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Supreme Court of Chile

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Title: Supreme Court of Chile  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Politics of Chile, Judiciary of Chile, Indictment and arrest of Augusto Pinochet, Chile, Chilean nationality law
Collection: Government of Chile, Judiciary of Chile, National Supreme Courts
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Supreme Court of Chile

Palacio de los Tribunales de Justicia de Santiago.

The Supreme Court of Chile is the highest court in Chile. It also administrates the lower courts in the nation. It is located in the capital Santiago.

In the Chilean system, the court lacks the broader power of judicial review — it cannot set binding precedent or invalidate laws. Instead, it acts on a case-by-case basis. Trials are carried out in salas, chambers of at least five judges, presided over by the most senior member.

Contents

  • Membership 1
    • Current Supreme Court members 1.1
  • Notable decisions 2
    • Augusto Pinochet 2.1
    • Gay rights 2.2
    • Women's health 2.3
    • Alberto Fujimori 2.4
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Membership

The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President, but must be chosen from a list of five choices which is prepared by the sitting members of the court. Two of these choices must be senior judges from appellate courts; the other three need not have any judicial experience. The president's choice must then be ratified by a two-thirds majority of the Senate.

Supreme Court justices must be at least 36 years old. Once appointed, a Chilean Supreme Court justice is extremely difficult to remove from office. Justices are entitled to remain on the Court until the compulsory retirement age of 75. Otherwise, a justice can be removed only if he or she incurs in "notorious abandonment of duty", as deemed by a majority of both chambers of Congress.

The Supreme Court has twenty-one members, called ministros. One member is selected to serve a two-year term as President of the Supreme Court.

Current Supreme Court members

The composition of the Supreme Court changes relatively quickly, as judges attain the retirement age of 75. This list was last updated on September 3, 2014.[1]

  • Sergio Manuel Muñoz Gajardo (President)
  • Carlos Ramón Aránguiz Zúñiga
  • Rubén Alberto Ballesteros Cárcamo
  • Ricardo Luis Hernán Blanco Herrera
  • Haroldo Osvaldo Brito Cruz
  • Hector Guillermo Carreño Seaman
  • Carlos José Cerda Fernández
  • Gloria Ana Chevesich Ruiz
  • Lamberto Antonio Cisternas Rocha
  • Hugo Enrique Dolmestch Urra
  • Rosa del Carmen Egnem Saldías
  • Juan Eduardo Fuentes Belmar
  • Milton Iván Juica Arancibia
  • Carlos Guillermo Künsemüller Loebenfelder
  • Rosa María Maggi Ducommun
  • Andrea María M. Muñoz Sanchez
  • Pedro Pierry Arrau
  • María Eugenia Sandoval Gouët
  • Nibaldo Segura Peña
  • Guillermo Enrique Silva Gundelach
  • Raul Patricio Valdés Aldunate

Notable decisions

Augusto Pinochet

The Chilean Supreme Court has been involved in many important human rights cases regarding the former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet.

  • In July 2002, it dismissed a case against Pinochet, saying that he was unfit to stand trial due to dementia.
  • In August 2004, it confirmed a lower court's decision that Pinochet should lose his automatic immunity he acquired from being a former senator.
  • In March 2005, it reversed a lower court's decision stripping Pinochet of immunity in the case of the assassination of Carlos Prats.
  • In August 2007, it upheld a life sentence for Hugo Salas Wenzel, the first senior official to receive a life term for human rights violations conducted during the reign of Pinochet. [2]

Gay rights

The Chilean Supreme Court has made controversial decisions in the area of gay rights.

Women's health

  • In November 2005, the Chilean Supreme Court ruled that the sale of contraceptive morning-after pill Postinor 2 is constitutional.

Alberto Fujimori

On September 21, 2007, the court accepted Peru's request to extradite former president Alberto Fujimori, on human rights and corruption charges.

References

  1. ^ )"Poder Judicial de la República de Chile"Judiciary of the Republic of Chile ( (in Spanish). Retrieved September 3, 2014. 

External links

  • (Spanish) Chilean Judiciary website

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