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Vladimir-Suzdal

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Title: Vladimir-Suzdal  
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Subject: Grand Duchy of Moscow, History of Russia, Mongol invasion of Rus', Russia, Kievan Rus'
Collection: Former Monarchies of Europe, Former Principalities, Former Slavic Countries, Vladimir Oblast, Vladimir-Suzdal
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Vladimir-Suzdal

Grand Duchy of Vladimir*
Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество
Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo
Vassal state of the Golden Horde (from 1238)

1157–1331


Seal of Alexander Nevsky

Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal (Rostov-Suzdal) within Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
Capital Vladimir
Languages Old East Slavic
Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity
Government Principality
Grand Duke of Vladimir
 •  1157-1175 (first) Andrey Bogolyubsky
 •  1328–1331 (last) Alexander of Suzdal
History
 •  Established 1157
 •  Disestablished 1331
*Since 1169 after sacking Kiev, the Duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal became the Grand Duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal.

Vladimir-Suzdal (Russian: Владимирско-Су́здальская, Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya), also known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir[1] (1157–1331) (Russian: Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma. With time the principality grew into a grand duchy divided into several smaller principalities. After being conquered by the Mongol Empire, the principality became a self-governed state headed by its own nobility. A governorship of principality, however, was prescribed by a Khan declaration (jarlig) issued from the Golden Horde to a noble family of any of smaller principalities.

Vladimir-Suzdal is traditionally perceived as a cradle of the Great Russian language and nationality, and it gradually evolved into the Grand Duchy of Moscow.

Contents

  • Origin 1
    • Rostov principality 1.1
    • Rostov-Suzdal 1.2
  • Rise of Vladimir 2
  • Mongol yoke 3
  • Further reading 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Origin

Rostov principality

The first notable administrators in the Rostov region presumably were the sons of Vladimir the Great, Boris and Gleb, and later Yaroslav the Wise. The principality occupied a vast territory in the northeast of Kievan Rus', approximately bounded by the Volga, Oka, and Northern Dvina rivers. Until the decline of Kievan Rus' in the 12th-13th centuries the territory was also commonly called Zalesie, literally depicting a region beyond woodland. Scarce historical information exists for the area during that time. The foundation of the Rostov city has been lost in the span of time. According to the archeologist Andrei Leontiev, who specializes in the history of the region, the Rostov land until the 10th century was already under control of Rostov city while Sarskoye Gorodishche was a tribal center of native Merya people.

In the 10th century an eparchy was established in Rostov. One of the first known princes was Yaroslav the Wise and later Boris Vladimirovich. At that time Rostov was the major center of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity in the region dominated mostly by shamanism. Until the 11th century Rostov was often associated with the Great Novgorod. Evidently the spread of Eastern Orthodox Christianity to the lands of the Great Perm was successfully conducted from Rostov. The regional capital was Rostov the Great, including other important towns included Suzdal, Yaroslavl, and Belozersk.

Rostov-Suzdal

Ryazan Principality. Later in 1150s Yuri occupied Kiev a couple of times as well. From that time the lands of the northeastern Rus' played an important role in the politics of Kievan Rus'.

Rise of Vladimir

The veneration of the Theotokos as a holy protectress of Vladimir was introduced by Prince Andrew, who dedicated to Her many churches and installed in his palace a revered image, known as Theotokos of Vladimir.

George's son Andrew the Pious significantly increased Vladimir's power at the expense of the nearby princely states, which he treated with contempt. After burning down Kiev, then the metropolitan seat of Rus', in 1169, he enthroned his younger brother. For Andrew, his capital of Vladimir was a far greater concern, as he embellished it with white stone churches and monasteries. Prince Andrew was murdered by boyars in his suburban residence at Bogolyubovo in 1174.

After a brief interregnum, Andrew's brother Vsevolod III secured the throne. He continued most of his brother's policies and once again subjugated Kiev in 1203. Vsevolod's chief enemies, however, were the Southern Ryazan Principality, which appeared to stir discord in the princely family, and the mighty Turkic state of Volga Bulgaria, which bordered Vladimir-Suzdal to the east. After several military campaigns, Ryazan was burnt to the ground, and the Bulgars were forced to pay tribute.

Vsevolod's death in 1212 precipitated a serious dynastic conflict. His eldest son Novgorod. His reign, however, ended when the Mongol hordes under Batu Khan took and burnt Vladimir in 1238. Thereupon they proceeded to devastate other major cities of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'.

Mongol yoke

Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir was built in 1158–1160 and functioned as the mother church of Kievan Rus' in the 13th century.

None of the cities of the principality managed to regain the power of the Great Kievan Rus' after the Mongol invasion. Vladimir became a vassal of the Mongol Empire, later succeeded by the Golden Horde, with the Grand Prince appointed by the Great Khan. Even the popular Alexander Nevsky of Pereslavl had to go to the Khan's capital in Karakorum in order to be installed as the Grand Prince in Vladimir. As many factions strove for power, the principality rapidly disintegrated into eleven tiny states: Moscow, Tver, Pereslavl, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Uglich, Belozersk, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Starodub-upon-Klyazma, and Yuriev-Polsky. All of them nominally acknowledged the suzerainty of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, but his effective authority became progressively weaker.

By the end of the century, only three cities — Moscow, Tver, and Nizhny Novgorod — still contended for the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir. Once installed, however, they chose to remain in their own cities rather than moving to Vladimir. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually came to eclipse its rivals. When the metropolitan of Kievan Rus' moved his chair from Vladimir to Moscow in 1325, it became clear that Moscow had effectively succeeded Vladimir as the chief centre of power in the north-east remnant of Kievan Rus'.

Further reading

  • William Craft Brumfield. A History of Russian Architecture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993) ISBN 978-0-521-40333-7 (Chapter Three: "Vladimir and Suzdal Before the Mongol Invasion")

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Yury Dolgoruky in Grand Soviet Encyclopedia

External links

  • (Russian) History of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality in the Grand Soviet Encyclopedia
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