World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Technophobia

Article Id: WHEBN0000154825
Reproduction Date:

Title: Technophobia  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Technology, Technostress, Chemical engineering, Technology assessment, Transhumanism
Collection: Phobias, Technology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Technophobia

Technophobia (from Greek τέχνη technē, "art, skill, craft"[1] and φόβος phobos, "fear"[2]) is the fear or dislike of advanced technology or complex devices, especially computers.[3] Although there are numerous interpretations of technophobia, they seem to become more complex as technology continues to evolve. The term is generally used in the sense of an irrational fear, but others contend fears are justified. It is related to cyberphobia and is the opposite of technophilia. Dr. Larry Rosen, research psychologist, computer educator, and professor at the California State University suggests that there are three dominant subcategories of technophobes- the "uncomfortable users", the "cognitive computerphobes", and "anxious computerphobes".[4] First receiving widespread notice during the Industrial Revolution, technophobia has been observed to affect various societies and communities throughout the world. This has caused some groups to take stances against some modern technological developments in order to preserve their ideologies. In some of these cases, the new technologies conflict with established beliefs, such as the personal values of simplicity and modest lifestyles. A number of examples of technophobic ideas can be found in multiple forms of art, ranging from literary works such as Frankenstein to films like Metropolis. Many of these works portray the darker side of technology as perceived by the technophobic. As technologies become increasingly complex and difficult to understand, people are more likely to harbor anxieties relating to their use of modern technologies.

Contents

  • Prevalence 1
  • History 2
  • Technophobic groups 3
  • Technophobia in arts 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7

Prevalence

A study published in the journal Computers in Human Behavior was conducted between 1992 and 1994 surveying first-year college students across various countries.[5] The overall percentage of the 3,392[6] students who responded with high-level technophobic fears was 29%.[6] In comparison, Japan had 58% high-level technophobes, India had 82%, and Mexico had 53%.[6]

A published report in 2000 stated that roughly 85 to 90 percent of new employees at an organization may be uncomfortable with new technology, and are technophobic to some degree.[7]

History

Technophobia began to gain national and international attention as a movement with the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. With the development of new machines able to do the work of skilled craftsmen using unskilled, underpaid men, women, and children, those who worked a trade began to fear for their livelihoods. In 1675, a group of weavers destroyed machines that replaced their jobs. By 1727, the destruction had become so prevalent that Parliament made the demolition of machines a capital offense. This action, however, did not stop the tide of violence. The Luddites, a group of anti-technology workers, united under the name “Ludd” in March 1811, removing key components from knitting frames, raiding houses for supplies, and petitioning for trade rights while threatening greater violence. Poor harvests and food riots lent aid to their cause by creating a restless and agitated population for them to draw supporters from.[8]

The 19th century was also the beginning of modern science, with the work of pastoral times. Poets like William Wordsworth and William Blake believed that the technological changes that were taking place as a part of the industrial revolution were polluting their cherished view of nature as being perfect and pure.[9]

After World War II, a fear of technology continued to grow, catalyzed by the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. With nuclear proliferation and the Cold War, people began to wonder what would become of the world now that humanity had the power to manipulate it to the point of destruction. Corporate production of war technologies such as napalm, explosives, and gases during the Vietnam War further undermined public confidence in technology's worth and purpose.[10] In the post-WWII era, environmentalism also took off as a movement. The first international air pollution conference was held in 1955, and in the 1960s, investigations into the lead content of gasoline sparked outrage among environmentalists. In the 1980s, the depletion of the ozone layer and the threat of global warming began to be taken more seriously.[11]

Technophobic groups

Several societal groups may be considered technophobic, most recognizable are the

  • "Genetically Engineered Crops." The Center for Food Safety. 20 July 2008.
  • "Green Our Vaccines Rally." Talk About Curing Autism. 20 July 2008.
  • Brosnan, M. (1998) Technophobia: The psychological impact of information technology. Routledge.
  • Dan Dinello Technophobia: Science Fiction Visions of Posthuman Technology
  • Binfield, Kevin. "Luddites and Luddism." Johns Hopkins University. 20 July 2008.
  • Brians, Paul. "Romanticism." 11 Mar. 1998. Washington State University. 20 July 2008.
  • "Environmental History Timeline." 20 July 2008.
  • "Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons." State Dept. United States Government. 20 July 2008.

Bibliography

  1. ^ τέχνη, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  2. ^ φόβος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  3. ^ """Definition of "Technophobia. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
       (1) tech·no·pho·bi·a (těk'nə-fō'bē-ə) n. Fear of or aversion to technology, especially computers and high technology. -Related forms: tech'no·phobe' n., tech'no·pho'bic (-fō'bĭk) adj."— (American Heritage Dictionary)
       (2) "tech·no·pho·bi·a - Show Spelled Pronunciation [tek-nuh-foh-bee-uh] –noun abnormal fear of or anxiety about the effects of advanced technology. [Origin: 1960–65; techno- + -phobia] —Related forms: tech·no·phobe, noun —(Dictionary.com unabridged (v1.1) based on the Random House unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.)
     
  4. ^ Gilbert, David , Liz Lee-Kelley, and Maya Barton. "Technophobia, gender influences and consumer decision-making for technology-related products." European Journal of Innovation Management 6.4 (2003): pp. 253-263. Print.
  5. ^ Weil, Michelle M.; Rosen, Larry D. (1995). "A Study of Technological Sophistication and Technophobia in University Students From 23 Countries". Computers in human behavior 11 (1): 95–133.  
  6. ^ a b c Weil, Michelle M.; Rosen, Larry D. (1995). "A Study of Technological Sophistication and Technophobia in University Students From 23 Countries". Computers in human behavior 11 (1): 95–133.  ; several points are worth noting from Table 2. First, a group of countries including Indonesia, Poland, India, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Mexico and Thailand show large percentages (over 50%) of technophobic students. In contrast, there are five countries which show under 30% technophobes (USA, Yugoslavia - Croatia, Singapore, Israel and Hungary). The remaining countries were in between these two groupings.
  7. ^ "Index - Learning Circuits - ASTD". Learning Circuits. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  8. ^ a b Kevin Binfield. "Luddite History - Kevin Binfield - Murray State University". Campus.murraystate.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  9. ^ "Romanticism". Wsu.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  10. ^ Goodyear, Anne Collins (2008). "From Technophilia to Technophobia: The Impact of the Vietnam". Leonardo 41 (2): 169–173.  
  11. ^ "Environmental History Timeline". Runet.edu. 1969-06-22. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  12. ^ "The Luddites". Regent.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  13. ^ Randall, Adrien (1997). "Reinterpreting ‘Luddism’: Resistance to New Technology in the British Industrial Revolution" Resistance to New Technology: Nuclear Power, Information Technology and Biotechnology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–80. 
  14. ^ Technophobia: Science Fiction Visions of Posthuman Technology
  15. ^ Dana Goodyear "Man of Extremes" "The New Yorker"http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/10/26/091026fa_fact_goodyear

References

See also

There is an Italian Electronic Black Metal band founded in 2003 called T3chn0ph0b1a, whose themes and lyrics are futuristic and based on a computerized world.

In the PC game Wing Commander: Privateer, a fanatical quasi-religious group, called the Retros, wishes to overthrow all forms of technology, even if doing so, they themselves have to use it in order to fulfill their goal. They play a central role in the Righteous Fire expansion game, wherein a new mysterious leader leads the group in an attempt to destroy all non-adherents of their religion.

Godfrey Reggio's Qatsi trilogy also deals heavily with issues of technophobia. The idea of keeping the "thinkers" and "workers" separate shows us that even the people who embraced technology feared the potential of it in some way.

Avatar is exemplary of technology’s hold on humans who are empowered by it and visually demonstrates the amount of terror it instills upon those native to the concept. It enforces the notion that foreign creatures from Pandora are not only frightened by technology, but it is something they loathe; its potential to cause destruction could exceed their very existence. In contrast, the film itself used advanced technology such as the stereoscope in order to give viewers the illusion of physically taking part in an experience that would introduce them to a civilization struggling with technophobia.[15]

In the Pixar film WALL-E, humans are shown to have evolved into obese, docile, and lazy people living consistently in an almost trance like state as a result of robots being able to do everything for them.

In the Dune series, Butlerian Jihad is a war between humanity and malevolent artificial intelligence, led by Omnius, who explicitly desires extinction of the human race.

More recently there have been movies like I, Robot, The Matrix Trilogy, WALL-E, and the Terminator sequels. Shows such as Doctor Who - most specifically in the episode "Robots of Death" - have also tackled the issue of technophobia, with a character in "Robots of Death" displaying a great fear of robots due to their lack of body language, described by the Fourth Doctor as giving them the appearance of "dead men walking". Series consultant Kit Pedler also used this fear as a basis for the inspiration of classic Doctor Who monsters the Cybermen, with the creatures being inspired by his own fear of artificial limbs becoming so common that it would become impossible to know when someone had stopped being a man and become simply a machine. Virtuosity speaks of a virtual serial killer who manages to escape to the real world. He goes on a rampage before he is inevitably stopped. This is a true technophobic movie in that its main plot is about technology gone wrong. It introduces a killer who blatantly destroys people.[14]

Technophobia achieved commercial success in the 1980s with the movie The Terminator, in which a computer becomes self-aware, and decides to kill all humans. Blade Runner shows us how human replicas were able to live on Earth, portraying technology gone wrong in "replicants" unhappy with their man-made limitations which demand they be "modified". Star Trek: Voyager introduced another twist, when "surplus" EMHs, such sophisticated expert systems as to be almost indistinguishable from human, being effectively reduced to slavery, while other, similar systems were turned into sentient prey.

In the 1970s, Westworld introduces a world of entertainment humanoids going completely wrong when they turn against humans.

Also in the 1960s, the film The Omega Man (loosely based on the Richard Matheson novel I am Legend) showed a world scarred by biological warfare and only a handful of humans and a cult of mutants remain alive. Charlton Heston's character is a scientist who is being targeted by the mutants who wish to destroy all science and machinery due to their technophobic beliefs. Technophobia is also thematic in Walter M. Miller's novel A Canticle for Leibowitz, in which nuclear war produces an attempt to stamp out science itself, which is held to be responsible.

A 1960 episode of The Twilight Zone called "A Thing About Machines" deals with a man's hatred for modern things such as electric razors, televisions, electric typewriters and clocks.

An early example of technophobia in fiction and popular culture is Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. It has been a staple of science fiction ever since, exemplified by movies like Fritz Lang's Metropolis, which offer examples of how technophobia can occur, and Charlie Chaplin's Modern Times, in which people are reduced to nothing but cogs in the machinery, a product of new industrial techniques like the assembly line. This persisted through the 1950s, with the fears of nuclear weapons and radiation leading to giant insects of monster movies, as well as cautionary tales like The Day the Earth Stood Still, and into the 1960s, with the likes of The Hulk. It was joined by fears of superintelligent machines, and rebellion amongst them, which was a recurring theme of Star Trek, from the original series to Star Trek: The Next Generation to Star Trek: Voyager in the 1990s.

Technophobia in arts

Another group considered to be technophobic is the Amish. While many technophobic groups take a social stance against technology, the Amish are reluctant to use technology due to their religious beliefs, and fear that it will weaken the family structure. The Amish follow a set of moral codes outlined in the Ordnung, which rejects the use of certain forms of technology for personal use.

Resistance to new technologies did not occur when the newly adopted technology aided the work process without making significant changes to it. The British Luddites protested the application of the machines, rather than the invention of the machine itself. They argued that their labor was a crucial part of the economy, and considered the skills they possessed to complete their labor as property that needed protection from the destruction caused by the autonomy of machines.[13]

These advances replaced many skilled textile artisans with comparatively unskilled machine operators. The 19th century British Luddites rejected new technologies that impacted the structure of their established trades, or the general nature of the work itself. [8]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.