Wrass

For other uses, see Wrasse (disambiguation).
Wrasses
Moon wrasse, Thalassoma lunare, a typical wrasse
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Suborder: Labroidei
Family: Labridae
G. Cuvier, 1816
Genera

See text.

The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored. The family is large and diverse, with over 600 species in 82 genera, which are divided into nine subgroups or tribes.[1] They are typically small fish, most of them less than 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long, although the largest, the Humphead wrasse, can measure up to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft). They are efficient carnivores, feeding on a wide range of small invertebrates. Many smaller wrasses follow the feeding trails of larger fish, picking up invertebrates disturbed by their passing.[2] Juveniles of some representatives of the genera Bodianus, Cirrhilabrus, and Oxycheilinus hide among the tentacles of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis.[3]

The word "wrasse" comes via Cornish from the Welsh word gwrach meaning an old woman or hag.[4]

Distribution

Wrasses inhabit the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, usually in shallow water habitats such as coral reefs and rocky shores where they live close to the substrate.

Anatomy

Wrasses have protractile mouths, usually with separate jaw teeth that jut outwards.[5] Many species can be readily recognized by their thick lips, the inside of which is sometimes curiously folded, a peculiarity which gave rise the German name of "lip-fishes" (Lippfische.)[6] and the Dutch name of "lipvissen". The dorsal fin has 8–21 spines and 6–21 soft rays, usually running most of the length of the back. Wrasse are sexually dimorphic. Many species are capable of changing sex. Juveniles are a mix of males and females (known as Initial Phase or IP individuals) but the largest adults become territory-holding (Terminal Phase or TP) males.[5]

The wrasses have become a primary study species in fish-feeding biomechanics due to their jaw structure. The nasal and mandibular bones are connected at their posterior ends to the rigid neurocranium, and the superior and inferior articulations of the maxilla are joined to the anterior tips of these two bones, respectively, creating a loop of 4 rigid bones connected by moving joints. This "four-bar linkage" has the property of allowing numerous arrangements to achieve a given mechanical result (fast jaw protrusion or a forceful bite), thus decoupling morphology from function. The actual morphology of wrasses reflects this, with many lineages displaying different jaw morphology that results in the same functional output in a similar or identical ecological niche.[5]

Reproductive behavior

Most labroids are protogynous hermaphrodites within a haremic mating system.[7] [8] Hermaphroditism allows for complex mating systems. Labroids exhibit three different mating systems: polygynous, lek-like, and promiscuous mating systems.[9] Group spawning and pair spawning occur within mating systems. The type of spawning that occurs depends on male body size.[8] Labroids typically exhibit broadcast spawning, releasing high amounts of planktonic eggs, which are broadcast by tidal currents; adult labroids have no interaction with offspring.[10] Wrasse of a particular subgroup of the Labridae family Labrini do not exhibit broadcast spawning.

Broodcare behavior of Labrine tribe

The subgroup Labrini arose from a basal split within family Labridae during the Eocene period.[1] Subgroup Labrini is composed of eight genera, wherein 15 out of 23 species exhibit broodcare behavior.[10] Broodcare behavior ranges from simple to complex parental care of spawn; males build algae nests or crude cavities, ventilate eggs, and defend nests against conspecific males and predators.[10] In species that express this behavior, eggs cannot survive without parental care.[11] Species of Symphodus, Centrolabrus, and Labrus genera exhibit broodcare behavior.

Cleaner wrasse


Cleaner wrasse are the best-known of the cleaner fish. They live in a cleaning symbiosis with larger, often predatory fish, grooming them and benefiting by feeding on what they remove. "Client" fish congregate at wrasse cleaning stations and wait for the cleaner fish to remove gnathiid parasites, even swimming into their open mouths and gill cavities.

Cleaner wrasses are best known for feeding on dead tissue and scales and ectoparasites, although they are also known to 'cheat', consuming healthy tissue and mucus, which is energetically costly for the client fish to produce. The bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus is one of the most common cleaners found on tropical reefs. Few cleaner wrasses have been observed being eaten by predators, possibly because parasite removal is more important for predator survival than the short-term gain of eating the cleaner.[12]

Other wrasse species,Template:Which? rather than inhabiting fixed locations, make "house calls" — that is, their "clientele" are too territorial or shy to go to a cleaning station. Template:Clearleft

Significance to humans

Humans eat wrasse in many places. In the western Atlantic, the most common food species is the tautog.[6][dubious ]

Wrasse are common in both public and home aquaria. Some species are small enough to be considered reef safe.

Wrasse may be employed as cleaner fish to combat sea-lice infestation in salmon farms.[13]

Gallery

Subgroups and tribes

Genera

Timeline

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 id:CAR	  value:claret
 id:ANK 	 value:rgb(0.4,0.3,0.196)
 id:HER	  value:teal
 id:HAD	  value:green
 id:OMN	  value:blue
 id:black        value:black
 id:white        value:white
 id:cenozoic     value:rgb(0.54,0.54,0.258)
 id:paleogene     value:rgb(0.99,0.6,0.32) 
 id:paleocene     value:rgb(0.99,0.65,0.37) 
 id:eocene     value:rgb(0.99,0.71,0.42) 
 id:oligocene     value:rgb(0.99,0.75,0.48) 
 id:neogene     value:rgb(0.999999,0.9,0.1) 
 id:miocene     value:rgb(0.999999,0.999999,0) 
 id:pliocene     value:rgb(0.97,0.98,0.68)  
 id:quaternary   value:rgb(0.98,0.98,0.5)
 id:pleistocene   value:rgb(0.999999,0.95,0.68)
 id:holocene   value:rgb(0.999,0.95,0.88)

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align:center textcolor:black fontsize:M mark:(line,black) width:25 
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bar:periodtop
from: -65.5   till:  -55.8    color:paleocene  text:Paleocene
from: -55.8   till:  -33.9    color:eocene  text:Eocene 
from: -33.9   till:  -23.03    color:oligocene  text:Oligocene            
from: -23.03    till: -5.332    color:miocene    text:Miocene
from: -5.332    till: -2.588    color:pliocene    text:Plio.
from: -2.588    till: -0.0117   color:pleistocene    text:Pleist.
from: -0.0117    till: 0    color:holocene    text:H.
bar:eratop
from: -65.5   till:  -23.03    color:paleogene  text:Paleogene         
from: -23.03    till: -2.588    color:neogene    text:Neogene
from: -2.588    till: 0   color:quaternary    text:Q.

PlotData=

align:left fontsize:M mark:(line,white) width:5 anchor:till align:left
color:eocene bar:NAM1  from:	-55.8	till:	0	text:	Labrodon
color:eocene bar:NAM2  from:	-55.8	till:	0	text:	Labrus
color:eocene bar:NAM3  from:	-48.6	till:	0	text:	Symphodus
color:oligocene bar:NAM4  from:	-33.9	till:	0	text:	Cheilinus
color:miocene bar:NAM5  from:	-15.97	till:	0	text:	Bodianus
color:pliocene bar:NAM6  from:	-5.332	till:	0	text:	Oxyjulis
color:pleistocene bar:NAM7  from:	-2.588	till:	0	text:	Pimelometopon

PlotData=

align:center textcolor:black fontsize:M mark:(line,black) width:25 
bar:period
from: -65.5   till:  -55.8    color:paleocene  text:Paleocene
from: -55.8   till:  -33.9    color:eocene  text:Eocene 
from: -33.9   till:  -23.03    color:oligocene  text:Oligocene            
from: -23.03    till: -5.332    color:miocene    text:Miocene
from: -5.332    till: -2.588    color:pliocene    text:Plio.
from: -2.588    till: -0.0117   color:pleistocene    text:Pleist.
from: -0.0117    till: 0    color:holocene    text:H.
bar:era
from: -65.5   till:  -23.03    color:paleogene  text:Paleogene         
from: -23.03    till: -2.588    color:neogene    text:Neogene
from: -2.588    till: 0   color:quaternary    text:Q.

References

External links

  • FishBase info for Labridae
  • How Fish Hire a Cleaning Service

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