, would conduct the investigation. The cardinals' commission concluded that the trial was conducted in keeping with legal procedure. Thus Sixtus cleared Hinderbach of all suspicions of judicial abuse, but explicitly forbade Christians from killing or mutilating Jews, extorting money from them or preventing them from practicing their rites as permitted by law, without papal judgment. [1].

School of Niklaus Weckmann, Martyrdom of Saint Simonino

Centuries later, historian Ariel Toaff, claims that there is some historic truth in this accusation. In his book book Pasque Di Sangue (Passovers of Blood), he hypothesizes that there may be historical truth[4] for the ritual use of human blood, obtained by murder among some extremist Azhkenazi sects in Europe performing magic.[5]

Cult

Meanwhile, Simon became the focus of veneration for the local Catholic Church. The local bishop, Hinderbach of Trent, tried to have Simon canonized, producing a large body of documentation of the event and its aftermath.[6] Over one hundred miracles were directly attributed to Saint Simon within a year of his disappearance, and his cult spread across Italy, Austria and Germany. However, there was initial skepticism and Pope Sixtus IV sent Bishop of Ventimiglia, a learned member of the Dominican Order, to investigate.[7] The veneration was restored in 1588 by the Franciscan Pope Sixtus V. He was eventually considered a martyr and a patron of kidnap and torture victims. His entry in the old Roman Martyrology for March 24 read:[8] Tridénti pássio sancti Simeónis púeri, a Judǽis sævíssime trucidáti, qui multis póstea miráculis coruscávit. ("At Trent, the martyrdom of the boy St. Simeon, who was barbarously murdered by the Jews, but who was afterwards glorified by many miracles.")

In 1758, Cardinal Ganganelli (later Pope Clement XIV, 1769-1774) prepared a report clearing the Jews of Trent of the murder of Simon.[9]

Pope Paul VI removed Simon from the Calendar of Saints in 1965. Simon of Trent does not appear in the new Roman Martyrology of 2000, nor on any modern Catholic calendar, but continues to be a recognized saint of the Catholic church, as canonization is infallible doctrine.

Image gallery

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b Toaff Controversy
  3. ^ Wolfsgrüber, Cölestin. "Trent." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 1 Feb. 2014
  4. ^ Hannah Johnson, Blood Libel: The Ritual Murder Accusation at the Limit of Jewish History,University of Michigan Press, 2012 pp.132ff. p.132.
  5. ^ http://www.jpost.com/International/Historian-gives-credence-to-blood-libel
  6. ^ Paul Oskar Kristeller, "The Alleged Ritual Murder of Simon of Trent (1475) and Its Literary Repercussions: a bibliographical study", in: Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, Vol. 59. (1993), pp. 103-135
  7. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  8. ^ The Roman Martyrology, March 24, [2] retrieved May 8, 2007
  9. ^ Trial of the Jews of Trent, Manuscript, 1478

Sources

  • R. Po-chia Hsia, Trent 1475: Stories of a Ritual Murder Trial, Yale University 1992, ISBN 0-300-05106-9

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.