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# Varimax rotation

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 Title: Varimax rotation Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia Language: English Subject: Collection: Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia Publication Date:

### Varimax rotation

One way of expressing the varimax criterion formally is this:

R_\mathrm{VARIMAX} = \operatorname{arg}\max_R \left(\frac{1}{p}\sum_{j=1}^k \sum_{i=1}^p (\Lambda R)^4_{ij} - \sum_{j=1}^k \left(\frac{1}{p}\sum_{i=1}^p (\Lambda R)^2_{ij}\right)^2\right).

Suggested by Henry Felix Kaiser in 1958,[1] it is a popular scheme for orthogonal rotation (where all factors remain uncorrelated with one another).

A technical discussion of advantages and disadvantages of various rotation approaches are discussed at the website of Columbia University.[2]

## Contents

• Rotation in factor analysis 1
• Implementations 2
• Notes 4
• External links 5

## Rotation in factor analysis

A summary of the use of varimax rotation and of other types of factor rotation is presented in this article on factor analysis.

## Implementations

• In the R programming language the varimax method is implemented in several packages including stats (function varimax( )), or in contributed packages including GPArotation or psych.
• In SAS varimax rotation is available in PROC FACTOR using ROTATE = VARIMAX. [3]