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Teachings of Ramakrishna

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Teachings of Ramakrishna

Ramakrishna (1881, Calcutta)

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836–1886) is a famous nineteenth-century Bengali mystic. Ramakrishna was a teacher of popular appeal, speaking in rustic Bengali with stories and parables.[1] Ramakrishna's main teachings included God realization as the supreme goal of life, renunciation of Kama-Kanchana, Harmony of Religions and Jiva is Shiva. Key concepts in Ramakrishna’s teachings included the oneness of existence and the unity and truth of all religions.[2]

Contents

  • God-realisation 1
  • Kama-Kanchana 2
  • Avidyamaya and vidyamaya 3
  • Harmony of religions 4
  • Jiva is Shiva and other teachings 5
  • Parables 6
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8

God-realisation

Ramakrishna emphasised that God-realisation is the supreme goal of all living beings.[3] Ramakrishna’s mystical experiences through different religions led him to teach that various religions are different means to reach absolute knowledge and bliss—and that the different religions cannot express the totality of absolute truth, but can express aspects of it.[4]

Kama-Kanchana

Ramakrishna taught that the primal bondage in human life is Kama-Kanchana (lust and gold). When speaking to men, Ramakrishna warned them against kamini-kanchana, or "women and gold",[5]

"Through the discipline of constant practice one is able to give up attachment to 'woman and gold'. That is what the [6] "The renunciation of 'woman and gold' is the true renunciation."[7]

When speaking to women, he warned them against purusha-kanchana, or "man and gold." Gauri Ma, one of Ramakrishna's prominent women disciples, said that:

[Ramakrishna] has uttered this note of warning, against gold and sensuality, against a life of enjoyment, but surely not against women. Just as he advised the ascetic-minded men to guard themselves against women's charms, so also did he caution pious women against men's company. The Master's whole life abounds with proofs to show that he had not the slightest contempt or aversion for women; rather he had intense sympathy and profound regard for them.[8]

Avidyamaya and vidyamaya

Devotees believe that Ramakrishna’s realisation of nirvikalpa samadhi also led him to an understanding of the two sides of maya, or illusion, to which he referred as Avidyamaya and vidyamaya. He explained that avidyamaya represents dark forces of creation (e.g. sensual desire, evil passions, greed, lust and cruelty), which keep people on lower planes of consciousness. These forces are responsible for human entrapment in the cycle of birth and death, and they must be fought and vanquished. Vidyamaya, on the other hand, represents higher forces of creation (e.g. spiritual virtues, enlightening qualities, kindness, purity, love, and devotion), which elevate human beings to the higher planes of consciousness.[9]

Harmony of religions

Ramakrishna recognised differences among religions but realised that in spite of these differences, all religions lead to the same ultimate goal, and hence they are all valid and true.[10] Amiya P. Sen writes that the deep foundations in bhakti or devotion and faith in God makes Ramakrishna's teachings look universalistic and not his culturally determied forms.[11] The distinguished British historian Arnold J. Toynbee has written: “... Mahatma Gandhi’s principle of non-violence and Sri Ramakrishna’s testimony to the harmony of religions: here we have the attitude and the spirit that can make it possible for the human race to grow together into a single family–and in the Atomic Age, this is the only alternative to destroying ourselves.”[12][13]

Regarding Harmony of Religions, Ramakrishna said,[14]

"I have practised all religions—Hinduism, Islam, Christianity—and I have also followed the paths of the different Hindu sects. I have found that it is the same God toward whom all are directing their steps, though along different paths. You must try all beliefs and traverse all the different ways once. Wherever I look, I see men quarrelling in the name of religion—Hindus, Mohammedans, Brahmos, Vaishnavas, and the rest. But they never reflect that He who is called Krishna is also called Siva, and bears the name of the Primal Energy, Jesus, and Allah as well—the same Rama with a thousand names..."

Bhawuk in his journal, Culture’s influence on creativity: the case of Indian spirituality wrote that Ramakrishna's contribution to humanity is particularly significant for the world after the bombing of the twin towers of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. Bhawuk writes that, Islam is not to be blamed for the incident of September 11, and no religion should be blamed for any act of terrorism, because the life of Ramakrishna proclaims that all religions lead to the same God.[15]

Jiva is Shiva and other teachings

Ramakrishna’s proclamation of jatra jiv tatra Shiv (wherever there is a living being, there is Shiva) stemmed from his Advaitic perception of Reality. This taught his disciples, "Jive daya noy, Shiv gyane jiv seba" (not kindness to living beings, but serving the living being as Shiva Himself). According to scholars, Vivekananda derived his inspiration from this message and took initiative in social activities like famine relief, pm on maintenance of orphanages, opening of training centers, educational institutions, dispensaries and the like—"Where should you go to seek for God? Are not all the poor, the miserable, the weak, good? Why not worship them first?...Let these people be your God..."[16] Ramakrishna did not directly participate in social service, but entrusted the task to his chief disciple Vivekananda.[17]

Ramakrishna, though not formally trained as a philosopher, had an intuitive grasp of complex philosophical concepts.[18] According to him brahmanda, the visible universe and many other universes, are mere bubbles emerging out of Brahman, the supreme ocean of intelligence.[19]

Like Adi Sankara had done more than a thousand years earlier, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa revitalised Hinduism which had been fraught with excessive ritualism and superstition in the Nineteenth century and helped it become better-equipped to respond to challenges from Islam, Christianity and the dawn of the modern era.[20] However, unlike Adi Sankara, Ramakrishna developed ideas about the post-samadhi descent of consciousness into the phenomenal world, which he went on to term "Vijñāna". While he asserted the supreme validity of Advaita Vedanta, he also stated that "I accept both the Nitya and the Leela, both the Absolute and the Relative."[21]

Parables

Parables formed a very important part of Ramakrishna's teachings.[22] Ramakrishna conveyed his spiritual and moral messages through tales and parables.[23]

The Parable of the Greatest Devotee

, is one of his famous parables—

The Parable of the Pandit who could not swim

is another famous parable of Ramakrishna, a story akin to the fable of the Fox and the Cat

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Smart, Ninian The World’s Religions (1998) p.409, Cambridge
  2. ^ Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–257.  
  3. ^ Kathamrita, 1/10/6
  4. ^ Flood, p. 257.
  5. ^ Jackson, pp. 20–21.
  6. ^ "Chapter 7 – The Master and Vijay Goswami". The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna. 
  7. ^ "Chapter 9 – Advice to Brahmos". The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna. 
  8. ^ Chetanananda, Swami (1989). They Lived with God. St. Louis: Vedanta Society of St. Louis. pp. 146–147.  
  9. ^ Neevel, p. 82.
  10. ^ Cohen, Martin (2008). "Spiritual Improvisations: Ramakrishna, Aurobindo, and the Freedom of Tradition". Religion and the Arts (BRILL) 12 (1–3): pp. 277–293(17).  
  11. ^ Sen, Amiya P. (June 2006). "Sri Ramakrishna, the Kathamrita and the Calcutta middle classes: an old problematic revisited". Postcolonial Studies 9 (2): p.165–177.  
  12. ^ Contributions of Sri Ramakrishna to World Culture
  13. ^ Lao Russell God Will Work With You But Not For You, pp. 3–12, University of Science and Philosophy, 1981 ISBN 1-879605-20-1; 1st ed. 1955
  14. ^ Rolland, Romain (1929). "The Return to Man". The Life of Ramakrishna. pp. 49–62.  
  15. ^ Bhawuk, Dharm P.S. (February 2003). "Culture’s influence on creativity: the case of Indian spirituality". International Journal of Intercultural Relations (Elsevier) 27 (1): pp. 1–22.  
  16. ^ Y. Masih (2000). A Comparative Study of Religions. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 203.  
  17. ^ Y. Masih (2000). A Comparative Study of Religions. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 207.  
  18. ^ Hixon, Lex, Great Swan: Meetings with Ramakrishna, (New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1992, 2002), p. xvi
  19. ^ Gospel of Ramakrishna, vol. 4
  20. ^ Das, Prafulla Kumar, "Samasamayik Banglar adhymatmik jibongothone Sri Ramakrishner probhab", in Biswachetanay Ramakrishna, (Kolkata: Udbodhon Karyaloy, 1987,1997– 6th rep.), pp.299–311
  21. ^ Long, Jeffrey D. (2007). A Vision for Hinduism: Beyond Hindu Nationalism. I.B.Tauris. p. 126.  
  22. ^ Smart, Ninian. The World's Religions: old traditions and modern transformations. Cambridge University Press. p. 410.  
  23. ^ Studies on Sri Ramakrishna. Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture (Original from the University of Michigan). 1988. p. 109. 
  24. ^ "The Master and his Injured Arm". The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna. 
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