World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Soul dualism

Article Id: WHEBN0010324227
Reproduction Date:

Title: Soul dualism  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Shamanism among Eskimo peoples, Shamanism, Shamanistic remnants in Hungarian folklore, Cultural anthropology, Soul
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Soul dualism

Soul dualism or a dualistic soul concept is a range of beliefs that a person has two (or more) kinds of souls. In many cases, one of the souls is associated with body functions (“body soul") and the other one can leave the body (“free soul”).[1][2][3][4][5] Sometimes the plethora of soul types can be even more complex.[6][7] Grasping soul dualism can help to understand many shamanistic beliefs better.

Examples

uni Kalbo Inuit groups believe that a person has more than one type of soul. One is associated with respiration, the other can accompany the body as a shadow. Soul concepts of Inuit groups are diverse and not alike.[8] In some cases, it is connected to shamanistic beliefs among the various Inuit groups.[9] Also Caribou Inuit groups believed in several types of souls.[10]

Chinese

Traditional Chinese culture differentiates two hun and po spirits or souls, which correlate with yang and yin respectively. Within this soul dualism, every human has both an ethereal hun 魂 "spiritual soul; spirit; mood" that leaves the body after death and a substantive po 魄 "physical soul; spirit; vigor" that remains with the corpse. Chinese traditions differ over the number of hun and po souls in a person, for example, Daoism has the sanhunqipo 三魂七魄 "three hun and seven po".

Uralic peoples

The concept of more kinds of souls can be found also at several Finno-Ugric peoples.[3][11] See notion of shadow-soul (being able to depart freely the body), e.g. “íz” in Hungarian folk beliefs.[11][12] The concept of a dualistic shadow-soul called itse, related to the Hungarian conception, is also part of Finnish and general Baltic-Finnic folklore. The Estonian soul concept has been approached by several authors, some of them using rather complex frameworks (online [7]).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hoppál, Mihály: Nature worship in Siberian shamanism
  2. ^ Great Basin Indian. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 28, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica: Online
  3. ^ a b Hoppál 1975:225
  4. ^ Hoppál 1994:13
  5. ^ Diószegi 1962:27
  6. ^ Merkur 1985
  7. ^ a b Conceptions of soul in old-Estonian religion (Vol. 4) written by Tarmo Kulmar
  8. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985:17–18
  9. ^ Merkur 1985:61, 222–223, 226, 240
  10. ^ Gabus 1970:211
  11. ^ a b Fodor 2005: 16–17
  12. ^ Dienes 1975:83

References

Further reading

External links

Detailed discussion:

  • Conceptions of soul in old-Estonian religion (Vol. 4) written by Tarmo Kulmar
  • Sami examples

Topic mentioned:

  • Hoppál, Mihály: Nature worship in Siberian shamanism
  • Great Basin Indian. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 28, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica: Online
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.