The Holocaust

Hungarian Jews are selected by Nazis to be sent to the gas chamber at Auschwitz concentration camp, May/June 1944.[1]

The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"),[2] also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. An additional five million non-Jewish victims of Nazi mass murders are included by many historians bringing the total to approximately eleven million, although this is not uncontroversial. Killings took place throughout Nazi Germany and German-occupied territories.[3][4]

From 1941 to 1945, Jews were targeted and methodically murdered in a genocide, the largest in modern history, and part of a broader aggregate of acts of oppression and killings of various ethnic and political groups in Europe by the Nazis.[5] Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the genocide, turning the Third Reich into "a genocidal state".[6] Non-Jewish victims of broader Nazi crimes include Gypsies, Poles, communists, homosexuals, Soviet POWs, and the mentally and physically disabled. In total, approximately 11 million people were killed, including one million Jewish children alone.[7][8] Of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds were killed.[9] A network of about 42,500 facilities in Germany and German-occupied territories were used to concentrate, confine, and kill Jews and other victims.[10] and between 100,000 and 500,000 people were direct participants in the planning and execution of the Holocaust.[11]

The persecution and genocide were carried out in stages. Initially the German government passed laws to exclude Jews from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws of 1935. A network of concentration camps was established starting in 1933 and ghettos were established following the outbreak of World War II in 1939. In 1941, as Germany conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized paramilitary units called Einsatzgruppen were used to murder around two million Jews and "partisans", often in mass shootings. By the end of 1942, victims were being regularly transported by freight train to specially built extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, most were systematically killed in gas chambers. The campaign of murder continued until the end of World War II in Europe in April–May 1945.

Jewish armed resistance to the Nazis occurred throughout the Holocaust. One notable example was the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of January 1943, when thousands of poorly armed Jewish fighters held the SS at bay for four weeks. An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Jewish partisans actively fought the Nazis and their collaborators in Eastern Europe.[12][13] French Jews were also highly active in the French Resistance, which conducted a guerilla campaign against the Nazis and Vichy French authorities. In total, there were over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings.[14]

Contents

  • Etymology and use of the term 1
  • Distinctive features 2
    • Institutional collaboration 2.1
    • Ideology and scale 2.2
    • Extermination camps 2.3
    • Medical experiments 2.4
  • Development and execution 3
    • Origins 3.1
    • Legal repression and emigration 3.2
    • Kristallnacht (1938) 3.3
    • Resettlement and deportation 3.4
    • Early measures 3.5
      • In German-occupied Poland 3.5.1
      • In other occupied countries 3.5.2
        • In North Africa 3.5.2.1
      • General Government and Lublin reservation (Nisko plan) 3.5.3
    • Concentration and labor camps (1933–1945) 3.6
    • Ghettos (1940–1945) 3.7
    • Pogroms (1939–1942) 3.8
    • Death squads (1941–1943) 3.9
    • New methods of mass murder 3.10
    • Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution (1942–1945) 3.11
    • Reaction 3.12
      • German public 3.12.1
      • International 3.12.2
    • Motivation 3.13
    • Extermination camps 3.14
      • Gas chambers 3.14.1
    • Jewish resistance 3.15
    • Climax 3.16
      • "Blood for Goods" 3.16.1
    • Escapes, publication of existence (April–June 1944) 3.17
    • Death marches (1944–1945) 3.18
    • Liberation 3.19
  • Victims and death toll 4
    • Jewish 4.1
      • By country 4.1.1
      • Effect on the Yiddish and Ladino languages 4.1.2
    • Non-Jewish 4.2
      • Slavs 4.2.1
        • Ethnic Poles 4.2.1.1
        • West Slavs 4.2.1.2
        • Ethnic Serbs and other South Slavs 4.2.1.3
        • East Slavs 4.2.1.4
        • Soviet POWs 4.2.1.5
      • Romani people 4.2.2
      • Persons of color 4.2.3
      • Disabled and mentally ill 4.2.4
      • Homosexuals 4.2.5
      • The political left 4.2.6
      • Freemasons 4.2.7
      • Jehovah's Witnesses 4.2.8
      • Spanish Republicans 4.2.9
  • Uniqueness 5
  • Reparations 6
  • See also 7
    • By country 7.1
    • Perpetrators and collaborators 7.2
    • Victims and survivors 7.3
    • Involvement of other countries and nationals 7.4
    • Rescuers 7.5
      • Individual rescuers 7.5.1
    • Aftermath 7.6
      • Legal response 7.6.1
      • Memorials 7.6.2
      • Cultural, political, and scholarly responses 7.6.3
    • Miscellaneous 7.7
    • Other genocides and mass killings 7.8
  • Footnotes 8
  • Bibliography 9
  • External links 10

Etymology and use of the term

The term holocaust comes from the Greek word holókauston, referring to an animal sacrifice offered to a god in which the whole (olos) animal is completely burnt (kaustos).[15]

Writing in Latin, Richard of Devizes, a 12th-century monk, was the first recorded chronicler to use the term "holocaustum" in Britain.[16] Sir Thomas Browne employed the word "holocaust" in his philosophical Discourse Urn Burial in 1658 [17] and for centuries, the word was used generally in English to denote great massacres. Since the 1960s, the term has come to be used by scholars and popular writers to refer specifically to the Nazi genocide of Jews.[18] The television mini-series Holocaust is credited with introducing the term into common parlance after 1978.[19]

The biblical word shoah (שואה; also transliterated sho'ah and shoa), meaning "calamity", became the standard Hebrew term for the Holocaust as early as the 1940s, especially in Europe and Israel.[20] Shoah is preferred by some Jews for several reasons, including the theologically offensive nature of the word "holocaust", which they take to refer to the Greek pagan custom.[21]

The Nazis used a euphemistic phrase, the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" (German: Endlösung der Judenfrage), and the phrase "Final Solution" has been widely used as a term for the genocide of the Jews. Nazis used the phrase lebensunwertes Leben (Life unworthy of life) in reference to their victims in an attempt to justify the killings.

Distinctive features

Institutional collaboration

Ghettos were established in Europe in which Jews were confined before being shipped to extermination camps

Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics that led to the genocides, turning the Third Reich into what one Holocaust scholar, Michael Berenbaum, has called "a genocidal state".[6]

Every arm of the country's sophisticated bureaucracy was involved in the killing process. Parish churches and the Interior Ministry supplied birth records showing who was Jewish; the Post Office delivered the deportation and denaturalization orders; the Finance Ministry confiscated Jewish property; German firms fired Jewish workers and disenfranchised Jewish stockholders.
The universities refused to admit Jews, denied degrees to those already studying, and fired Jewish academics; government transport offices arranged the trains for deportation to the camps; German pharmaceutical companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; companies bid for the contracts to build the crematoria; detailed lists of victims were drawn up using the Dehomag (IBM Germany) company's punch card machines, producing meticulous records of the killings. As prisoners entered the death camps, they were made to surrender all personal property, which was catalogued and tagged before being sent to Germany to be reused or recycled. Berenbaum writes that the Final Solution of the Jewish question was "in the eyes of the perpetrators ... Germany's greatest achievement."[22] Through a concealed account, the German national bank helped launder valuables stolen from the victims.

Saul Friedländer writes that: "Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly institution or professional association in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity with the Jews."[23] He writes that some Christian churches declared that converted Jews should be regarded as part of the flock, but even then only up to a point. Friedländer argues that this makes the Holocaust distinctive because antisemitic policies were able to unfold without the interference of countervailing forces of the kind normally found in advanced societies, such as industry, small businesses, churches, trade unions and other vested interests and lobby groups.[23]

Ideology and scale

In other genocides, pragmatic considerations such as control of territory and resources were central to the genocide policy. Israeli historian and scholar Yehuda Bauer argues that:

The basic motivation [of the Holocaust] was purely ideological, rooted in an illusionary world of Nazi imagination, where an international Jewish conspiracy to control the world was opposed to a parallel Aryan quest. No genocide to date had been based so completely on myths, on hallucinations, on abstract, nonpragmatic ideology—which was then executed by very rational, pragmatic means.[24]

German historian Eberhard Jäckel wrote in 1986 that one distinctive feature of the Holocaust was that:

never before had a state with the authority of its responsible leader decided and announced that a specific human group, including its aged, its women and its children and infants, would be killed as quickly as possible, and then carried through this resolution using every possible means of state power.[25]

The killings were systematically conducted in virtually all areas of German-occupied territory in what are now 35 separate European countries.[26] It was at its most severe in Central and Eastern Europe, which had more than seven million Jews in 1939. About five million Jews were killed there, including three million in occupied Poland and over one million in the Soviet Union. Hundreds of thousands also died in the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia, and Greece. The Wannsee Protocol makes it clear that the Nazis intended to carry their "final solution of the Jewish question" to Britain and all neutral states in Europe, such as Ireland, Switzerland, Turkey, Sweden, Portugal, and Spain.[27]

Anyone with three or four Jewish grandparents was to be exterminated without exception. In other genocides, people were able to escape death by converting to another religion or in some other way assimilating. This option was not available to the Jews of occupied Europe,[28] unless their grandparents had converted before 18 January 1871. All persons of recent Jewish ancestry were to be exterminated in lands controlled by Germany.[29]

Extermination camps

The use of camps equipped with gas chambers for the purpose of systematic mass extermination of peoples was a unique feature of the Holocaust and unprecedented in history. Never before had there existed places with the express purpose of killing people en masse. These were established at Auschwitz, Belzec, Chełmno, Jasenovac, Majdanek, Maly Trostenets, Sobibór, and Treblinka.

Medical experiments

Romani children in Auschwitz, victims of medical experiments

A distinctive feature of Nazi genocide was the extensive use of human subjects in "medical" experiments. According to Raul Hilberg, "German physicians were highly Nazified, compared to other professionals, in terms of party membership."[30] Some carried out experiments at Auschwitz, Dachau, Buchenwald, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen, and Natzweiler concentration camps.[31]

The most notorious of these physicians was Dr. Josef Mengele, who worked in Auschwitz. His experiments included placing subjects in pressure chambers, testing drugs on them, freezing them, attempting to change eye color by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, and various amputations and other surgeries.[31] The full extent of his work will never be known because the truckload of records he sent to Dr. Otmar von Verschuer at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute was destroyed by von Verschuer.[32] Subjects who survived Mengele's experiments were almost always killed and dissected shortly afterwards.

He worked extensively with Romani children. He would bring them sweets and toys, and personally take them to the gas chamber. They would call him "Onkel (Uncle) Mengele".[33] Vera Alexander was a Jewish inmate at Auschwitz who looked after 50 sets of Romani twins:

I remember one set of twins in particular: Guido and Ina, aged about four. One day, Mengele took them away. When they returned, they were in a terrible state: they had been sewn together, back to back, like Siamese twins. Their wounds were infected and oozing pus. They screamed day and night. Then their parents—I remember the mother's name was Stella—managed to get some morphine and they killed the children in order to end their suffering.[33]

Development and execution

Origins

"The whole problem of the Jews exists only in nation states, for here their energy and higher intelligence, their accumulated capital of spirit and will, gathered from generation to generation through a long schooling in suffering, must become so preponderant as to arouse mass envy and hatred. In almost all contemporary nations, therefore - in direct proportion to the degree to which they act up nationalistially - the literaral obscenity of leading the Jews to slaughter as scapegoats of every conceivable public and internal misfortune is spreading."

Friedrich Nietzsche, 1886, [MA 1 475][34]

Yehuda Bauer and Lucy Dawidowicz maintained that from the Middle Ages onward, German society and culture were suffused with antisemitism, and that there was a direct ideological link from medieval pogroms to the Nazi death camps.[35]

The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence in Germany and Austria-Hungary of the Völkisch movement, developed by such thinkers as Houston Stewart Chamberlain and Paul de Lagarde. The movement presented a pseudoscientific, biologically based racism that viewed Jews as a race locked in mortal combat with the Aryan race for world domination.[36] Völkisch antisemitism drew upon stereotypes from Christian antisemitism, but differed in that Jews were considered to be a race rather than a religion.[37]

In a speech before the Reichstag in 1895, völkisch leader Hermann Ahlwardt called Jews "predators" and "cholera bacilli" who should be "exterminated" for the good of the German people.[38] In his best-selling 1912 book Wenn ich der Kaiser wär (If I were the Kaiser), Heinrich Class, leader of the völkisch group Alldeutscher Verband, urged that all German Jews be stripped of their German citizenship and be reduced to Fremdenrecht (alien status).[39] Class also urged that Jews should be excluded from all aspects of German life, forbidden to own land, hold public office, or participate in journalism, banking, and the liberal professions.[39] Class defined a Jew as anyone who was a member of the Jewish religion on the day the German Empire was proclaimed in 1871, or anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent.[39]

The first medical experimentation on humans and ethnic cleansing by Germans took place in the death camps of German South-West Africa during the Herero and Namaqua Genocide. It has been suggested that this was an inspiration for the Holocaust.[40][41]

During the German Empire, völkisch notions and pseudoscientific racism had become common and accepted throughout Germany,[42] with the educated professional classes of the country, in particular, adopting an ideology of human inequality.[43] Though the völkisch parties were defeated in the 1912 Reichstag elections, being all but wiped out, antisemitism was incorporated into the platforms of the mainstream political parties.[42] The National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party; NSDAP) was founded in 1920 as an offshoot of the völkisch movement, and adopted their antisemitism.[44] In a 1986 essay, German historian Hans Mommsen wrote about the situation in post–World War I Germany that:

If one emphasizes the indisputably important connection in isolation, one should not then force a connection with Hitler's weltanschauung [worldview], which was in no ways original itself, in order to derive from it the existence of Auschwitz ... Thoughts about the extermination of the Jews had long been current, and not only for Hitler and his satraps. Many of these found their way to the NSDAP from the Deutschvölkisch Schutz-und Trutzbund [German Racial Union for Protection and Defiance], which itself had been called into life by the Pan-German Union.[45]

Tremendous scientific and technological changes in Germany during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, together with the growth of the welfare state, created widespread hopes that utopia was at hand and that soon all social problems could be solved.[46] At the same time a racist, social Darwinist, and eugenicist world-view which declared some people to be more biologically valuable than others was common.[47] Historian Detlev Peukert states that the Shoah did not result solely from antisemitism, but was a product of the "cumulative radicalization" in which "numerous smaller currents" fed into the "broad current" that led to genocide.[48] After the First World War, the pre-war mood of optimism gave way to disillusionment as German bureaucrats found social problems to be more insoluble than previously thought, which in turn led them to place increasing emphasis on saving the biologically "fit" while the biologically "unfit" were to be written off.[49]

In Germany, Sturmabteilung stormtroopers urge a national boycott of all Jewish businesses on 1 April 1933. These SA stormtroopers are outside Israel's Department Store in Berlin to deter customers. The signs read: "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews." ("Deutsche! Wehrt Euch! Kauft nicht bei Juden!")[50] The store was later ransacked during Kristallnacht in 1938, then handed over to a non-Jewish family.

The economic strains of the Great Depression led many in the German medical establishment to advocate the idea of euthanisation of the "incurable" mentally and physically disabled as a cost-saving measure to free up money to care for the curable.[51] By the time the Nazis came to power in 1933, a tendency already existed in German social policy to save the racially "valuable" while seeking to rid society of the racially "undesirable".[52]

Hitler was open about his hatred of Jews. In his book Mein Kampf, he gave warning of his intention to drive them from Germany's political, intellectual, and cultural life. He did not write that he would attempt to exterminate them, but he is reported to have been more explicit in private. As early as 1922, he allegedly told Major Joseph Hell, at the time a journalist:

Once I really am in power, my first and foremost task will be the annihilation of the Jews. As soon as I have the power to do so, I will have gallows built in rows—at the Marienplatz in Munich, for example—as many as traffic allows. Then the Jews will be hanged indiscriminately, and they will remain hanging until they stink; they will hang there as long as the principles of hygiene permit. As soon as they have been untied, the next batch will be strung up, and so on down the line, until the last Jew in Munich has been exterminated. Other cities will follow suit, precisely in this fashion, until all Germany has been completely cleansed of Jews.[53]

Mommsen suggested that there were three types of antisemitism in Germany: There was 1) the cultural antisemitism found among German conservatives, especially in the military officer corps as well as in the top members of the civil administration; 2) there was the "volkisch" antisemitism or racism which advocated using violence against the Jews; and 3) the religious anti-Judaism, particularly within the Catholic Church. The cultural antisemitism kept the ruling establishment from distancing itself or opposing the violent, racial antisemitism of the Nazis, and religious antisemitism meant that the religious establishment did not present opposition to racial persecution of the Jews.[54]

Legal repression and emigration

Right from the establishment of the Third Reich, Nazi leaders proclaimed the existence of a Volksgemeinschaft ("people's community"). Nazi policies divided the population into two categories, the Volksgenossen ("national comrades"), who belonged to the Volksgemeinschaft, and the Gemeinschaftsfremde ("community aliens"), who did not. Nazi policies about repression divided people into three types of enemies, the "racial" enemies such as the Jews and the Gypsies who were viewed as enemies because of their "blood"; political opponents such as Marxists, liberals, Christians and the "reactionaries" who were viewed as wayward "National Comrades"; and moral opponents such as homosexuals, the "work-shy" and habitual criminals, also seen as wayward "National Comrades".[55] The last two groups were to be sent to concentration camps for "re-education", with the aim of eventual absorption into the Volksgemeinschaft, though some of the moral opponents were to be sterilized, as they were regarded as "genetically inferior".[55]

"Racial" enemies such as the Jews could, by definition, never belong to the Volksgemeinschaft; they were to be totally removed from society.[55] German historian Detlev Peukert wrote that the National Socialists' "goal was an utopian Volksgemeinschaft, totally under police surveillance, in which any attempt at nonconformist behaviour, or even any hint or intention of such behaviour, would be visited with terror".[56] Peukert quotes policy documents on the "Treatment of Community Aliens" from 1944, which (though never implemented) showed the full intentions of Nazi social policy: "persons who ... show themselves [to be] unable to comply by their own efforts with the minimum requirements of the national community" were to be placed under police supervision, and if this did not reform them, they were to be taken to a concentration camp.[57]

Leading up to the March 1933 Reichstag elections, the Nazis intensified their campaign of violence against the opposition. With the co-operation of local authorities, they set up concentration camps for extrajudicial imprisonment of their opponents. One of the first, at Dachau, opened on 9 March 1933.[58] Initially the camp contained primarily communists and Social Democrats.[59] Other early prisons—for example, in basements and storehouses run by the Sturmabteilung (SA) and less commonly by the Schutzstaffel (SS)—were consolidated by mid-1934 into purpose-built camps outside the cities, run exclusively by the SS. The initial purpose of the camps was to serve as a deterrent by terrorizing those Germans who did not conform to the Volksgemeinschaft.[60] Those sent to the camps included the "educable", whose wills could be broken into becoming "National Comrades", and the "biologically depraved", who were to be sterilized, were to be held permanently, and over time were increasingly subject to extermination through labor, i.e., being worked to death.[60]

Throughout the 1930s, the legal, economic, and social rights of Jews were steadily restricted. The Israeli historian Saul Friedländer writes that, for the Nazis, Germany drew its strength "from the purity of its blood and from its rootedness in the sacred German earth."[61] On 1 April 1933, there occurred a boycott of Jewish businesses, which was the first national antisemitic campaign, initially planned for a week, but called off after one day owing to lack of popular support. In 1933, a series of laws were passed which contained Aryan paragraphs to exclude Jews from key areas: the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, the first antisemitic law passed in the Third Reich; the Physicians' Law; and the Farm Law, forbidding Jews from owning farms or taking part in agriculture.

Jewish lawyers were disbarred, and in Dresden, Jewish lawyers and judges were dragged out of their offices and courtrooms and beaten.[62] At the insistence of then president Paul von Hindenburg, Hitler added an exemption allowing Jewish civil servants who were veterans of the First World War, or whose fathers or sons had served, to remain in office. Hitler revoked this exemption in 1937. Jews were excluded from schools and universities (the Law to Prevent Overcrowding in Schools), from belonging to the Journalists' Association, and from being owners or editors of newspapers.[61] The Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of 27 April 1933 wrote:

A self-respecting nation cannot, on a scale accepted up to now, leave its higher activities in the hands of people of racially foreign origin . . . Allowing the presence of too high a percentage of people of foreign origin in relation to their percentage in the general population could be interpreted as an acceptance of the superiority of other races, something decidedly to be rejected.[63]

In July 1933, the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring calling for compulsory sterilization of the "inferior" was passed. This major eugenic policy led to over 200 Hereditary Health Courts (Erbgesundheitsgerichte) being set up, under whose rulings over 400,000 people were sterilized against their will during the Nazi period.[64]

Racial classification chart based on the Nuremberg Laws of 1935.

In 1935, Hitler introduced the Nuremberg Laws, which: prohibited "Aryans" from having sexual relations or marriages with Jews, although this was later extended to include "Gypsies, Negroes or their bastard offspring" (the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor),[65] stripped German Jews of their citizenship and deprived them of all civil rights. At the same time the Nazis used propaganda to promulgate the concept of Rassenschande (race defilement) to justify the need for a restrictive law.[66] Hitler described the "Blood Law" in particular "the attempt at a legal regulation of a problem, which in the event of further failure would then have through law to be transferred to the final solution of the National Socialist Party". Hitler said that if the "Jewish problem" cannot be solved by these laws, it "must then be handed over by law to the National-Socialist Party for a final solution".[67] The "final solution", or "Endlösung", became the standard Nazi euphemism for the extermination of the Jews. In January 1939, he said in a public speech: "If international-finance Jewry inside and outside Europe should succeed once more in plunging the nations into yet another world war, the consequences will not be the Bolshevization of the earth and thereby the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation (vernichtung) of the Jewish race in Europe".[68] Footage from this speech was used to conclude the 1940 Nazi propaganda movie The Eternal Jew (Der ewige Jude), whose purpose was to provide a rationale and blueprint for eliminating the Jews from Europe.[69]

Jewish intellectuals were among the first to leave. The philosopher Walter Benjamin left for Paris on 18 March 1933. Novelist Lion Feuchtwanger went to Switzerland. The conductor Bruno Walter fled after being told that the hall of the Berlin Philharmonic would be burned down if he conducted a concert there: the Frankfurter Zeitung explained on 6 April that Walter and fellow conductor Otto Klemperer had been forced to flee because the government was unable to protect them against the mood of the German public, which had been provoked by "Jewish artistic liquidators".[70] Albert Einstein was visiting the US on 30 January 1933. He returned to Ostende in Belgium, never to set foot in Germany again, and calling events there a "psychic illness of the masses"; he was expelled from the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and the Prussian Academy of Sciences, and his citizenship was rescinded.[71] When Germany annexed Austria in 1938, Sigmund Freud and his family fled from Vienna to England. Saul Friedländer writes that when Max Liebermann, honorary president of the Prussian Academy of Arts, resigned his position, not one of his colleagues expressed a word of sympathy, and he was still ostracized at his death two years later. When the police arrived in 1943 with a stretcher to deport his 85-year-old bedridden widow, she committed suicide with an overdose of barbiturates rather than be taken.[71]

Kristallnacht (1938)

A synagogue burns on 10 November 1938

On 7 November 1938, Jewish minor Herschel Grünspan assassinated Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in Paris.[72] This incident was used by the Nazis as a pretext to go beyond legal repression to large-scale physical violence against Jewish Germans. What the Nazis claimed to be spontaneous "public outrage" was in fact a wave of pogroms instigated by the Nazi Party, and carried out by SA members and affiliates throughout Nazi Germany, at the time consisting of Germany proper, Austria and Sudetenland.[72] These pogroms became known as Reichskristallnacht ("the Night of Broken Glass", literally "Crystal Night"), or November pogroms. Jews were attacked and Jewish property was vandalized, over 7,000 Jewish shops and more than 1,200 synagogues (roughly two-thirds of the synagogues in areas under German control) were damaged or destroyed.[73]

The death toll is assumed to be much higher than the official number of 91 dead.[72] 30,000 were sent to concentration camps, including Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, and Oranienburg,[74] where they were kept for several weeks, and released when they could either prove that they were about to emigrate in the near future, or transferred their property to the Nazis.[75] German Jewry was collectively made responsible for restitution of the material damage of the pogroms, amounting to several hundred thousand Reichsmarks, and furthermore had to pay an "atonement tax" of more than a billion Reichsmarks.[72] After these pogroms, Jewish emigration from Germany accelerated, while public Jewish life in Germany ceased to exist.[72]

Resettlement and deportation

The 930 Jewish refugees aboard the MS St. Louis were refused entry to Cuba, the United States and Canada, and the ship was forced to return to Europe

Before the war, the Nazis considered mass deportation of German (and subsequently the European) Jewry from Europe. Hitler's agreement to the 1938–9 Schacht Plan, and the continued flight of thousands of Jews from Hitler's clutches for an extended period when the Schacht Plan came to nothing, indicate that the preference for a concerted genocide of the type that came later did not yet exist.[76]

Plans to reclaim former German colonies such as Tanganyika and South West Africa for Jewish resettlement were halted by Hitler, who argued that no place where "so much blood of heroic Germans had been spilled" should be made available as a residence for the "worst enemies of the Germans".[77] Diplomatic efforts were undertaken to convince the other colonial powers, primarily the United Kingdom and France, to accept expelled Jews in their colonies.[78] Areas considered for possible resettlement included British Palestine,[79] Italian Abyssinia,[79] British Rhodesia,[80] French Madagascar,[79] and Australia.[81]

Of these areas, Madagascar was the most seriously discussed. Heydrich called the Madagascar Plan a "territorial final solution"; it was a remote location, and the island's unfavorable conditions would hasten deaths.[82] Approved by Hitler in 1938, the resettlement planning was carried out by Adolf Eichmann's office, only being abandoned once the mass killing of Jews had begun in 1941. In retrospect, although futile, this plan did constitute an important psychological step on the path to the Holocaust.[83] The end of the Madagascar Plan was announced on 10 February 1942. The German Foreign Office was given the official explanation that, due to the war with the Soviet Union, Jews were to be "sent to the east".[84]

Nazi bureaucrats also developed plans to deport Europe's Jews to Siberia.[85] Palestine was the only location to which any Nazi relocation plan succeeded in producing significant results, by means of an agreement begun in 1933 between the Zionist Federation of Germany (die Zionistische Vereinigung für Deutschland) and the Nazi government, the Haavara Agreement. This agreement resulted in the transfer of about 60,000 German Jews and $100 million from Germany to Palestine, up until the outbreak of World War II.[86]

Early measures

In German-occupied Poland

Germany's invasion of Poland in September 1939 increased the urgency of the "Jewish Question". Poland, was home to approximately three million Jews (nearly nine percent of the population), in centuries-old communities, two-thirds of whom fell under Nazi control with Poland's capitulation.

Reinhard Heydrich, Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia, recommended concentrating all the Polish Jews in ghettos in major cities, where they would be put to work for the German war industry. The ghettos would be in cities located on railway junctions in order to furnish, in Heydrich's words, "a better possibility of control and later deportation."[87] During his interrogation in 1961, Adolf Eichmann recalled that this "later deportation" actually meant "physical extermination."[88]

In September, Himmler appointed Heydrich head of the Operation Tannenberg and through Selbstschutz units. The Jews were later herded into ghettos, mostly in the General Government area of central Poland, where they were put to work under the Reich Labor Office headed by Fritz Sauckel. Here many thousands died from maltreatment, disease, starvation, and exhaustion, but there was still no program of systematic killing. There is little doubt, however, that the Nazis saw forced labor as a form of extermination. The expression Vernichtung durch Arbeit ("destruction through work") was frequently used.

Although it was clear by late 1941 that the SS hierarchy was determined to embark on a policy of killing all the Jews under German control, there was still opposition to this policy within the Nazi regime, although the motive was economic, not humanitarian. Hermann Göring, who had overall control of the German war industry, and the German army's Economics Department, argued that the enormous Jewish labor force assembled in the General Government area (more than a million able-bodied workers), was an asset too valuable to waste, particularly with Germany failing to secure rapid victory of the Soviet Union.

In other occupied countries

Jewish mass grave near Zolochiv, west Ukraine (Nazi occupied USSR). Photo was found by Soviets at former Gestapo headquarters in Zolochiv.

When Germany occupied Norway, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and France in 1940, and Yugoslavia and Greece in 1941, antisemitic measures were also introduced into these countries, although the pace and severity varied greatly from country to country according to local political circumstances. Jews were removed from economic and cultural life and were subject to various restrictive laws, but physical deportation did not occur in most places before 1942. The Vichy regime in occupied France actively collaborated in persecuting French Jews. Germany's allies Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Finland were pressured to introduce antisemitic measures, but for the most part they did not comply until compelled to do so. During the course of the war some 900 Jews and 300 Roma passed through the Banjica concentration camp in Belgrade, intended primarily for Serbian communists, royalists and others who resisted occupation. The German puppet regime in Croatia, on the other hand, began actively persecuting Jews on its own initiative, so the Legal Decree on the Nationalization of the Property of Jews and Jewish Companies was declared on 10 October 1941 in the Independent State of Croatia.

In North Africa

Though the vast majority of the Jews affected and killed during Holocaust were of Ashkenazi descent, Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews suffered greatly as well.

In the 1930s, the Fascist Italian regime initiated anti-Semitic laws which barred Jews from government jobs, government schools and required them to stamp "Jewish race" into their passports.[91] However, this was not enough to deter Jews from Libya, as 25% of the population in Tripoli was Jewish with over 44 synagogues in existence.[92] In 1942, the Jewish Quarter of Benghazi was occupied by the Nazis and more than 2,000 Jews were deported and sent to Nazi labor camps. By the end of WWII, about one-fifth of those who were sent away had perished.[93] Several forced labor camps for Jews were established in Libya, the largest of which, the Giado camp, held almost 2,600 inmates, of whom 562 died of weakness, hunger, and disease. Smaller labor camps were established in Gharyan, Jeren, and Tigrinna.[93][94]

Tunisia, the only North African country to come under direct Nazi occupation, had 100,000 Jews when the Nazis arrived in November 1942. During their six months of occupation, the Nazis imposed anti-Semitic policies in Tunisia, including forcing Jews to wear the Yellow Star, fines, and confiscation of property. Some 5,000 Tunisian Jews were subjected to forced labor, and some were deported to European death camps.[95] More than 2,500 Tunisian Jews died in slave labor camps during the German occupation.[96]

General Government and Lublin reservation (Nisko plan)

On 28 September 1939, Germany gained control over the Lublin area through the German-Soviet agreement in exchange for Lithuania.[97] According to the Nisko Plan, they set up the Lublin-Lipowa Reservation in the area. The reservation was designated by Adolf Eichmann, who was assigned the task of removing all Jews from Germany, Austria and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.[98] They shipped the first Jews to Lublin less than three weeks later on 18 October 1939. The first train loads consisted of Jews deported from Austria and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.[99] By 30 January 1940, a total of 78,000 Jews had been deported to Lublin from Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia.[100] On 12 and 13 February 1940, the Pomeranian Jews were deported to the Lublin reservation, resulting in Pomeranian Gauleiter Franz Schwede-Coburg to be the first to declare his Gau (country subdivision) judenrein ("free of Jews").[101] On 24 March 1940 Göring put the Nisko Plan on hold, and abandoned it entirely by the end of April.[102] By the time the Nisko Plan was stopped, the total number of Jews who had been transported to Nisko had reached 95,000, many of whom had died from starvation.[103]

In July 1940, due to the difficulties of supporting the increased population in the General Government, Hitler had the deportations temporarily halted.[104]

In October 1940, Gauleiters Josef Bürckel and Robert Heinrich Wagner oversaw Operation Bürckel, the expulsion of the Jews into unoccupied France from their Gaues and the parts of Alsace-Lorraine that had been annexed that summer to the Reich.[105] Only those Jews in mixed marriages were not expelled.[105] The 6,500 Jews affected by Operation Bürckel were given at most two hours warning on the night of 22–23 October 1940, before being rounded up. The nine trains carrying the deported Jews crossed over into France "without any warning to the French authorities", who were not happy with receiving them.[105] The deportees had not been allowed to take any of their possessions with them, these being confiscated by the German authorities.[105] The German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop treated the ensuing complaints by the Vichy government over the expulsions in a "most dilatory fashion".[105] As a result, the Jews expelled in Operation Bürckel were interned in harsh conditions by the Vichy authorities at the camps in Gurs, Rivesaltes and Les Milles while awaiting a chance to return them to Germany.[105]

During 1940 and 1941, the murder of large numbers of Jews in German-occupied Poland continued, and the deportation of Jews to the General Government was undertaken. The deportation of Jews from Germany, particularly Berlin, was not officially completed until 1943. (Many Berlin Jews were able to survive in hiding.) By December 1939, 3.5 million Jews were crowded into the General Government area.

Concentration and labor camps (1933–1945)

12 April 1945: Lager Nordhausen, where 20,000 inmates are believed to have died

From the beginning of the Third Reich concentration camps were founded, initially as places of incarceration. Although the death rate in the concentration camps was high, with a mortality rate of 50%, they were not designed to be killing centers. (By 1942, six large extermination camps had been established in Nazi-occupied Poland, which were built solely for mass killings.) After 1939, the camps increasingly became places where Jews and POWs were either killed or made to work as slave laborers, undernourished and tortured.[106] It is estimated that the Germans established 15,000 camps and subcamps in the occupied countries, mostly in eastern Europe.[107][108] New camps were founded in areas with large Jewish, Polish intelligentsia, communist, or Roma and Sinti populations, including inside Germany. The transportation of prisoners was often carried out under horrifying conditions using rail freight cars, in which many died before reaching their destination.

Extermination through labor was a policy of systematic extermination – camp inmates would literally be worked to death, or worked to physical exhaustion, when they would be gassed or shot.[109] Slave labour was used in war production, for example producing V-2 rockets at Mittelbau-Dora, and various armaments around the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex.

Upon admission, some camps tattooed prisoners with a prisoner ID.[110] Those fit for work were dispatched for 12 to 14-hour shifts. Before and after, there were roll calls that could sometimes last for hours, with prisoners regularly dying of exposure.[111]

Ghettos (1940–1945)

Main ghettos: Białystok, Budapest, Kraków, Kovno, Łódź, Lvov, Riga, Vilna, Warsaw
A child lying in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto

After the invasion of Poland, the Nazis established ghettos in the incorporated territories and General Government in which Jews were confined. These were initially seen as temporary, until the Jews were deported out of Europe; as it turned out, such deportation never took place, with the ghettos' inhabitants instead being sent to extermination camps. The Germans ordered that each ghetto be run by a

  • Other external links, references, and other resources are listed at Holocaust (resources)
  • H-HOLOCAUST, H-Net discussion list for librarians, scholars and advanced students
  • Online documents available from the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
  • Guide to materials available at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
  • The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide – The World's Oldest Holocaust Memorial Institution
  • How Could God Have Allowed the Holocaust?
  • Common Questions about the Holocaust by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  • The Minutes from the Wannsee Conference in English

External links

 
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  121. ^ Hilberg 2003, p. 1111.
  122. ^ Hilberg 1995, p. 106.
  123. ^ Snyder 2010, p. 285.
  124. ^ a b c Berenbaum 2005, p. 114.
  125. ^ a b c "Deportations to and from the Warsaw Ghetto". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  126. ^ Berenbaum 2005, pp. 115–6.
  127. ^ Berenbaum 2005, p. 116.
  128. ^ Public Prosecutor Radosław J. Ignatiew (9 July 2002), Jedwabne: Final Findings of Poland's Institute of National Memory. Polish Academic Information Center, University of Buffalo.
  129. ^ "Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r." Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, ul. Towarowa 28, 00-839 Warszawa. (Polish)
  130. ^ IPN Communiqué. Final findings. Postanowienie o umorzeniu sledztwa. Institute of National Remembrance, 30 June 2001. PDF file, direct download 25.4 MB. (Polish)
  131. ^ The inscription on the memorial stone raised in the place of the barn at Jedwabne read: "Place of torture and execution of the Jewish population. The Gestapo and Nazi gendarmerie burned 1,600 people alive on 10 July 1941." (Polish: Miejsce kaźni ludności żydowskiej. Gestapo i żandarmeria hitlerowska spaliła żywcem 1600 osób 10.VII.1941.). In 2001 the stone was removed and deposited in the Polish Army Museum in Białystok because it did not present the confirmed number of dead.
  132. ^ Gross, Jan Tomasz (2001). Neighbors: the destruction of the Jewish community in Jedwabne, Poland. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.  p.7
  133. ^ Kwiet 1998, p. 4; Porat 2002, p. 161.
  134. ^ a b c d e f g h Matthäus 2004, pp. 268–276.
  135. ^ Hillgruber, Andreas "War in the East and the Extermination of the Jews," pp. 85–114 from The Nazi Holocaust Part 3, The "Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder Volume 1 edited by Michael Marrus, Mecler: Westpoint, CT 1989 pp. 102–103.
  136. ^ Hillgruber (1989), "War in the East and Extermination of the Jews," p. 103.
  137. ^ a b c Förster 1998, p. 276.
  138. ^ a b c Förster 1998, p. 277.
  139. ^ Förster 1998, p. 278.
  140. ^ Förster 1998, p. 280.
  141. ^ Hilberg 2003, p. 291.
  142. ^ Browning 2004, p. 225.
  143. ^ Berenbaum 2005, p. 93.
  144. ^ Evans 2008, pp. 226–7.
  145. ^ Murray & Millett 2000, p. 141.
  146. ^ Berenbaum 2005, pp. 97–98.
  147. ^ Isaacs, Jeremy (23 November 2006). "Obituary: Susan McConachy". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  148. ^ Gilbert 1986, p. 191.
  149. ^ a b c d e Benz 2007, p. 98.
  150. ^ Kogon, Langbein & Rueckerl 1993, p. .
  151. ^ Letter from Reinhard Heydrich to Martin Luther, Foreign Office, February 26, 1942, regarding the minutes of the Wannsee Conference.
  152. ^ Berenbaum 2005, pp. 101–2.
  153. ^ Morris, Errol (12 May 1999). "Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr.". Fourth Floor Productions. Retrieved 25 September 2012. 
  154. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 305.
  155. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 306.
  156. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 307.
  157. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 308.
  158. ^ Cesarani 2005, pp. 113–114.
  159. ^ Marrus 2000, p. 89.
  160. ^ a b Marrus 2000, pp. 89–90.
  161. ^ Evans 1989, p. 71; Marrus 2000, p. 91.
  162. ^ a b c d e Marrus 2000, p. 92.
  163. ^ Marrus 2000, p. 93.
  164. ^ Ezard, John (17 February 2001). "Germans knew of Holocaust horror about death camps". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
  165. ^ Lower 2006, p. 245; Niewyk & Nicosia 2000, p. 26; Yahil 1991, p. 257.
  166. ^ a b c Buchheim 1968, pp. 372–373.
  167. ^ Buchheim 1968, p. 381.
  168. ^ Buchheim 1968, pp. 386–7.
  169. ^ Browning 1992, p. 57.
  170. ^ Kudryashov 2004, pp. 232–32.
  171. ^ a b c d  
  172. ^ a b Kudryashov 2004, p. 234.
  173. ^ Kudryashov 2004, pp. 234–5.
  174. ^ Kudryashov 2004, pp. 226–7, 234–5.
  175. ^ Mgr Stanisław Jabłoński (1927–2002). "Hitlerowski obóz w Trawnikach". The camp history (in Polish). Trawniki official website. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  176. ^ Source: Yad Vashem. Retrieved 7 May 2007
  177. ^ a b Memorial and Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau
  178. ^ Per Yadvashem.org, Auschwitz II total numbers are "between 1.3M–1.5M", so we use the middle value 1.4M as estimate here.
  179. ^ Coordinates from: Auschwitz concentration camp
  180. ^ a b Belzec, Yad Vashem.
  181. ^ Coordinates from: Belzec extermination camp
  182. ^ a b c Chelmno, Yad Vashem.
  183. ^ Coordinates from: Chełmno extermination camp
  184. ^ Jasenovac, Yad Vashem.
  185. ^ Coordinates from: Jasenovac concentration camp
  186. ^ a b Majdanek, Yad Vashem.
  187. ^ Coordinates from: Majdanek
  188. ^ Maly Trostinets, Yad Vashem.
  189. ^ Coordinates from: Maly Trostenets extermination camp
  190. ^ a b Sobibor, Yad Vashem.
  191. ^ Coordinates from: Sobibór extermination camp
  192. ^ a b Treblinka, Yad Vashem.
  193. ^ Coordinates from: Treblinka extermination camp
  194. ^ "Aktion Reinhard" (PDF). Yad Vashem. 
  195. ^ Although Chełmno was not technically part of Operation Reinhard, it began functioning as an extermination camp in December 1941.Yadvashem.org
  196. ^ Chełmno, which used gas vans rather than gas chambers to commit mass murder, had its roots in the extension of the Euthanasia Program to the Warthegau and the subsequent liquidation of large numbers of that region's Jews beginning in September 1941. See Montague 2012, pp. 9–48.
  197. ^ Piper 1998, p. 173.
  198. ^ Piper 1998, p. 162.
  199. ^ a b Piper 1998, p. 170.
  200. ^ a b Piper 1998, p. 163.
  201. ^ Piper 1998, p. 163
    See also Goldensohn 2005, p. 298, quoting Rudolf Höss: "We cut the hair from women after they had been exterminated in the gas chambers. The hair was then sent to factories, where it was woven into special fittings for gaskets." Höß said that only women's hair was cut and only after they were dead. He said he had first received the order to do this in 1943.
  202. ^ Piper 1998, p. 172.
  203. ^ Piper 1998, p. 171.
  204. ^ Piper 1998, p. 164.
  205. ^ Pelt 2002, p. 4.
  206. ^ Hilberg 2003, pp. 1104–1105, 1111.
  207. ^ a b Longerich 2010, p. 341.
  208. ^ Hilberg 2003, pp. 1112–1118.

    Polish Rabbi  

  209. ^ Snyder 2010, p. 283.
  210. ^
    • Bauer, Yehuda. Forms of Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust. In The Nazi Holocaust: Historical Articles on the Destruction of European Jews. Vol. 7: Jewish Resistance to the Holocaust, edited by Michael R. Marrus, 34–48. Westport, Connecticut: Meckler, 1989.
    • Bauer, Yehuda, They chose life: Jewish resistance in the Holocaust, New York, The American Jewish Committee, 1973.
    • Jewish Resistance During the Holocaust by Israel Gutman. Yad Vashem.
    • Resistance During the Holocaust U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum
    • Jewish Resistance. A Working Bibliography. The Miles Lerman Center for the Study of Jewish Resistance. Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies. U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum
  211. ^ Gilbert 1986, p. 828.
  212. ^ Hilberg 1996, pp. 126–137.
  213. ^ Lador-Lederer 1980, p. 75 n.15.
  214. ^ "Jewish veterans of Soviet Red Army suffering in solitude". Haaretz. May 5, 2013.
  215. ^ Pinkus 1990, p. 261.
  216. ^ Klempner 2006, pp. 145–146.
  217. ^ Snyder 2010, p. 320.
  218. ^ Suhl 1987, pp. 181–3.
  219. ^ Zuccotti 1999, p. 274.
  220. ^ Klempner 2006, p. 145.
  221. ^ "Holocaust Resistance" H-Net discussion log 2 Dec 1998
  222. ^ Johnson 1988, p. 506.
  223. ^ Wood & Jankowski 1994.
  224. ^ "Killing Centers". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  225. ^ "Aktion 'Erntefest' (Operation 'Harvest Festival')". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  226. ^ Fest 1999, p. 329.
  227. ^ Evans 2002, pp. 102–3.
  228. ^ Conway, John S. "The first report about Auschwitz", Museum of Tolerance, Simon Wiesenthal Center, Annual 1 Chapter 07. Retrieved 11 September 2006.
  229. ^ Swiebocki 1998, p. 505.
  230. ^ Linn 2004, p. 20.
  231. ^ Grojanowski Report
  232. ^ "Grojanowski Report".  
  233. ^ Farbstein 1998.
  234. ^ Memorandum, Arthur Sweetser to Leo Rosten, 1 February 1942, quoted in Eric Hanin, "War on Our Minds: The American Mass Media in World War II" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1976), ch. 4, n.6. OCLC 3640206.
  235. ^ Frank 2007, pp. 66–67.
  236. ^ Lemkin 2005, p. 89 n.45.
  237. ^ Karski 2001, pp. 552–564.
  238. ^ "Algemeiner 07/17/2013". Algemeiner.com. 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  239. ^ Nigel Jones (4 May 2011). "tory of a Secret State by Jan Karski: review". The daily telegraph. Karski reached London where he had an interview with the foreign secretary Anthony Eden, the first of many top officials to effectively ignore his account of the Nazis’ systematic effort to exterminate European Jewry. The very enormity of Karski’s report paradoxically worked against him being believed, and paralysed any action against the killings. Logistically unable to reach Poland, preoccupied with fighting the war on many fronts, and unwilling to believe even the Nazis capable of such bestiality, the Allies put the Holocaust on the back burner. When Karski took his tale across the Atlantic, the story was the same. President Roosevelt heard him out, then asked about the condition of horses in Poland." 
  240. ^ Claude Lanzmann (4 May 2011). "U.S Holocaust memorial Museum, Claude Lanzmann Interview with Jan Karski". Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive. Karski first told Roosevelt that the Polish nation was depending on him to deliver them from the Germans. Karski said to Roosevelt, "All hope, Mr. President, has been placed by the Polish nation in the hands of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Karski says that he told President Roosevelt about Belzec and the desperate situation of the Jews. Roosevelt concentrated his questions and remarks entirely on Poland and did not ask one question about the Jews ". Watch the video, or see the full transcript 
  241. ^ Wood & Jankowski 1994, p. 316.
  242. ^ Het Parool, 27 September, page 4–5. Concentration camps: where the Nazi's bring their ideals in practice, NIOD (Dutch Institute of War Documentation), Amsterdam
  243. ^ Het 'Illegale Parool'-archief 1940–1945 (4) and Het 'Illegale Parool'-archief 1940–1945 (5) (Het 'Illegale Parool'-archief 1940–1945, 27 September 1943, p 4–5)
  244. ^ Lewis 2002, pp. 31–33.
  245. ^ "Byłem Numerem: swiadectwa Z Auschwitz" by Kazimierz Piechowski, Eugenia Bozena Kodecka-Kaczynska, Michal Ziokowski, Hardcover, Wydawn. Siostr Loretanek, ISBN 83-7257-122-8
  246. ^ "Auschwitz-Birkenau – The Film about the Amazing Escape from Auschwitz—Now Available on DVD". En.auschwitz.org.pl. 13 January 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2010. 
  247. ^ Vrba 2006.
  248. ^ a b Linn, Ruth (13 April 2006). "Obituary: Rudolf Vrba". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  249. ^ According to Linn 2004, p. 30, the BBC first broadcast information from the report on 18 June, not 15 June.
  250. ^ Brigham, Daniel T. (3 July 1944). "Inquiry confirms Nazi death camps". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  251. ^ Brigham, Daniel T. (6 July 1944). "Two death camps places of horror". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  252. ^ Frankel, Max (14 November 2001). "Turning Away from the Holocaust". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  253. ^ Leff 2005.
  254. ^ George Mason University. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  255. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 695.
  256. ^ Czech 1989, p. 920, 933, which uses information from a series called Hefte von Auschwitz, and cited in Kárný 1998, p. 564. The original German is: 25. November Im KL Auschwitz II kommen 24 weibliche Häftlinge ums Leben, von denen 13 unmittelbar getötet werden.
  257. ^ "Maps of the Death Marches". Holocaust Encyclopedia. ushmm.org. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
    According to Krakowski 1989, p. 476, death marches were a frequent occurrence throughout the war. The inaugural one commenced on 14 January 1940 in occupied Poland, when the SS escorted 800 Jewish POWs from the Polish army to Biała Podłaska from Lublin—a distance of 100km in a matter of days in the depths of Polish winter. Massacred all along the way, less than 5% of the 800 survived the journey.
  258. ^ Friedländer 2007, p. 649.
  259. ^ Wiesel 2012, p. 122.
  260. ^ Hitchcock 2009, p. 283.
  261. ^ Hitchcock 2009, p. 297.
  262. ^ Hitchcock 2009, p. 340.
  263. ^ Gilbert 1986, p. 798.
  264. ^ Gilbert 1986, pp. 808–9.
  265. ^ Stone, Dan G.; Wood, Angela (2007). Holocaust: The events and their impact on real people, in conjunction with the USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education. p. 144.  
  266. ^  
  267. ^ A film with scenes from the liberation of Dachau, Buchenwald, Belsen and other Nazi concentration camps, supervised by the British Ministry of Information and the American Office of War Information, was begun but never finished or shown. It lay in archives until first aired on PBS's Frontline on 7 May 1985. The film, partly edited by Alfred Hitchcock, can be seen online at Memory of the Camps.
  268. ^ Hitchcock 2009, p. 289.
  269. ^ "The 11th Armoured Division (Great Britain)". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  270. ^ "Bergen-Belsen". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  271. ^ Wiesel 2002, p. 41.
  272. ^ Dimbleby, Richard (15 April 1945). "Liberation of Belsen". BBC News. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  273. ^ a b c Dawidowicz, Lucy. The War Against the Jews, Bantam, 1986.p. 403
  274. ^ a b Berenbaum 2005, p. 125.
  275. ^ a b 1.8–1.9 million non-Jewish Polish citizens are estimated to have died as a result of the Nazi occupation and the war. Estimates are from Polish scholar, Franciszek Piper, the chief historian at Auschwitz. Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  276. ^ a b c Piotrowski, Tadeusz. "Project InPosterum: Poland WWII Casualties". Retrieved 15 March 2007; and Łuczak, Czesław. "Szanse i trudności bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945", Dzieje Najnowsze, issue 1994/2.
  277. ^ a b http://www.holocaust-education.dk/baggrund/eutanasi.asp
  278. ^ a b "Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies)". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 27 September 2012. The USHMM places the scholarly estimates at 220,000–500,000. According to Berenbaum 2005, p. 126, "serious scholars estimate that between 90,000 and 220,000 were killed under German rule."
  279. ^ a b Hancock 2004, pp. 383–96.
  280. ^ a b "GrandLodgeScotland.com". GrandLodgeScotland.com. Retrieved 31 July 2010. 
  281. ^ Freemasons for Dummies, by Christopher Hodapp, Wiley Publishing Inc., Indianapolis, 2005, page 85, sec. Hitler and the Nazis
  282. ^ The number of Slovenes estimated to have died as a result of the Nazi occupation (not including those killed by Slovene collaboration forces and other Nazi allies) is estimated between 20,000 and 25,000 people. This number only includes civilians: Slovene partisan POWs who died and resistance fighters killed in action are not included (their number is estimated at 27,000). These numbers however include only Slovenes from present-day Slovenia: it does not include Carinthian Slovene victims, nor Slovene victims from areas in present-day Italy and Croatia. These numbers are result of a 10-year long research by the Institute for Contemporary History (Inštitut za novejšo zgodovino) from Ljubljana, Slovenia. The partial results of the research have been released in 2008 in the volume Žrtve vojne in revolucije v Sloveniji (Ljubljana: Institute for Conetmporary History, 2008), and officially presented at the Slovenian National Council ([File:http://www.ds-rs.sis/default/files/dokumenti/zbornik_zrtve_vojne_in_revolucije.pdf]
  283. ^ a b c d e The Holocaust Chronicle, Publications International Ltd., p. 108.
  284. ^ a b Shulman, William L. A State of Terror: Germany 1933–1939. Bayside, New York: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives.
  285. ^ a b Pike, David Wingeate. Spaniards in the Holocaust: Mauthausen, the horror on the Danube; Editorial: Routledge Chapman & Hall ISBN 9780415227803. London, 2000.
  286. ^ a b c Niewyk & Nicosia 2000, pp. 45–52.
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  288. ^ Gilbert 1988, pp. 242–4.
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  291. ^ "The Holocaust: Tracing Lost Family Members". JVL. Retrieved 8 November 2013. 
  292. ^ Wilhelm Höttl, an SS officer and a Doctor of History, testified at the Nuremberg Trials and Eichmann's trial that at a meeting he had with Eichmann in Budapest in late August 1944, "Eichmann ... told me that, according to his information, some 6,000,000 (six million) Jews had perished until then – 4,000,000 (four million) in extermination camps and the remaining 2,000,000 (two million) through shooting by the Operations Units and other causes, such as disease, etc."[1] [2] [3]
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  294. ^ Israel Gutman. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Macmillan Reference Books; Reference edition (1 October 1995).
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  296. ^ Benz, Wolfgang (1996). Dimension des Völkermords. Die Zahl der jüdischen Opfer des Nationalsozialismus. Dtv.  
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  299. ^ Piper 1998, p. 71.
  300. ^ Martin Gilbert (2002). The Routledge atlas of the Holocaust, 3rd Ed. London:  
  301. ^ Dawidowicz, Lucy S. (1986). The war against the Jews, 1933–1945. New York: Bantam Books.  p. 403
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  303. ^ "Responses to common Holocaust-denial claims". ADL. Retrieved 8 November 2013. 
  304. ^ Shoah Research Center;– Albania [4] The Jews of Albania during the Zogist and Second World War Periods [5] and see also Norman H. Gershman's book Besa: Muslims Who Saved Jews in World War II – for reviews etc [6] (all consulted 24 June 2010)
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  310. ^ Jacobs 2005, p. 3.
  311. ^ Salomo Birnbaum, Grammatik der jiddischen Sprache (4., erg. Aufl., Hamburg: Buske, 1984), p. 3.
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  345. ^ Dawidowicz 1981, p. 10.
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