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XX Corps (Union Army)

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XX Corps (Union Army)

Two corps of the Union Army were called XX Corps during the American Civil War. Though both served in the Union Army of the Cumberland, they were distinct units and should be recognized as such.

Union Army 1st Division Badge, XX Corps

Contents

  • McCook's Corps 1
    • Command History 1.1
  • Hooker's corps 2
    • Command History 2.1
  • External links 3

McCook's Corps

The first XX Corps, under the command of Battle of Stones River in January 1863 from what had been the XIV Corps, or right wing of the army, at that battle. It was so identified with its commander that it was generally referred to by other soldiers and even officers as "McCook's corps".

The corps took part in a skirmish with Bragg's rearguard at Liberty Gap, Tennessee, during the Tullahoma Campaign in June 1863. It fought its only major battle under this designation at Chickamauga, where it suffered horrendous casualties in the two days of fighting. The corps took heavy casualties, and it (along with Thomas L. Crittenden's XXI Corps), became consolidated into the new IV Corps. McCook, blamed in large part for the failure at Chickamauga, was relieved of command.

Command History

Hooker's corps

After the Battle of Gettysburg, with the armies of the east engaged in stalemate (and a large portion of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, under James Longstreet, was serving with Braxton Bragg in Tennessee), Washington dispatched Joseph Hooker, discredited after his defeat at the Battle of Chancellorsville the previous May, with the XI and XII Corps of the Army of the Potomac to try to relieve Bragg's siege of Chattanooga. The command played a decisive role in the Battle of Wauhatchie, which opened up the "Cracker Line" to the besieged Union army, and seized Lookout Mountain in the famed "Battle Above The Clouds" during the early stages of the Battle of Chattanooga.

On April 4, 1864, just before the onset of the March to the Sea. Williams commanded it from then until the Carolinas Campaign (Slocum having been promoted to army command in the mean time). It played a major part in the seizure of Savannah in December and was actively engaged throughout the Carolinas Campaign, particularly at Bentonville, where it absorbed the main blow of Joseph E. Johnston's counterattack. Because fighting at Bentonville had not destroyed Johnston's army, Sherman replaced Williams with the more petulant Joseph A. Mower. It took part in the Grand Review and was disbanded in June 1865.

Command History

External links

  • (McCook's) XX Corps history
  • (Hooker's) XX Corps history
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