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Sopwith Camel

Camel
Sopwith Camel
Role Biplane fighter
Manufacturer Sopwith Aviation Company
Designer Herbert Smith[1]
First flight 22 December 1916
Introduction June 1917
Retired January 1920
Primary users Royal Flying Corps
Royal Naval Air Service
Royal Air Force
Number built 5,490

The Sopwith Camel was a British First World War single-seat biplane fighter introduced on the Western Front in 1917. Manufactured by the Sopwith Aviation Company, it had a heavy, powerful rotary engine, and concentrated fire from twin synchronized machine guns. Though difficult to handle, to an experienced pilot it provided very good manoeuvrability. An excellent fighter, the Camel was credited with shooting down 1,294 enemy aircraft, more than any other Allied fighter of the conflict. It also served as a ground-attack aircraft, especially towards the end of the war, by which point it was outclassed in the air-to-air role.

Contents

  • Design and development 1
  • Operational history 2
    • Western front 2.1
    • Home defence and night fighting 2.2
    • Shipboard use 2.3
    • Ground attack 2.4
    • Parasite fighter 2.5
  • Variants 3
    • Sopwith Camel F.1 3.1
    • Sopwith Camel 2F.1 3.2
    • Sopwith Camel "Comic" Night fighter 3.3
    • F.1/1 3.4
    • (Trench Fighter) T.F.1 3.5
    • Trainer 3.6
  • Operators 4
  • Survivors 5
    • Reproductions 5.1
  • Specifications (F.1 Camel) 6
  • Notable appearances in media 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Design and development

Replica Sopwith Camel showing internal structure

The Camel's predecessor, the Sopwith Pup, was no longer competitive against newer German fighters, such as the Albatros D.III, and thus the Camel was developed specifically to replace the Pup,[2] as well as the Nieuport 17s that had been purchased from the French as an interim measure. It was recognised that the new fighter would need to be faster and have a heavier armament. To meet this demand, the chief designer of the Camel, Herbert Smith, opted to develop a biplane, designated the Sopwith F.1.[3]

The "Big Pup", as it was known early in its development, and powered by a 110 hp Clerget 9Z was first flown by Harry Hawker at Brooklands on 22 December 1916. Its design was conventional for its time, featuring a wooden box-like fuselage structure, an aluminium engine cowling, plywood panels around the cockpit, and fabric-covered fuselage, wings and tail. While having some clear similarities with the Pup, it had a noticeably bulkier fuselage.[3] For the first time on an operational British-designed fighter, two 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns were mounted directly in front of the cockpit, synchronised to fire forwards through the propeller disc. A metal fairing over the gun breeches, intended to protect the guns from freezing at altitude, created a "hump", and it was this feature that led pilots to refer to the aircraft by the name Camel. This was never an official designation for the aircraft however.[2][4]

Harry Cobby sitting in the cockpit of a Sopwith Camel

The bottom wing was rigged with 3° dihedral but the top wing had no dihedral, so that the gap between the wings was less at the tips than at the roots; this change was made at the suggestion of Fred Sigrist, the Sopwith works manager, in order to simplify construction. The upper wing features a distinctive central cutout section to improve upwards visibility for the pilot.[5] Early productions Camels were powered by a single rotary engine, most commonly either the Clerget 9B or the Bentley BR1.[6] To avoid a production bottleneck being imposed on the aircraft by a potential engine shortage, other engines were also used.[7]

In May 1917, the first production contract for an initial batch of 250 Camels was issued by the War Office.[8] During 1917, 1,325 Camels were manufactured, almost entirely of the initial F.1 variant and by the time production came to an end, approximately 5,490 Camels of all types had been built.[9] In early 1918, production of the navalised "Ship's" Camel 2F.1 began.[10]

Unlike the preceding Pup and Triplane, the Camel was considered to be difficult to fly.[11] The type owed both its extreme manoeuvrability and its difficult handling to the close placement of the engine, pilot, guns and fuel tank (some 90% of the aircraft's weight) within the front seven feet of the aircraft, and to the strong gyroscopic effect of the rotary engine, although other types with similar configurations did not suffer the same problem. The Camel soon gained an unfortunate reputation with pilots. Many crashed on take-off when the load of fuel usually carried pushed the centre of gravity beyond the rearmost safe limits. In level flight, the Camel was markedly tail-heavy. Unlike the Sopwith Triplane, the Camel lacked a variable incidence tailplane, so that the pilot had to apply constant forward pressure on the control stick to maintain a level attitude at low altitude. The aircraft could be rigged so that at higher altitudes it could be flown "hands off." A stall immediately resulted in a dangerous spin. A two-seat trainer version of the Camel was later built to ease the transition process.[12]

Operational history

Western front

Camels being prepared for a sortie.

In June 1917, the type entered service with No. 4 Squadron of the Royal Naval Air Service, near Dunkirk. Its first combat flight and reportedly its first victory claim were both made on 4 July 1917.[8] By the end of July 1917, the Camel also equipped No. 3 and No. 9 Naval Squadrons; and it had became operational with No. 70 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps.[10] By February 1918, 13 squadrons had Camels as their primary equipment.

The Camel proved to have better manoeuvrability than the Albatros D.III and D.V and offered heavier armament and better performance than the Pup and Triplane. Its controls were light and sensitive. The Camel turned more slowly to the left, which resulted in a nose-up attitude due to the torque of the rotary engine. But the engine torque also resulted in the ability to turn to the right in quicker than other fighters,[13] although that resulted in a tendency towards a nose-down attitude from the turn. Because of the faster turning capability to the right, to change heading 90° to the left, some pilots preferred to do it by turning 270° to the right.

Agility in combat made the Camel one of the best-remembered Allied aircraft of the First World War. RFC crew used to joke that it offered the choice between "a wooden cross, the Red Cross, or a Victoria Cross"[14] Together with the S.E.5a and the SPAD S.XIII, the Camel helped to re-establish the Allied aerial superiority that lasted well into 1918.

Major William Barker's Sopwith Camel (serial no. B6313, the aircraft in which he scored the majority of his victories),[15] was used to shoot down 46 aircraft and balloons from September 1917 to September 1918 in 404 operational flying hours, more than any other single RAF fighter.

Home defence and night fighting

An important role for the Camel was home defence. The RNAS flew Camels from Eastchurch and Manston airfields against daylight raids by German bombers, including Gothas, from July 1917.[12] The public outcry against the night raids and the poor response of London's defences forced the RFC to divert Camels from France to home defence, with 44 Squadron RFC reforming on the Camel in the home defence role in July 1917.[16] When the Germans switched to night attacks, the Camel proved capable of being flown at night, and the home defence aircraft were modified with navigation lights to serve as night fighters. A number of Camels were more extensively modified with the Vickers machine guns being replaced by overwing Lewis guns, with the cockpit being moved rearwards so the pilot could reload the guns. This modification, which became known as the "Sopwith Comic" allowed the guns to be fired without affecting the pilot's night vision, and allowed the use of new, more effective incendiary ammunition that was considered unsafe to fire from synchronised Vickers guns.[17][18][Note 1] By March 1918, the home defence squadrons were equipped with the Camel, with seven home defence squadrons flying Camels by August 1918.[20]

Navalised Camels on the aircraft carrier HMS Furious prior to raiding the Tondern airship hangars

151 Squadron Camel night fighters were also intercepting German night bombers over the Western Front, and carrying out night intruder missions against German airstrips, claiming 26 German aircraft downed in five months of operations.[21]

Shipboard use

The RNAS operated 2F.1 Camels from platforms mounted on the turrets of major warships, from some of the earliest aircraft carriers, and from aircraft lighters which were specially modified barges, which were towed fast enough that a Camel could be launched from one against incoming air raids from a more advantageous position that shore bases allowed.

Ground attack

Sopwith 2F.1 Camel suspended from airship R 23 prior to a test flight.

By mid-1918, the Camel had become obsolescent as a day fighter as its climb rate, level speed and performance at altitudes over 12,000 ft (3,650 m) were outclassed by the latest German fighters, such as the Fokker D.VII. However, it remained useful as a ground-attack and infantry support aircraft. During the German offensive of March 1918, squadrons of Camels harassed the advancing German Army, inflicting high losses (although suffering high losses in turn) through the dropping of 25 lb (11 kg) Cooper bombs and low-level strafing. The protracted development of the Camel's replacement, the Sopwith Snipe, meant that the Camel remained in service until after the Armistice.

Parasite fighter

In summer 1918, a 2F.1 Camel (N6814) was used in trials as a parasite fighter under Airship R23.[22]

Variants

Camels were powered by several rotary engines.

  • 130 hp Clerget 9B rotary (standard powerplant)
  • 140 hp Clerget 9Bf rotary
  • 110 hp Le Rhône 9J rotary
  • 150 hp Bentley BR1 rotary (gave best performance – standard for R.N.A.S. machines)
  • 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape 9B-2 rotary
  • 150 hp Gnome Monosoupape 9N rotary

Sopwith Camel F.1

  • Single-seat fighter aircraft.
  • The main production version. Armed with twin synchronised Vickers guns.
The Sopwith 2F.1 Camel used to shoot down Zeppelin L 53, at the Imperial War Museum, London. Note mounting of twin Lewis guns over the top wing

Sopwith Camel 2F.1

  • Shipboard fighter aircraft.
  • Slightly shorter wingspan
  • One Vickers gun replaced by an overwing Lewis gun
  • Bentley BR1 as standard engine

Sopwith Camel "Comic" Night fighter

Twin Vickers guns replaced by two Lewis guns on Foster mountings firing forward over the top wing, as the muzzle flash of the Vickers guns could blind the pilot. To allow reloading of the guns, the pilot was moved about 12 inches (30 cm) to the rear and to compensate the fuel tank was moved forward.[23] Served with Home Defence Squadrons against German air raids. The "Comic" nickname was unofficial, and was shared with the night fighter version of the Sopwith 1½ Strutter.

F.1/1

  • Version with tapered wings.

(Trench Fighter) T.F.1

Trainer

  • Second cockpit added behind normal pilot's position.
  • Weapons removed although hump sometimes kept.

Operators

Belgian Sopwith Camel flown by Adj. Léon Cremers with n° 11 Squadron "Cocotte" marking.
 Australia
 Belgium
 Canada
 Estonia
 Georgia
  • Georgian Air Force - 3-4 aircraft, 1920
 Greece
 Latvia
 Netherlands
 Poland
 Russia
 Soviet Union
 United Kingdom
USAS Sopwith Camel
 United States

Survivors

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

Sopwith Camel at the Royal Air Force Museum

There are only eight known original Sopwith Camels left:[29]

  • N6254 was displayed in the Aerospace Education Center in Little Rock, Arkansas, until it closed in December 2010, and the aircraft was sold to help pay debts. The Camel was sold privately and moved to a museum in New Zealand.[30]
  • F.1 Camel B5747 is on display at the Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History in Brussels.[31]
  • F.1 Camel B7280 can be found at the Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków. The aircraft was built in Lincoln by Clayton & Shuttleworth. On 5 September 1918, when being flown by Captain Herbert A. Patey of No. 210 Squadron RAF over Belgium, it was shot down by Ludwig Beckmann of Jasta 56. Patey survived and was taken prisoner. The Germans repaired the aircraft and flew it until the end of the war. It was then taken to Berlin and exhibited in an air museum. During World War II it was moved to Poland for safekeeping, and put into storage. Restoration began in 2007 and was completed by 2010.[32]
  • N6812, a William Beardmore built 2F.1 Camel, was flown by Flight Sub-Lieutenant Stuart Culley on 11 August 1918 when he shot down Zeppelin LZ100; it is on display at the Imperial War Museum in London.[33]
  • A Camel 2F.1 N8156 (RAF) is currently on display at the Canadian Aviation Museum. Manufactured in 1918 by Hooper & Company Ltd., Great Britain, it was purchased by the RCAF in 1924 and last flew in 1967. It is on static display.[34]
  • F.1 Camel B6291 restored to flying condition, is part of the Javier Arango Collection, in Paso Robles, California. It was previously owned by Al Letcher.
  • A Boulton & Paul built F.1 F6314 is on display at the Milestone of Flight exhibition at the Royal Air Force Museum, London,[35] painted to represent an aircraft coded B of No. 65 Squadron RAF.[36]
  • F.1 Camel C8228, built by Sopwith in 1917, is on display at the National Naval Aviation Museum in Pensacola, Florida.[37]

Reproductions

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

Replica of Camel F.1 flown by Lt. George Vaughn Jr., 17th Aero Squadron at the USAF Museum
  • In 1969 Slingsby built a flyable Type T.57 Camel reproduction powered by a 145 hp Warner Scarab engine for use in a Biggles film. It is on display at the Fleet Air Arm Museum, Yeovilton painted as B6401.[38][39]
  • A reproduction F.1 Camel is on display at the 17th Aero Squadron.[40]
  • The Camel on display at the Cavanaugh Flight Museum in Addison, Texas is a full scale flying replica built by Dick Day from original factory drawings. The aircraft is fitted with original instruments, machine guns and an original Gnome rotary engine (a rare feature in replicas). It is painted in the scheme of the World War I flying ace Captain Arthur Roy Brown, a Canadian who flew with the Royal Air Force.
  • In 1977, a flyable reproduction was built for Leisure Sport Ltd by the late Viv Bellamy at Lands End. Painted to represent B7270 of 209 Squadron, RAF, the machine which Captain Roy Brown flew when officially credited with downing Baron Manfred von Richthofen, it has a Clerget rotary engine of 1916 and was registered as G-BFCZ until 2003. First seen at Brooklands Museum in January 1988 for Sir Thomas Sopwith’s 100th birthday celebrations, it was purchased by the Museum later that year, can be taken by road for exhibition elsewhere and is ground run regularly.
  • Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome flies a reproduction Camel completed in 1992 with a 160 hp Gnome Monosoupape model 9N rotary, built by Nathaniel deFlavia and Cole Palen. It replaced one of the Dick Day-built and -flown Camel reproductions formerly flown at Old Rhinebeck by Mr. Day in their weekend vintage airshows, which had left the Aerodrome's collection some years earlier.
  • N8343 constructed by Dick Day, is part of the Javier Arango Collection, in Paso Robles, California. Powered by a 160 hp Gnome Monosoupape rotary. It is regularly flown.
  • B3889 in The Vintage Aviator Collection, L.T.D., in Masterton, New Zealand. It was originally built by Carl Swanson for Gerry Thornhill. It is often flown. Powerplant is a 160 hp Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine.
  • A reproduction is on display at the Canadian Museum of The Air in Langley, BC, Canada. Lacking an engine, a full reproduction wooden Rhone R9 130 hp engine has been installed.
  • A reproduction is on display at the Royal Australian Airforce Museum, Perth.[41] The engine is original and the propeller is suspected to also be genuine.[42]
  • A reproduction is currently under construction by the Northern Aeroplane Workshops for the Shuttleworth Collection, England.[43]
  • A replica Camel is being built in the United States by Koz Aero LLC, based on original factory drawings and using many original parts, including an original engine and instruments.[44]
  • Two reproductions are being built in France by John Shaw, one with an original Le Clerget 130 9B engine and the second with a new build Gnome Monosoupe 100 hp engine; both were built to the original plans and as authentically as materials allow.[45]
  • A replica Sopwith F.1 Camel B5577 is on display at Montrose Air Station Heritage Centre, Angus, Scotland.

Specifications (F.1 Camel)

Sopwith F.1 Camel drawing

Data from Quest for Performance,[46] Profile Publications[47]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Notable appearances in media

Snoopy
piloting his
"Sopwith Camel"

The Camel appears in literature and popular media as:

  • One of the aircraft flown by Canadian pilot Arthur Roy Brown in the 2008 movie The Red Baron.
  • The single-seater scout flown by the Royal Flying Corps Squadron in the semi-autobiographical, First World War air combat book Winged Victory written by Victor Maslin Yeates.
  • The fighter flown by Biggles in the novels by W.E. Johns during Biggles's spell in 266 Squadron during the First World War. The first collection of Biggles stories, titled The Camels are Coming, was published in 1932.
  • The "plane" of Snoopy in the Peanuts comic strip, when he imagines himself as a World War I flying ace and the nemesis of the Red Baron.[48]
  • The type of aircraft flown in the First World War by John and Bayard Sartoris in William Faulkner's Flags in the Dust.[Note 2]
  • In the Percy Jackson book The Titan's Curse, Annabeth's father, a historian, uses a restored and modified Sopwith Camel to aid the heroes at one point during the novel.
  • Robert Redford's character flies a Sopwith Camel during the climactic aerial battle scene in the 1975 film The Great Waldo Pepper.

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ The ammunition in question was the RTS (Richard Thelfall and Sons) round, a combined incendiary and explosive round with a nitroglycerin and phosphorus filling. While more effective than earlier incendiary bullets like the phosphorus filled Buckingham bullet, they required careful handling, and were initially banned from synchronised weapons, both because of fears about the consequences of bullets striking the propeller of the fighter, and to prevent cooking off of the sensitive ammunition in the chambers of the Vickers guns, which fired from a closed bolt - a required feature for guns used in synchronized mounts - where heat could build up much quicker than in the open bolted Lewis gun.[17][19]
  2. ^ Quote: "Under fire from a pupil of Richthofen (the Red Baron), John's Camel caught fire over occupied France. Bayard's last sight of his twin brother was of John jumping out of his fighter feet first. Faulkner also wrote about the Camel (and Sartoris) in his famous story All the Dead Pilots."

Citations

  1. ^ Mason 1992, p. 89.
  2. ^ a b Bruce Flight 22 April 1955, p. 527.
  3. ^ a b Bruce 1965, p. 3.
  4. ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 4-5.
  5. ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 3-5.
  6. ^ Bruce 1965, p. 4.
  7. ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 7-8.
  8. ^ a b Bruce 1965, p. 5.
  9. ^ Bruce Flight 29 April 1955, p. 563.
  10. ^ a b Bruce 1965, p. 6.
  11. ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 5-6.
  12. ^ a b Bruce 1965, p. 9.
  13. ^ Clark 1973, p. 134.
  14. ^ Leinburger 2008, p. 30.
  15. ^ Ralph 1999, p. 80.
  16. ^ a b Davis 1999, p. 96.
  17. ^ a b Davis 1999, p. 97.
  18. ^ Bruce 1968, p. 151, 153.
  19. ^ Williams and Gustin 2003, pp. 11, 14.
  20. ^ Davis 1999, p. 98.
  21. ^ Davis 1999, pp. 98–99.
  22. ^ Fitzsimons, p.521.
  23. ^ Mason 1992, p. 91.
  24. ^ Davis 1999, p. 102.
  25. ^ "9 Bomb Squadron (ACC)." Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved: 19 December 2010.
  26. ^ "17 Weapons Squadron (ACC)." Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved: 19 December 2010.
  27. ^ "27 Fighters Squadron (ACC)." Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved: 19 December 2010.
  28. ^ "37 Bomb Squadron (ACC)."Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved: 19 December 2010.
  29. ^ "Sopwith Camel". Demobbed - Out of Service British Military Aircraft. 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  30. ^ Oman, Noel (16 March 2011). "History Takes Flight: Vintage aircraft sold to pay center's bills". Northwest Arkansas Democrat Gazette. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  31. ^ "B5747/11 Sopwith Camel F.1". Koninklijk Leger Museum. 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  32. ^ "Lincoln-built Sopwith Camel from the First World War is restored to its former glory".  
  33. ^ Ellis 2008, p. 148.
  34. ^ "Sopwith 2F.1 Camel". Canada Aviation and Space Museum. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  35. ^ Ellis 2008, p. 145.
  36. ^ "Individual History: Sopwith F.1 Camel F6314/9206M" (PDF).  
  37. ^ "Aircraft Data A5658, 1917 Sopwith F.1 Camel C/N C8228". airport-data.com. 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  38. ^ Jackson 1988, p. 349.
  39. ^ ""Sopwith Camel (replica) ('B6401')." Fleet Air Arm Museum. Retrieved: 14 November 2008.
  40. ^ United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 12.
  41. ^ Royal Australian Airforce Museum, Perth, retrieved 21 June 2015 
  42. ^ Sopwith F.1 Camel, retrieved 21 June 2015 
  43. ^ "Sopwith Camel." Shuttleworth Collection. Retrieved: 19 December 2010.
  44. ^ Kozura, Tom. "Sopwith F.1 Camel." kozaero.com. Retrieved: 24 December 2011.
  45. ^ "Sopwith Camel Introduction." John S Shaw Aviation, Retrieved: 9 August 2015.
  46. ^ Loftin, LK, Jr. "Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. NASA SP-468". NASA. Retrieved: 22 April 2006.
  47. ^ Bruce 1965, p. 12.
  48. ^ Murphy and McNiece 2003, p. 87.

Bibliography

  • Bowyer, Chaz. Sopwith Camel: King of Combat. Falmouth, Cornwall, UK: Glasney Press, 1978. ISBN 0-9502825-7-X.
  • Bruce, J.M. "Sopwith Camel: Historic Military Aircraft No 10: Part I." Flight, 22 April 1955, pp. 527–532.
  • Bruce, J.M. "Sopwith Camel: Historic Military Aircraft No 10: Part II." Flight, 29 April 1955. pp. 560–563.
  • Bruce, J.M. "Aircraft Profile No. 31. The Sopwith Camel F.1" Profile Publications, 1965.
  • Bruce, J.M. War Planes of the First World War: Volume Two Fighters. London:Macdonald, 1968. ISBN 0-356-01473-8.
  • Clark, Alan. Aces High: The War In The Air Over The Western Front 1914 - 1918. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1973. ISBN 0-297-99464-6.
  • Davis, Mick. Sopwith Aircraft. Ramsbury, Malborough, UK: The Crowood Press, 1999. ISBN 1-86126-217-5.
  • Ellis, Ken. Wrecks & Relics, 21st edition. Manchester, UK: Crecy Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-0-85979-134-2.
  • Guttman, Jon: "Sopwith Camel (Air Vanguard ; 3)". Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2012. ISBN 978-1-78096-176-7.
  • Jackson, A.J. British Civil Aircraft 1919-1972: Volume III. London: Putnam, 1988. ISBN 0-85177-818-6.
  • Leinburger, Ralf. Fighter: Technology, Facts, History. London: Parragon Inc., 2008. ISBN 978-1-40549-575-2.
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Fighter. London: Putnam, 1992. ISBN 0 85177 852 6
  • Murphy, Justin D. and Matthew A. McNiece. Military Aircraft, 1919-1945: An Illustrated History of their Impact. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2009. ISBN 1-85109-498-9.
  • Ralph, Wayne. Barker VC: The Classic Story of a Legendary First World War Hero. London: Grub Street, 1999. ISBN 1-902304-31-4.
  • Robertson, Bruce. Sopwith: The Man and His Aircraft. London: Harleyford, 1970. ISBN 0-900435-15-1.
  • Sturtivant, Ray and Gordon Page. The Camel File. Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1993. ISBN 0-85130-212-2.
  • United States Air Force Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.
  • Williams, Anthony G. and Emmanuel Gustin. Flying Guns: World War I and its Aftermath 1914–32. Ramsbury, Wiltshire: Airlife, 2003. ISBN 1-84037-396-2.
  • Winchester, Jim, ed. "Sopwith Camel." Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes (Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-641-3.

External links

  • Cole Palen/Nat deFlavia reproduction Camel at Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome
  • Camel photos and links to museums with Camels
  • Canadian Aviation Museum Camel
  • Sopwith fighters in Russia
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