World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Zhou (country subdivision)

Article Id: WHEBN0000901734
Reproduction Date:

Title: Zhou (country subdivision)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Qing dynasty, Youzhou, Commandery (China), Government of the Han dynasty, Fu (country subdivision)
Collection: Administrative Divisions of Ancient China, Former Prefectures of China, Types of Country Subdivisions
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Zhou (country subdivision)

Zhou
Chinese name
Chinese
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese châu
Korean name
Hangul
Japanese name
Hiragana しゅう
Han Dynasty zhou in CE 189.

Zhou (州) were historical political divisions of China. Formally established during the Han Dynasty, zhou continued to exist until the establishment of the Republic of China—a period of over 2000 years. Zhou were also previously used in Korea (Korean: , ju), Vietnam (Vietnamese: châu), and Japan (Hepburn: shū).

Zhou is typically rendered by several terms in the English language:

  • The large zhou before the Tang Dynasty and in countries other than China are called "provinces"
  • The smaller zhou during and after the Tang Dynasty are called "prefectures"
  • The zhou of the Qing Dynasty are also called either "independent" or "dependent departments", depending on their level.
A mid-Qing map of Zhejiang Provinces, with all prefecture capitals indicated (杭州府 Hangzhou-fu, 温州府 Wenzhou-fu, 金华府 Jinhua-fu, etc.). South is on top.

The Tang Dynasty also established (, "prefectures"), zhou of special importance such as capitals and other major cities. By the Ming and Qing, became predominant divisions within Chinese provinces. The word () was typically attached to the name of each prefecture's capital city, thus both Chinese and Western maps and geographical works would often call the respective cities Hangzhou-fu, Wenzhou-fu, Wuchang-fu, etc.

Following the Meiji Restoration, fu was also used in Japanese for the urban prefectures of the most important cities; today, it is still used in the Japanese names for the Osaka and Kyoto Prefectures.

In modern China, zhou today exists only in the designation "autonomous prefecture" (自治州, zìzhìzhōu), administrative areas for China's designated minorities. However, zhou have left a huge mark on the place names of China, including the province of Guizhou and the major cities of Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Hangzhou, Lanzhou, and Suzhou, among many others. Likewise, although modern Korean, Vietnamese, and Japanese provinces are no longer designated by zhou cognates, the older terms survive in various place names, notably the Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu, the Korean province Jeju-do, and Lai Châu in Vietnam.

History

Zhou were first mentioned in ancient Chinese texts, notably the Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu, section of the Book of Documents. All agreed on the division of China into nine zhou, though they differed on their names and position. These zhou were geographical concepts, not administrative entities.[1]

The Han Dynasty was the first to formalize the zhou into actual administrative divisions by establishing 13 zhou all across China. Because these zhou were the largest divisions of the China at the time, they are usually translated as "provinces". After the Han Dynasty, however, the number of zhou began to increase. By the time of the Sui Dynasty, there were over a hundred zhou all across China.

The Sui and Tang dynasties merged zhou with the next level down, the commanderies or jùn(郡). The Tang also added another level on top: the circuit or dào (道). Henceforth, zhou were lowered to second-level status, and the word becomes translated into English as "prefecture". Thereafter, zhou continued to survive as second- or third-level political divisions until the Qing Dynasty.

The Republic of China abolished zhou altogether, leaving the word only in the names of cities such as Guangzhou and Hangzhou. The People's Republic of China recycled the name, using it to refer to the autonomous prefectures granted to various ethnicities.

See also

References

  1. ^ Chung-yam Po, Ronald (October 23, 2013). "(Re)Conceptualizing the World in Eighteenth Century China". World History Connected,  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.